Mirtazapine inhibits tumor growth via immune response and serotonergic system.
ABSTRACT: To study the tumor inhibition effect of mirtazapine, a drug for patients with depression, CT26/luc colon carcinoma-bearing animal model was used. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups: two groups without tumors, i.e. wild-type (no drug) and drug (mirtazapine), and four groups with tumors, i.e. never (no drug), always (pre-drug, i.e. drug treatment before tumor inoculation and throughout the experiment), concurrent (simultaneously tumor inoculation and drug treatment throughout the experiment), and after (post-drug, i.e. drug treatment after tumor inoculation and throughout the experiment). The "psychiatric" conditions of mice were observed from the immobility time with tail suspension and spontaneous motor activity post tumor inoculation. Significant increase of serum interleukin-12 (sIL-12) and the inhibition of tumor growth were found in mirtazapine-treated mice (always, concurrent, and after) as compared with that of never. In addition, interferon-? level and immunocompetent infiltrating CD4+/CD8+ T cells in the tumors of mirtazapine-treated, tumor-bearing mice were significantly higher as compared with that of never. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) expressions, on the contrary, are decreased in the mirtazapine-treated, tumor-bearing mice as compared with that of never. Ex vivo autoradiography with [(123)I]ADAM, a radiopharmaceutical for serotonin transporter, also confirms the similar results. Notably, better survival rates and intervals were also found in mirtazapine-treated mice. These findings, however, were not observed in the immunodeficient mice. Our results suggest that tumor growth inhibition by mirtazapine in CT26/luc colon carcinoma-bearing mice may be due to the alteration of the tumor microenvironment, which involves the activation of the immune response and the recovery of serotonin level.
Project description:Studies of tumor models using syngeneic transplantation have advanced our understanding of tumor immunity, including both immune surveillance and evasion. Murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells secrete immunosuppressive soluble factors as demonstrated in splenocyte culture. Cultured primary splenocytes secrete IFN-γ, which was strikingly elevated when the cells were isolated from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. The secretion of IFN-γ peaked a week after 4T1 inoculation and then declined. This reduction may be due to the relatively decreased lymphocytes and increased granulocytes in a spleen accompanied by splenomegaly with time after the 4T1 inoculation. IFN-γ production was further suppressed with the addition of the conditioned media from 4T1 cells to the splenocyte culture. This suppressive effect was more evident in the splenocytes isolated from mice that had 4T1 tumors for a longer period of time and was not observed in the conditioned medium either from CT26 cells or with splenocytes isolated from CT26 tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest that the IFN-γ suppression is 4T1 tumor-specific. The soluble factor(s) in the 4T1-conditioned media was a protein between 10 to 100 kDa. The cytokine tip assay demonstrated several known cytokines that negatively regulate immune responses and may be candidates for this immunosuppression activity.
Project description:Tumor cell-based vaccines use tumor cells as a source of tumor-associated antigens. In our study, we aimed to develop and test a tumor vaccine composed of tumor cells killed by irradiation combined with in vivo interleukin-12 gene electrotransfer as an adjuvant. Vaccination was performed in the skin of B16-F10 malignant melanoma or CT26 colorectal carcinoma tumor-bearing mice, distant from the tumor site and combined with concurrent tumor irradiation. Vaccination was also performed before tumor inoculation in both tumor models and tumor outgrowth was followed. The antitumor efficacy of vaccination in combination with tumor irradiation or preventative vaccination varied between the tumor models. A synergistic effect between vaccination and irradiation was observed in the B16-F10, but not in the CT26 tumor model. In contrast, up to 56% of mice were protected from tumor outgrowth in the CT26 tumor model and none were protected in the B16-F10 tumor model. The results suggest a greater contribution of the therapeutic vaccination to tumor irradiation in a less immunogenic B16-F10 tumor model, in contrast to preventative vaccination, which has shown greater efficacy in a more immunogenic CT26 tumor model. Upon further optimization of the vaccination and irradiation regimen, our vaccine could present an alternative tumor cell-based vaccine.
Project description:Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was performed at the University of Missouri Research Reactor in mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma flank tumors and the results were compared with previously performed studies with mice bearing EMT6 breast cancer flank tumors. Mice were implanted with CT26 tumors subcutaneously in the caudal flank and were given two separate tail vein injections of unilamellar liposomes composed of cholesterol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycer-3-phosphocholine, and K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the lipid bilayer and encapsulated Na3[1-(2`-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8] within the liposomal core. Mice were irradiated 30 hours after the second injection in a thermal neutron beam for various lengths of time. The tumor size was monitored daily for 72 days. Despite relatively lower tumor boron concentrations, as compared to EMT6 tumors, a 45 minute neutron irradiation BNCT resulted in complete resolution of the tumors in 50% of treated mice, 50% of which never recurred. Median time to tumor volume tripling was 38 days in BNCT treated mice, 17 days in neutron-irradiated mice given no boron compounds, and 4 days in untreated controls. Tumor response in mice with CT26 colon carcinoma was markedly more pronounced than in previous reports of mice with EMT6 tumors, a difference which increased with dose. The slope of the dose response curve of CT26 colon carcinoma tumors is 1.05 times tumor growth delay per Gy compared to 0.09 times tumor growth delay per Gy for EMT6 tumors, indicating that inherent radiosensitivity of tumors plays a role in boron neutron capture therapy and should be considered in the development of clinical applications of BNCT in animals and man.
Project description:Immunomodulating monoclonal antibodies (mAb) can evoke antitumor T-cell responses, which are attenuated by regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) and gemcitabine (GEM) can mitigate the immunosuppression by Treg and MDSC, respectively. In the current study, we examined the antitumor effects of a combination of local injection with anti-CD137 mAb and intermittent low-dose chemotherapy using CP and GEM in subcutaneously established CT26 colon carcinoma. Although a significant antitumor effect was observed when local anti-CD137 mAb therapy (5 ?g) was started early in the tumor-bearing stage (day 10), no therapeutic efficacy was observed when the mAb therapy was started at a later tumor-bearing stage (day 17). Analyses of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells revealed that the number of Gr-1(high/low) CD11b(+) MDSC started to increase 13 days after tumor inoculation, whereas injection with low-dose (50 mg/kg) CP and GEM mitigated this increase. In addition, although intermittent injections with low-dose CP and GEM on days 10 and 18 suppressed tumor growth significantly, additional local injections of anti-CD137 mAb on days 19, 21, and 23 further augmented the therapeutic efficacy. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes reactive to CT26 and a tumor antigen peptide were induced successfully from the spleen cells of tumor-cured or tumor-stable mice. In a bilateral tumor inoculation model, this combination therapy achieved systemic therapeutic effects and suppressed the growth of mAb-untreated tumors. These results suggest that intermittent immunochemotherapy using CP and GEM could retain the therapeutic potential of anti-CD137 mAb that is normally impaired during the late tumor-bearing stage.
Project description:Ablative fractional photothermolysis (aFP) using a CO2 laser generates multiple small diameter tissue lesions within the irradiation field. aFP is commonly used for a wide variety of dermatological indications, including treatment of photodamaged skin and dyschromia, drug delivery and modification of scars due to acne, surgical procedures and burns. In this study we explore the utility of aFP for treating oncological indications, including induction of local tumor regression and inducing anti-tumor immunity, which is in marked contrast to current indications of aFP.We used a fractional CO2 laser to treat a tumor established by BALB/c colon carcinoma cell line (CT26.CL25), which expressed a tumor antigen, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal). aFP treated tumors grew significantly slower as compared to untreated controls. Complete remission after a single aFP treatment was observed in 47% of the mice. All survival mice from the tumor inoculation rejected re-inoculation of the CT26.CL25 colon carcinoma cells and moreover 80% of the survival mice rejected CT26 wild type colon carcinoma cells, which are parental cells of CT26.CL25 cells. Histologic section of the FP-treated tumors showed infiltrating neutrophil in the tumor early after aFP treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed aFP treatment abrogated the increase in regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg), which suppresses anti-tumor immunity and elicited the expansion of epitope-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, which were required to mediate the tumor-suppressing effect of aFP.We have demonstrated that aFP is able to induce a systemic anti-tumor adaptive immunity preventing tumor recurrence in a murine colon carcinoma in a mouse model. This study demonstrates a potential role of aFP treatments in oncology and further studies should be performed.
Project description:Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) targeted therapy by anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) is highly effective in cancer patients. However, it is extremely expensive and potentially produces autoimmune-related adverse effects. Therefore, the development of a method to evaluate CTLA-4 expression prior to CTLA-4-targeted therapy is expected to open doors to evidence-based and cost-efficient medical care and to avoid adverse effects brought about by ineffective therapy. In this study, we aimed to develop a molecular imaging probe for CTLA-4 visualization in tumor. First, we examined CTLA-4 expression in normal colon tissues, cultured CT26 cells, and CT26 tumor tissues from tumor-bearing BALB/c mice and BALB/c nude mice by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and confirmed whether CTLA-4 is strongly expressed in CT26 tumor tissues. Second, we newly synthesized 64Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N?,N?-tetraacetic acid-anti-mouse CTLA-4 mAb (64Cu-DOTA-anti-CTLA-4 mAb) and evaluated its usefulness in positron emission tomography (PET) and ex-vivo biodistribution analysis in CT26-bearing BALB/c mice. High CTLA-4 expression was confirmed in the CT26 tumor tissues of tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. However, CTLA-4 expression was extremely low in the cultured CT26 cells and the CT26 tumor tissues of tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice. The results suggested that T cells were responsible for the high CTLA-4 expression. Furthermore, 64Cu-DOTA-anti-CTLA-4 mAb displayed significantly high accumulation in the CT26 tumor, thereby realizing non-invasive CTLA-4 visualization in the tumor. Together, the results indicate that 64Cu-DOTA-anti-CTLA-4 mAb would be useful for the evaluation of CTLA-4 expression in tumor.
Project description:We sought to visualize the migration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to tumor lesions and to evaluate the effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on TAM-modulated tumor progression in mice with colon cancer using a multimodal optical reporter gene system. Murine macrophage Raw264.7 cells expressing an enhanced firefly luciferase (Raw/effluc) and murine colon cancer CT26 cells coexpressing Rluc and mCherry (CT26/Rluc-mCherry, CT26/RM) were established. CT26/RM tumor-bearing mice received Raw/effluc via their tail veins, and combination of bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and fluorescence imaging (FLI) was conducted for in vivo imaging of TAMs migration and tumor progression. Dexamethasone (DEX), a potent anti-inflammatory drug, was administered intraperitoneally to tumor-bearing mice following the intravenous transfer of Raw/effluc cells. The migration of TAMs and tumor growth was monitored by serial FLI and BLI. The migration of Raw/effluc cells to tumor lesions was observed at day 1, and BLI signals were still distinct at tumor lesions on day 4. Localization of BLI signals from migrated Raw/effluc cells corresponded to that of FLI signals from CT26/RM tumors. In vivo FLI of tumors demonstrated enhanced tumor growth associated with macrophage migration to tumor lesions. Treatment with DEX inhibited the influx of Raw/effluc cells to tumor lesions and abolished the enhanced tumor growth associated with macrophage migration. These findings suggest that molecular imaging approach for TAM tracking is a valuable tool for evaluating the role of TAMs in the tumor microenvironment as well as for the development of new drugs to control TAM involvement in the modulation of tumor progression.
Project description:The aim of this study was to establish a tumor model in mice with the expression of luciferase (Luc) and human prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), in order to evaluate the activities of anticancer drugs or vaccines for prostate cancer. RM-1 cells were stably transfected with pcDNA-Luc and pcDNA-PSCA plasmids. The Luc-expressing cells were examined using a luminometer and the PSCA-expressing cells were examined using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometric analysis. Male C57BL/6 mice were inoculated subcutaneously with the RM-PSCA/Luc cells, prior to the tumor growth and survival time of the mice being measured, respectively. In vivo bioluminescence imaging was used to detect Luc expression and immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect PSCA expression. Inoculation of the tumor cells into the C57BL/6 mice closely mimicked the tumor growth of prostate cancer. All of the inoculated mice exhibited a detectable tumor within two weeks. Tumor progression was able to be quantitatively monitored following the inoculation of 1×10(6) RM-PSCA/Luc cells. There was an excellent correlation (R(2)=0.9849) between the photon counts and tumor volume. The expression of PSCA in tumor tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemical analysis. The Luc and PSCA co-expression tumor model was successfully established in mice, which is likely to accelerate the understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and facilitate the development of novel antitumor drugs or vaccines for the disease.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was a potential tumor immunotherapy target. IDO inhibitors showed inconsistent results in clinical trials, but no preclinical comparative study was reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences of representative IDO inhibitors (PCC0208009, INCB024360, NLG919) from the pharmacological perspective. METHODS:In vitro experiments included: inhibition effects on IDO activity in cell and enzyme-based assay, effects on IDO expression in HeLa cells, and enhancement of proliferation and activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). In vivo experiments included: pharmacokinetics and tumor distribution in CT26-bearing mice, effects on Kyn/Trp and anti-tumor effect and immunological mechanism in CT26 and B16F10 tumor-bearing mice. RESULTS:Compared with INCB024360 and NLG919, PCC0208009 effectively inhibited IDO activity at lower dose 2?nM and longer duration more than 72?h, had higher enhancements on PBMC proliferation and activation, and could inhibit the IDO expression in Hela cells. The pharmacokinetics characteristics of three IDO inhibitors were similar in CT26-bearing mice. In CT26 and B16F10 tumor-bearing mice, PCC0208009 and INCB024360 had similar effects in Kyn/Trp reduction, and more potent than NLG919; three IDO inhibitors had similar effects in tumor suppression, changes of the percentages of CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, and activation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, while PCC0208009 had a better tendency than INCB024360 and NLG919. CONCLUSION:PCC0208009, INCB024360, and NLG919 were all effective IDO inhibitors, but the comprehensive pharmacological activity of PCC0208009 was better than INCB024360 and NLG919, which was basically consistent with the results or progresses of clinical trials.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a crucial role in immunosuppression in tumor-bearing hosts. MDSCs express arginase-I and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; they suppress T-cell function by reducing the levels of l-arginine and l-tryptophan, respectively. We examined the anticancer effects of supplementation of these amino acids in CT26 colon carcinoma-bearing mice. Oral supplementation of l-arginine or l-tryptophan (30 mg/mouse) did not affect tumor growth, whereas oral supplementation of d-arginine was lethal. Supplementation of l-arginine showed a tendency to augment the efficacy of cyclophosphamide (CP). CP reduced the proportions of granulocytic MDSCs and increased the proportions of monocytic MDSCs in the spleen and tumor tissues of CT26-bearing mice. l-Arginine supplementation alone did not affect the MDSC subsets. CP treatment tended to reduce the plasma levels of l-arginine in CT26-bearing mice and significantly increased the number of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. In addition, l-arginine supplementation significantly increased the proportions of tumor peptide-specific CD8+ T cells in draining lymph nodes. Importantly, additional supplementation of l-arginine significantly increased the number of cured mice that were treated with CP and anti-PD-1 antibody. Totally, l-arginine supplementation shows promise for boosting the therapeutic efficacy of chemoimmunotherapy.