Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit.
ABSTRACT: Advances in swept source laser technology continues to increase the imaging speed of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. These fast imaging speeds are ideal for microvascular detection schemes, such as speckle variance (SV), where interframe motion can cause severe imaging artifacts and loss of vascular contrast. However, full utilization of the laser scan speed has been hindered by the computationally intensive signal processing required by SS-OCT and SV calculations. Using a commercial graphics processing unit that has been optimized for parallel data processing, we report a complete high-speed SS-OCT platform capable of real-time data acquisition, processing, display, and saving at 108,000 lines per second. Subpixel image registration of structural images was performed in real-time prior to SV calculations in order to reduce decorrelation from stationary structures induced by the bulk tissue motion. The viability of the system was successfully demonstrated in a high bulk tissue motion scenario of human fingernail root imaging where SV images (512 × 512 pixels, n = 4) were displayed at 54 frames per second.
Project description:Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used non-invasive biomedical imaging modality that can rapidly provide volumetric images of samples. Here, we present a deep learning-based image reconstruction framework that can generate swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) images using undersampled spectral data, without any spatial aliasing artifacts. This neural network-based image reconstruction does not require any hardware changes to the optical setup and can be easily integrated with existing swept-source or spectral-domain OCT systems to reduce the amount of raw spectral data to be acquired. To show the efficacy of this framework, we trained and blindly tested a deep neural network using mouse embryo samples imaged by an SS-OCT system. Using 2-fold undersampled spectral data (i.e., 640 spectral points per A-line), the trained neural network can blindly reconstruct 512 A-lines in 0.59 ms using multiple graphics-processing units (GPUs), removing spatial aliasing artifacts due to spectral undersampling, also presenting a very good match to the images of the same samples, reconstructed using the full spectral OCT data (i.e., 1280 spectral points per A-line). We also successfully demonstrate that this framework can be further extended to process 3× undersampled spectral data per A-line, with some performance degradation in the reconstructed image quality compared to 2× spectral undersampling. Furthermore, an A-line-optimized undersampling method is presented by jointly optimizing the spectral sampling locations and the corresponding image reconstruction network, which improved the overall imaging performance using less spectral data points per A-line compared to 2× or 3× spectral undersampling results. This deep learning-enabled image reconstruction approach can be broadly used in various forms of spectral-domain OCT systems, helping to increase their imaging speed without sacrificing image resolution and signal-to-noise ratio.
Project description:This study reports the development of prototype swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) technology for imaging the anterior eye. Advances in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light sources, signal processing, optics and mechanical designs, enable a unique combination of high speed, long range, and deep penetration that addresses the challenges of anterior eye imaging. We demonstrate SS-OCT with a 325 kHz A-scan rate, 12.2 µm axial resolution (in air), and 15.5 mm depth range (in air) at 1310 nm wavelength. The ultrahigh 325 kHz A-scan rate not only facilitates biometry measurements by minimizing acquisition time and thus reducing motion, but also enables volumetric OCT for comprehensive structural analysis and OCT angiography (OCTA) for visualizing vasculature. The 15.5 mm (~ 11.6 mm in tissue) depth range spans all optical surfaces from the anterior cornea to the posterior lens capsule. The 1310 nm wavelength range enables structural OCT and OCTA deep in the sclera and through the iris. Achieving high speed and long range requires linearizing the VCSEL wavenumber sweep to efficiently utilize analog-to-digital conversion bandwidth. Dual channel recording of the OCT and calibration interferometer fringe signals, as well as sweep to sweep wavenumber compensation, is used to achieve invariant 12.2 µm (~ 9.1 µm in tissue) axial resolution and optimum point spread function throughout the depth range. Dynamic focusing using a tunable liquid lens extends the effective depth of field while preserving the lateral resolution. Improved optical and mechanical design, including parallax "split view" iris cameras and stable, ergonomic patient interface, facilitates accurate instrument positioning, reduces patient motion, and leads to improved imaging data yield and measurement accuracy. We present structural and angiographic OCT images of the anterior eye, demonstrating the unique imaging capabilities using representative scanning protocols which may be relevant to future research and clinical applications.
Project description:Swept source/Fourier domain OCT is demonstrated for in vivo imaging of the rodent eye. Using commercial swept laser technology, we developed a prototype OCT imaging system for small animal ocular imaging operating in the 1050 nm wavelength range at an axial scan rate of 100 kHz with ~6 µm axial resolution. The high imaging speed enables volumetric imaging with high axial scan densities, measuring high flow velocities in vessels, and repeated volumetric imaging over time. The 1050 nm wavelength light provides increased penetration into tissue compared to standard commercial OCT systems at 850 nm. The long imaging range enables multiple operating modes for imaging the retina, posterior eye, as well as anterior eye and full eye length. A registration algorithm using orthogonally scanned OCT volumetric data sets which can correct motion on a per A-scan basis is applied to compensate motion and merge motion corrected volumetric data for enhanced OCT image quality. Ultrahigh speed swept source OCT is a promising technique for imaging the rodent eye, proving comprehensive information on the cornea, anterior segment, lens, vitreous, posterior segment, retina and choroid.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To describe enhanced vitreous imaging for visualization of anatomic features and microstructures within the posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal interface in healthy eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The study hypothesis was that long-wavelength, high-speed, volumetric SS-OCT with software registration motion correction and vitreous window display or high-dynamic-range (HDR) display improves detection sensitivity of posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal features compared to standard OCT logarithmic scale display.<h4>Design</h4>Observational prospective cross-sectional study.<h4>Methods</h4>Multiple wide-field three-dimensional SS-OCT scans (500×500A-scans over 12×12 mm2) were obtained using a prototype instrument in 22 eyes of 22 healthy volunteers. A registration motion-correction algorithm was applied to compensate motion and generate a single volumetric dataset. Each volumetric dataset was displayed in three forms: (1) standard logarithmic scale display, enhanced vitreous imaging using (2) vitreous window display and (3) HDR display. Each dataset was reviewed independently by three readers to identify features of the posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal interface. Detection sensitivities for these features were measured for each display method.<h4>Results</h4>Features observed included the bursa premacularis (BPM), area of Martegiani, Cloquet's/BPM septum, Bergmeister papilla, posterior cortical vitreous (hyaloid) detachment, papillomacular hyaloid detachment, hyaloid attachment to retinal vessel(s), and granular opacities within vitreous cortex, Cloquet's canal, and BPM. The detection sensitivity for these features was 75.0% (95%CI: 67.8%-81.1%) using standard logarithmic scale display, 80.6% (95%CI: 73.8%-86.0%) using HDR display, and 91.9% (95%CI: 86.6%-95.2%) using vitreous window display.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SS-OCT provides non-invasive, volumetric and measurable in vivo visualization of the anatomic microstructural features of the posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal interface. The vitreous window display provides the highest sensitivity for posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal interface analysis when compared to HDR and standard OCT logarithmic scale display. Enhanced vitreous imaging with SS-OCT may help assess the natural history and treatment response in vitreoretinal interface diseases.
Project description:We demonstrate the use of an ultra-high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to achieve optical micro-angiography (OMAG) of microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo. The system is based on a 1310-nm Fourier domain mode-locking (FDML) laser with 1.6-MHz A-line rate, providing a frame rate of 3.415 KHz, an axial resolution of ?10???m and signal to noise ratio of 102 dB. Motion from blood flow causes change in OCT signals between consecutive B-frames acquired at the same location. Intensity-based inter-frame subtraction algorithm is applied to extract blood flow from tissue background without any motion correction. We demonstrate the capability of this 1.6-MHz OCT system for 4D OMAG of in vivo tissue at a volume rate of 4.7 volumes/s (volume size: 512×200×720 voxels).
Project description:A forward-viewing resonant fiber-optic endoscope of a scanning speed appropriate for a high-speed Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system was developed to enable real-time, three-dimensional endoscopic OCT imaging. A new method was explored to conveniently tune the scanning frequency of a resonant fiber-optic scanner, by properly selecting the fiber-optic cantilever length, partially changing the mechanical property of the cantilever, and adding a weight to the cantilever tip. Systematic analyses indicated the resonant scanning frequency can be tuned over two orders of magnitude spanning from approximately 10Hz to approximately kHz. Such a flexible scanning frequency range makes it possible to set an appropriate scanning speed of the endoscope to match the different A-scan rates of a variety of FD-OCT systems. A 2.4-mm diameter, 62.5-Hz scanning endoscope appropriate to work with a 40-kHz swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system was developed and demonstrated for 3D OCT imaging of biological tissues.
Project description:To characterize en face features of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) using a high-speed, enhanced-depth swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) prototype.Consecutive patients with chronic CSCR were prospectively examined with SS-OCT.Fifteen eyes of 13 patients.Three-dimensional 6×6 mm macular cube raster scans were obtained with SS-OCT operating at 1050 nm wavelength and 100000 A-lines/sec with 6 ?m axial resolution. Segmentation of the RPE generated a reference surface; en face SS-OCT images of the RPE and choroid were extracted at varying depths every 3.5 ?m (1 pixel). Abnormal features were characterized by systematic analysis of multimodal fundus imaging, including color photographs, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine-green angiography (ICGA).En face SS-OCT morphology of the RPE and individual choroidal layers.En face SS-OCT imaging at the RPE level revealed absence of signal corresponding to RPE detachment or RPE loss in 15 of 15 (100%) eyes. En face SS-OCT imaging at the choriocapillaris level showed focally enlarged vessels in 8 of 15 eyes (53%). At the level of Sattler's layer, en face SS-OCT documented focal choroidal dilation in 8 of 15 eyes (53%) and diffuse choroidal dilation in 7 of 15 eyes (47%). At the level of Haller's layer, these same features were observed in 3 of 15 eyes (20%) and 12 of 15 eyes (80%), respectively. In all affected eyes, these choroidal vascular abnormalities were seen just below areas of RPE abnormalities. In 2 eyes with secondary choroidal neovascularization (CNV), distinct en face SS-OCT features corresponded to the neovascular lesions.High-speed, enhanced-depth SS-OCT at 1050 nm wavelength enables the visualization of pathologic features of the RPE and choroid in eyes with chronic CSCR not usually appreciated with standard spectral domain (SD) OCT. En face SS-OCT imaging seems to be a useful tool in the identification of CNV without the use of angiography. This in vivo documentation of the RPE and choroidal vasculature at variable depths may help elucidate the pathophysiology of disease and can contribute to the diagnosis and management of chronic CSCR.
Project description:Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) is an attractive high-speed imaging technique for retinal angiography. However, conventional swept lasers vary the cavity length of the laser mechanically to tune the output wavelength. This causes sweep-timing jitter and hence low phase stability in OCT angiography. Here, we improve an earlier phase-stabilized, akinetic, SS-OCT angiography (OCTA) method by introducing coherent averaging. We develop an active mode-locking (AML) laser as a high phase-stable akinetic swept source for the OCTA system. The phase stability of the improved system was analyzed, and the effects of coherent averaging were validated using a retina phantom. The effectiveness of the coherent averaging method was further confirmed by comparing coherently and conventionally averaged en face images of human retinal vasculature for their contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, and vasculature connectivity. The contrast-to-noise ratio was approximately 1.3 times larger when applying the coherent averaging method in the human retinal experiment. Our coherent averaging method with the high phase-stability AML laser source for OCTA provides a valuable tool for studying healthy and diseased retinas.
Project description:To demonstrate papillary imaging of eyes with optic disc pits (ODP) or optic disc pit associated maculopathy (ODP-M) with ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s. To generate 3D-renderings of the papillary area with 3D volume-reconstructions of the ODP and highly resolved en face images from a single densely-sampled megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset for investigation of ODP-characteristics.A 1.68 MHz-prototype SS-MHz-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser was employed to acquire high-definition, 3D datasets with a dense sampling of 1600?×?1600 A-scans over a 45° field of view. Six eyes with ODPs, and two further eyes with glaucomatous alteration or without ocular pathology are presented. 3D-rendering of the deep papillary structures, virtual 3D-reconstructions of the ODPs and depth resolved isotropic en face images were generated using semiautomatic segmentation.3D-rendering and en face imaging of the optic disc, ODPs and ODP associated pathologies showed a broad spectrum regarding ODP characteristics. Between individuals the shape of the ODP and the appending pathologies varied considerably. MHz-OCT en face imaging generates distinct top-view images of ODPs and ODP-M. MHz-OCT generates high resolution images of retinal pathologies associated with ODP-M and allows visualizing ODPs with depths of up to 2.7 mm.Different patterns of ODPs can be visualized in patients for the first time using 3D-reconstructions and co-registered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled 1050 nm megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. As the immediate vicinity to the SAS and the site of intrapapillary proliferation is located at the bottom of the ODP it is crucial to image the complete structure and the whole depth of ODPs. Especially in very deep pits, where non-swept-source OCT fails to reach the bottom, conventional swept-source devices and the MHz-OCT alike are feasible and beneficial methods to examine deep details of optic disc pathologies, while the MHz-OCT bears the advantage of an essentially swifter imaging process.
Project description:Non-invasive biological imaging is crucial for understanding in vivo structure and function. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy are two of the most widely used optical modalities for exogenous contrast-free, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging in non-fluorescent scattering tissues. However, sample motion remains a critical barrier to raster-scanned acquisition and reconstruction of wide-field anatomically accurate volumetric datasets. We introduce spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR), a high-speed, multimodality system for simultaneous OCT and spectrally encoded reflectance (SER) imaging. SECTR utilizes a robust system design consisting of shared optical relays, scanning mirrors, swept laser and digitizer to achieve the fastest reported in vivo multimodal imaging rate of 2 gigapixels per second. Our optical design and acquisition scheme enable spatiotemporally co-registered acquisition of OCT cross-sections simultaneously with en face SER images for multivolumetric mosaicking. Complementary axial and lateral translation and rotation are extracted from OCT and SER data, respectively, for full volumetric estimation of sample motion with micron spatial and millisecond temporal resolution.