A phase II study of lapatinib and bevacizumab as treatment for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: Preclinical data have demonstrated that the combination of antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (anti-HER2) and antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF)--targeted agents has antitumor activity; these data indicate certain patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer may derive clinical benefit from this combination. The purpose of this single-arm phase II study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the dual-targeting combination of lapatinib and bevacizumab. Women with HER2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer received 1,500 mg oral lapatinib daily plus 10 mg/kg IV bevacizumab every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at week 12; secondary endpoints included overall tumor response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), duration of response, time-to-response, PFS, and safety. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were measured at baseline and during study treatment as potential response markers. Fifty-two patients with stage IV disease were enrolled. The 12-week investigator-assessed PFS rate was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 54.9, 81.3). Median PFS was 24.7 weeks (95% CI: 20.4, 35.1), and the CBR was 30.8% (95% CI: 18.7, 45.1). Of 45 patients with measurable disease, 6 were determined to have a partial response per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (ORR: 13.3%; 95% CI: 5.1, 26.8). The most common adverse events (AEs) included diarrhea, rash, and fatigue; most of these were either grade 1 or 2. Clinical responses were correlated with decreases in CTC and CEC. Lapatinib plus bevacizumab was active in patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. The AE profile of the combination was consistent with the known profiles for these agents.
Project description:Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is associated with poor prognosis. This single-arm open-label trial (EGF109491; NCT00508274) was designed to confirm the efficacy and safety of lapatinib in combination with capecitabine in 52 heavily pretreated Chinese patients with HER2-positive MBC. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit rate (CBR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), time to response (TTR), duration of response (DoR), central nervous system (CNS) as first site of relapse, and safety. The results showed that there were 23 patients with partial responses and 7 patients with stable disease, resulting in a CBR of 57.7%. The median PFS was 6.34 months (95% confidence interval, 4.93-9.82 months). The median TTR and DoR were 4.07 months (range, 0.03-14.78 months) and 6.93 months (range, 1.45-9.72 months), respectively. Thirteen (25.0%) patients had new lesions as disease progression. Among them, 2 (3.8%) patients had CNS disease reported as the first relapse. The most common toxicities were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (59.6%), diarrhea (48.1%), rash (48.1%), hyperbilirubinemia (34.6%), and fatigue (30.8%). Exploratory analyses of oncogenic mutations of PIK3CA suggested that of 38 patients providing a tumor sample, baseline PIK3CA mutation status was not associated with CBR (P = 0.639) or PFS (P = 0.989). These data confirm that the lapatinib plus capecitabine combination is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for Chinese women with heavily pretreated MBC, irrespective of PIK3CA status.
Project description:To evaluate efficacy in patients with brain metastasis (BM) on entry into the lapatinib expanded access program (LEAP).LEAP is a worldwide, single-arm, open-label study. HER2-positive, locally-advanced or metastatic breast cancer patients with progression after an anthracycline, taxane, and trastuzumab were eligible. Patients received capecitabine 2000 mg/m(2) daily in two divided doses, days 1-14, every 21 days and lapatinib 1250 mg once daily.Among 186 patients enrolled in 6 Korean centers, 58 had BM. Progression-free survival (PFS) was 18.7 weeks in patients with BM and 19.4 weeks without BM (P = 0.88). In patients with BM, brain response was synchronized with systemic responses (P = 0.0001). Overall survival (OS) was 48.9 weeks in patients with BM and 64.6 weeks without BM (P = 0.23). Multivariable analysis found hormone receptor positivity (P = 0.003) and clinical benefit rate (CBR) of combined systemic and brain disease (P < 0.0001) significantly associated with prolonged brain PFS, and CBR of combined systemic and brain disease (P = 0.03) and longer trastuzumab use (P = 0.047) associated with prolonged OS in patients with BM; prior capecitabine did not affect PFS or OS in patients with BM.Lapatinib plus capecitabine is equally effective in patients with or without BM.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00338247).
Project description:Lapatinib is approved in combination with capecitabine for treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who have progressed on prior trastuzumab in the metastatic setting. Vinorelbine is an important chemotherapy option for MBC. We evaluated efficacy and safety of lapatinib plus vinorelbine, compared with lapatinib plus capecitabine, in women with HER2-positive MBC. In this open-label, multicenter, phase II study, eligible patients (N = 112) were randomized 2:1 to lapatinib plus vinorelbine [(N = 75) 1,250 mg orally once daily (QD) continuously plus 20 mg/m(2)/day intravenously] or lapatinib plus capecitabine [(N = 37) 1,250 mg orally QD continuously plus 2,000 mg/m(2)/day orally, 2 doses]. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Other endpoints included overall survival (OS) and safety. Patients progressing within the study were given the option of crossover to the other treatment arm; time to second progression was an exploratory endpoint. Patient demographics, stratification, and prognostic factors were well balanced between treatments. Median PFS in both arms was 6.2 months [95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.2, 8.8 (lapatinib plus vinorelbine); 4.4, 8.3 (lapatinib plus capecitabine)]. Median OS on lapatinib plus vinorelbine was 24.3 months (95 % CI 16.4, NE) and 19.4 months (95 % CI 16.4, 27.2) on lapatinib plus capecitabine. In total, 42 patients opted to cross over; median PFS was 3.2 months (95 % CI 1.7, 5.1) on lapatinib plus vinorelbine and 4.0 months (95 % CI 2.1, 5.8) on lapatinib plus capecitabine. Lapatinib plus vinorelbine offers an effective treatment option for patients with HER2-overexpressing MBC, having displayed comparable efficacy and tolerability rates to lapatinib plus capecitabine.
Project description:BACKGROUND: HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) relapsing after trastuzumab-based therapy may require continued HER2 receptor inhibition to control the disease and preserve the patients' quality-of-life. Efficacy and safety of lapatinib monotherapy was evaluated in Japanese breast cancer patients after trastuzumab-based therapies. METHODS: In studies, EGF100642 and EGF104911 evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral lapatinib given 1500 mg once daily in patients with advanced or MBC. All patients progressed on anthracyclines and taxanes; HER2-positive patients had also progressed on trastuzumab. RESULTS: For HER2-positive tumours (n=100), objective response rate was 19.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.8-28.1) and clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 25.0% (95% CI: 16.9-34.7). One out of 22 HER2-negative tumour was documented as complete response (n=22). The median time-to-progression (TTP) in the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups was 13.0 and 8.0 weeks (P=0.007); median overall survival was 58.3 and 40.0 weeks, respectively. The most frequent adverse event was diarrhoea. TTP and CBR were significantly associated with HER2 expression. Patients with tumours harbouring an H1047R PIK3CA mutation or low expression of PTEN derived clinical benefit from lapatinib. CONCLUSION: Lapatinib monotherapy had shown anti-tumour activity in Japanese patients with HER2-positive MBC that relapsed after trastuzumab-based therapy, including those with brain metastases. Patients benefiting from lapatinib may have biomarker profiles differing from that reported for trastuzumab.
Project description:Preclinical data indicate that combination HER2-directed and anti-VEGF therapy may bypass resistance to trastuzumab. A phase I trial was performed to assess safety, activity, and correlates.Patients with advanced, refractory malignancy were enrolled (modified 3?+?3 design with expansions for responding tumor types). Patients received lapatinib daily for 21 days, and bevacizumab and trastuzumab every 3 weeks. Correlates included HER2 extracellular domain levels (ECD) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Ninety-four patients were treated (median = four prior systemic therapies). The most common related adverse events???grade 2 were diarrhea (n?=?33, 35 %) and hypertension (n?=?10, 11 %). The recommended phase 2 dose was trastuzumab 6 mg/m(2) (loading = 8 mg/m(2)) and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks, with lapatinib 1,250 mg daily (full FDA-approved dose of each drug). One patient (1 %) achieved a complete response (CR); eight (9 %), a partial response (PR) (includes breast (n?=?7, one of which was HER2 2+ by IHC) and salivary ductal carcinoma (n?=?1); and 14 (15 %), stable disease (SD) ?6 months (total SD???6 months/PR/CR =23 (25 %). All patients with PR/CR received prior trastuzumab +/- lapatinib. SD???6 months/PR/CR rate and time to treatment failure (TTF) correlated with elevated baseline HER2 ECD (N?=?75 patients tested) but not with HER2 SNPs.Combination trastuzumab, lapatinib, and bevacizumab was well-tolerated and demonstrated antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with advanced malignancy.
Project description:PURPOSE:A subgroup of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast tumors coexpresses p95HER2, a truncated HER2 receptor that retains a highly functional HER2 kinase domain but lacks the extracellular domain and results in intrinsic trastuzumab resistance. We hypothesized that lapatinib, a HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, would be active in these tumors. We have studied the correlation between p95HER2 expression and response to lapatinib, both in preclinical models and in the clinical setting. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Two different p95HER2 animal models were used for preclinical studies. Expression of p95HER2 was analyzed in HER2-overexpressing breast primary tumors from a first-line lapatinib monotherapy study (EGF20009) and a second-line lapatinib in combination with capecitabine study (EGF100151). p95HER2 expression was correlated with overall response rate (complete + partial response), clinical benefit rate (complete response + partial response + stable disease > or =24 wk), and progression-free survival using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS:Lapatinib inhibited tumor growth and the HER2 downstream signaling of p95HER2-expressing tumors. A total of 68 and 156 tumors from studies EGF20009 and EGF100151 were evaluable, respectively, for p95HER2 detection. The percentage of p95HER2-positive patients was 20.5% in the EGF20009 study and 28.5% in the EGF100151 study. In both studies, there was no statistically significant difference in progression-free survival, clinical benefit rate, and overall response rate between p95HER2-positive and p95HER2-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS:Lapatinib as a monotherapy or in combination with capecitabine seems to be equally effective in patients with p95HER2-positive and p95HER2-negative HER2-positive breast tumors.
Project description:This study evaluated the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetic profile, and preliminary antitumor activity of QLNC120, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), in HER2 overexpressing advanced breast cancer patients. In addition, the prognostic biomarkers of QLNC120 were investigated. QLNC120 was administered as a single dose, followed by 7 days observation, and then once daily consecutively. Scheduled dose escalation was 450mg, 750mg, 1000mg and 1250mg. For pharmacokinetic analysis, blood samples were collected after the single dose and after the first 7 days of continuous administration. Tissue samples were collected for biomarker analysis. Twenty-four heavily treated HER2 overexpressing advanced breast cancer patients were enrolled. No DLT was observed. MTD was not found. QLNC120 and its active metabolite-lapatinib exposure did not increase in a dose-dependent manner ranging from 450 to 1250mg QLNC120. From 450 to 1250mg QLNC120, the exposure of combination of QLNC120 and its active metabolite-lapatinib was equal to or greater than the exposure of 1250mg lapatinib. Common QLNC120-related toxicities included rash, diarrhea, oral mucositis, hematuria and white blood cell decrease. Seven of twenty-two evaluable patients achieved partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD)≥24 weeks. In biomarker analysis, nine of fifteen patients (60%) had a mutation in HRAS exon 1. Patients with HRAS mutation achieved longer progression free survival(PFS) (24.9 vs 12.9 weeks, p=0.023, HR=0.291). QLNC120 is well-tolerated and safe with encouraging antitumor activity in HER2 overexpressing advanced breast cancer. HRAS mutation was associated with the anti-tumor activity of QLNC120. (Trial registration: NCT01931943, http://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT01931943).
Project description:Although there are effective HER2-targeted agents, novel combination strategies in HER2-overexpressing breast cancers are needed for patients whose tumors develop drug resistance. To develop new therapeutic strategy, we investigated the combinational effect of entinostat, an oral isoform-selective histone deacetylase type I inhibitor, and lapatinib, a HER2/EGFR dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in HER2+ breast cancer cells. We assessed the combinational synergistic effect and its mechanism by CellTiter Blue assay, flow cytometry, anchorage-independent growth, quantitative real-time PCR, small interfering RNA, Western blotting, and mammary fat pad xenograft mouse models. We found that compared with entinostat or lapatinib alone, the two drugs in combination synergistically inhibited proliferation (P < 0.001), reduced in vitro colony formation (P < 0.05), and resulted in significant in vivo tumor shrinkage or growth inhibition in two xenograft mouse models (BT474 and SUM190, P < 0.001). The synergistic anti-tumor activity of the entinostat/lapatinib combination was due to downregulation of phosphorylated Akt, which activated transcriptional activity of FOXO3, resulting in induction of Bim1 (a BH3 domain-containing pro-apoptotic protein). Furthermore, entinostat sensitized trastuzumab/lapatinib-resistance-HER2-overexpressing cells to the trastuzumab/lapatinib combination and enhanced the anti-proliferation effect compare with single or double combination treatment. This study provides evidence that entinostat has enhanced anti-tumor effect in combination with HER2-targeted reagent, lapatinib, and resulting in induction of apoptosis by FOXO3-mediated Bim1 expression. Our finding justifies for conducting a clinical trial of combinational treatment with entinostat, lapatinib, and trastuzumab in patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer resistant to trastuzumab-based treatment.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy of lapatinib, a dual EGFR and HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in therapy-resistant HER2-positive CTCs in metastatic breast cancer (MBC).Patients with MBC and HER2-positive CTCs despite disease stabilization or response to prior therapy, received lapatinib 1500 mg daily in monthly cycles, till disease progression or CTC increase. CTC monitoring was performed by immunofluorescent microscopy using cytospins of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) double stained for HER2 or EGFR and cytokeratin.A total of 120 cycles were administered in 22 patients; median age was 62.5 years, 15 (68.2%) patients were post-menopausal and 20 (90.1%) had HER2-negative primary tumors. At the end of the second course, HER2-positive CTC counts decreased in 76.2% of patients; the median number of HER2-positive CTCs/patient also declined significantly (p = 0.013), however the decrease was significant only among patients presenting disease stabilization (p = 0.018) but not among those with disease progression during lapatinib treatment. No objective responses were observed. All CTC-positive patients harbored EGFR-positive CTCs on progression compared to 62.5% at baseline (p = 0.054). The ratio of EGFR-positive CTCs/total CTCs detected in all patients increased from 17.1% at baseline to 37.6% on progression, whereas the mean percentage of HER2-negative CTCs/patient increased from 2.4% to 30.6% (p = 0.03).The above results indicate that lapatinib is effective in decreasing HER2-positive CTCs in patients with MBC irrespectively of the HER2 status of the primary tumor and imply the feasibility of monitoring the molecular changes on CTCs during treatment with targeted agents.Clinical trial.gov NCT00694252.
Project description:Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss or activating mutations of phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase (PIK3CA) may be associated with trastuzumab resistance. Trastuzumab, the humanized human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, and lapatinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are both established treatments for HER2-overexpressing breast cancers. Understanding of the cellular response to HER2-targeted therapies is needed to tailor treatments and to identify patients less likely to benefit.We evaluated the effect of trastuzumab or lapatinib in three HER2-overexpressing cell lines. We confirmed the in vitro observations in two neoadjuvant clinical trials in patients with HER2 overexpression; 35 patients received trastuzumab as a single agent for the first 3 weeks, then docetaxel every 3 weeks for 12 weeks (trastuzumab regimen), whereas 49 patients received lapatinib as a single agent for 6 weeks, followed by trastuzumab/docetaxel for 12 weeks before primary surgery (lapatinib regimen). Apoptosis, Ki67, p-MAPK, p-AKT, and PTEN were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Genomic DNA was sequenced for PIK3CA mutations.Under low PTEN conditions, in vitro data indicate that lapatinib alone and in combination with trastuzumab was effective in decreasing p-MAPK and p-AKT levels, whereas trastuzumab was ineffective. In the clinical trials, we confirmed that low PTEN or activating mutation in PIK3CA conferred resistance to the trastuzumab regimen (P = .015), whereas low PTEN tumors were associated with a high pathologic complete response rate (P = .007).Activation of PI3 kinase pathway is associated with trastuzumab resistance, whereas low PTEN predicted for response to lapatinib. These observations support clinical trials with the combination of both agents.