The salivary scavenger and agglutinin binds MBL and regulates the lectin pathway of complement in solution and on surfaces.
ABSTRACT: The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as gp340, salivary agglutinin and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1, is a 340-kDa glycoprotein expressed on mucosal surfaces and secreted into several body fluids. SALSA binds to a broad variety of microbes and endogenous ligands, such as complement factor C1q, surfactant proteins D and A, and IgA. Our search for novel ligands of SALSA by direct protein-interaction studies led to the identification of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) as a new binding partner. We observed that surface-associated SALSA activates complement via binding of MBL. On the other hand, soluble SALSA was found to inhibit Candida albicans-induced complement activation. Thus, SALSA has a dual complement activation modifying function. It activates the lectin pathway when bound to a surface and inhibits it when free in the fluid phase. These activities are mediated via a direct interaction with MBL. This suggests that SALSA could target the innate immune responses to certain microorganisms and simultaneously limit complement activation in the fluid phase.
Project description:The lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation depends on the activation of the MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) circulating in complex with mannan-binding lectin (MBL). MBL deficiency is the most common complement deficiency and has been associated with several pathological conditions. As we had previously shown, plasma-derived MBL (pdMBL) contains pre-activated MASPs that upon in vivo pdMBL substitution results in restoration of MBL concentrations but no LP functionality due to immediate inactivation of pdMBL-MASP complexes upon infusion. In this study, we analyzed MBL-sufficient and -deficient serum by size-exclusion chromatography for complexes of LP activation. In both sera, we identified non-bound free forms of MASP-2 and to lesser extent MASP-1/3. After addition of recombinant MBL (rMBL) to MBL-deficient serum, these free MASPs were much less abundantly present, which is highly suggestive for the formation of high-molecular complexes that could still become activated upon subsequent ligand binding as shown by a restoration of C4-deposition of MBL-deficient serum. Ficolin (FCN)-associated MASPs have been described to redistribute to ligand-bound MBL, hereby forming new MBL/MASP complexes. However, reconstitution of MBL-deficient serum with rMBL did not change the relative size of the FCN molecules suggestive for a limited redistribution in fluid phase of already formed complexes. Our findings demonstrate that rMBL can associate with free non-bound MASPs in fluid phase while preserving full restoration of LP functionality. In contrast to pdMBL products containing pre-activated MASPs which become inactivated almost immediately, these current data provide a rationale for substitution studies using rMBL instead.
Project description:Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The etiology is not clear, but an immune attack towards components of placenta or fetus has been indicated. This involves activation of the complement system in the placenta. We have previously described the presence of the complement-regulating protein salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA) in amniotic fluid. In this study we investigated the potential role of SALSA in pregnancy by analyzing its presence in amniotic fluid and placental tissue during healthy and complicated pregnancies. SALSA levels in amniotic fluid increased during pregnancy. Before 20 weeks of gestation the levels were slightly higher in patients who later developed pre-eclampsia than in gestation age-matched controls. In the placenta of pre-eclamptic patients syncytial damage is often followed by the formation of fibrinoid structures. SALSA was found clustered into these fibrinoid structures in partial co-localization with complement C1q and fibronectin. In vitro analysis showed direct protein binding of SALSA to fibronectin. SALSA binds also to fibrin/fibrinogen but did not interfere with the blood clotting process in vitro. Thus, in addition to antimicrobial defense and epithelial differentiation, the data presented here suggest that SALSA, together with fibronectin and C1q, may be involved in the containment of injured placental structures into fibrinoids.
Project description:Chagas disease (CD) is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, whose sugar moieties are recognized by mannan binding lectin (MBL), a soluble pattern-recognition molecule that activates the lectin pathway of complement. MBL levels and protein activity are affected by polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. We sequenced the MBL2 promoter and exon 1 in 196 chronic CD patients and 202 controls. The MBL2*C allele, which causes MBL deficiency, was associated with protection against CD (P = 0.007, OR = 0.32). Compared with controls, genotypes with this allele were completely absent in patients with the cardiac form of the disease (P = 0.003). Furthermore, cardiac patients with genotypes causing MBL deficiency presented less heart damage (P = 0.003, OR = 0.23), compared with cardiac patients having the XA haplotype causing low MBL levels, but fully capable of activating complement (P = 0.005, OR = 7.07). Among the patients, those with alleles causing MBL deficiency presented lower levels of cytokines and chemokines possibly implicated in symptom development (IL9, p = 0.013; PDGFB, p = 0.036 and RANTES, p = 0.031). These findings suggest a protective effect of genetically determined MBL deficiency against the development and progression of chronic CD cardiomyopathy.
Project description:The causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, have developed several ways to protect themselves against killing by the host complement system. In addition, it has been shown that serum sensitive isolates are (partially) protected by the Ixodes Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor (TSLPI) protein; a salivary gland protein that inhibits the function of Mannose Binding Lectin (MBL). MBL is a C-type lectin that recognizes oligosaccharides on pathogens and activates the complement system via the lectin pathway. MBL deficiency has been linked to a more severe course of several infectious diseases and humans with detectable antibodies against B. burgdorferi are significantly more often MBL deficient compared to humans without antibodies against B. burgdorferi. Here we set out to investigate the role of MBL in the immune response against B. burgdorferi in more detail. We demonstrate that B. burgdorferi N40 needle-infected C57BL/6 MBL deficient mice harbored significantly higher B. burgdorferi numbers in skin tissue during the early course of infection. In line with these findings they also developed higher anti-B. burgdorferi IgG serum antibodies compared to WT controls. In contrast, B. burgdorferi loads in distant tissue such as heart, joints or bladder at later time points were similar for both mouse strains. These in vivo findings were corroborated using a B. burgdorferi N40-infected I. scapularis infestation model. We showed that MBL is capable of binding B. burgdorferi through its carbohydrate recognition domains, but in vitro complement killing assays, peritoneal macrophage and whole blood stimulations, phagocytosis assays and an in vivo migration experiment did not reveal the mechanism by which MBL facilitates early clearance of B. burgdorferi. To conclude, we show a protective role of MBL in the early stages of B. burgdorferi infection, yet the underlying mechanism warrants further investigation.
Project description:Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and lectin complement pathway have become targets of increasing clinical interest. Many aspects of MBL have been recently explored, including the structural properties that allow it to distinguish self from non-self/altered-self structures. Experimental evidences have declared the additional 5'- and 3'-variants that in amalgamation with well-known secretor polymorphisms change MBL function and concentration. Moreover, the current review highlights the differential behavior of MBL on exposure with extra/intracellular pathogens and in autoimmune diseases, stressing the fact that "high MBL levels can increase diseases susceptibility," a paradox that needs justification. Attributable to these discrepancies, no absolute level of MBL deficiency could be defined so far and thus must be interpreted for specific diseases through case-control population-specific designs. Overall, it is evident that further research is needed about MBL and the lectin pathway of complement. Particularly, the transformative role of MBL over evolution is of interest and its role with regard to pathogenesis of different diseases and potential therapeutic targets within the respective pathways should be further explored. Apart from this, it is necessary to adopt an extensive locus-wide methodology to apprehend the clinical significance of <i>MBL2</i> polymorphisms in a variety of infectious diseases by the future studies.
Project description:Salivary agglutinin (SAG), also known as gp340 or SALSA, is a glycoprotein encoded by the Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 gene and is abundantly present in human saliva. SAG aggregates bacteria and viruses, thereby promoting their clearance from the oral cavity. The mucosa lining the oral cavity contains dendritic cells (DC) and Langerhans cells (LC), which express the C-type lectin receptors (CLR) DC-SIGN and Langerin, respectively. Both DC-SIGN and Langerin recognise mannose and fucose carbohydrate structures on pathogens and self-glycoproteins to regulate immunity and homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SAG interacts with these CLR and whether this interferes with the binding to oral pathogens. We show that whole parotid saliva and SAG, when coated to microplates, strongly interact with DC-SIGN and Langerin, probably via mannose and fucose structures. Also, primary human DC and LC bind parotid saliva and SAG via DC-SIGN and Langerin, respectively. Furthermore, SAG binding to DC-SIGN or Langerin prevented binding to the micro-organisms Candida albicans and Escherichia coli which express mannose and fucose-containing glycan structures. Thus, binding of saliva glycoprotein SAG to DC-SIGN and Langerin may inhibit pathogen-DC/LC interactions, and could prove to be a new immunomodulatory mechanism of SAG.
Project description:Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) is a serum pattern recognition molecule, able to activate complement in association with MASP proteases. Serum levels of MBL and MASP-2, activities of MBL-MASP complexes, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MBL2 and MASP2 genes and/or their specific mRNA expression in ovarian sections were investigated in 128 patients suffering from primary ovarian cancer (OC) and compared with 197 controls (C), encompassing both patients with benign ovarian tumours (n = 123) and others with no ovarian pathology (n = 74). MBL deficiency-associated genotypes were more common among OC patients than among controls. The O/O group of genotypes was associated with ovarian cancer (OR 3.5, p = 0.02). In A/A homozygotes, MBL concentrations and activities were elevated in the OC group and correlated with C-reactive protein. Moreover, high MBL serum levels were associated with more advanced disease stage. No differences in distribution of the MASP2 +359 A>G (D120G) SNP or MASP-2 serum levels were found between cancer patients and their controls. However, the highest frequency of the A/G (MASP2) and LXA/O or O/O (MBL2) genotypes was found among OC patients with tumours of G1-2 grade (well/moderately differentiated). Furthermore, MBL deficiency-associated genotypes predicted prolonged survival. None of the parameters investigated correlated with CA125 antigen or patients' age. The local expression of MBL2 and MASP2 genes was higher in women with ovarian cancer compared with controls. It is concluded that the expression of MBL and MASP-2 is altered in ovarian cancer, possibly indicating involvement of the lectin pathway of complement activation in the disease.
Project description:The complement system is an important immune mechanism mediating both recognition and elimination of foreign bodies. The lectin pathway is one pathway of three by which the complement system is activated. The characteristic protease of this pathway is Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease 2 (MASP2), which cleaves complement proteins C2 and C4. We present a novel and alternative role of MASP2 in the innate immune system. We have shown that MASP2 is capable of promoting fibrinogen turnover by cleavage of prothrombin, generating thrombin. By using a truncated active form of MASP2 as well as full-length MASP2 in complex with MBL, we have shown that the thrombin generated is active and can cleave both factor XIII and fibrinogen, forming cross-linked fibrin. To explore the biological significance of these findings we showed that fibrin was covalently bound on a bacterial surface to which MBL/MASP2 complexes were bound. These findings suggest that, as has been proposed for invertebrates, limited clotting may contribute to the innate immune response.
Project description:The lectin pathway of the complement system has a pivotal role in the defense against infectious organisms. After binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin 11 to carbohydrates or acetylated residues on pathogen surfaces, dimers of MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2 (MASP-1 and MASP-2) activate a proteolytic cascade, which culminates in the formation of the membrane attack complex and pathogen lysis. Alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding MASP-1 results in two other products, MASP-3 and MAp44, which regulate activation of the cascade. A similar mechanism allows the gene encoding MASP-2 to produce the truncated MAp19 protein. Polymorphisms in MASP1 and MASP2 genes are associated with protein serum levels and functional activity. Since the first report of a MASP deficiency in 2003, deficiencies in lectin pathway proteins have been associated with recurrent infections and several polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility or protection to infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the findings on the role of MASP polymorphisms and serum levels in bacterial, viral and protozoan infectious diseases.
Project description:Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a C-type serum lectin, which is believed to play an important role in the innate immunity against a variety of pathogens. MBL can bind to sugar determinants of a wide variety of microorganisms, neutralize them and inhibit infection by complement activation through the lectin pathway and opsonization by collectin receptors. Given that small intestine is a predominant site of extrahepatic expression of MBL, here we addressed the question whether MBL is involved in mucosal innate immunity. The carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) genes of mouse MBL-C (mMBL-C) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant mMBL-C-CRD binds to Shigella flexneri 2a in a calcium-dependent manner and that interaction could be blocked by the anti-mMBL-C-CRD antibody. mMBL-C-CRD protein could inhibit the adhesion of S. flexneri 2a to intestinal mucosa, while administration of anti-mMBL-C-CRD antibody caused an increased level of bacteria adhesion in vitro. Administration of recombinant mMBL-C-CRD protein reduced the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 from primary intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with S. flexneri 2a. Furthermore, neutralization of MBL activity by anti-MBL-C-CRD resulted in a significant increase in the number of S. flexneri 2a that colonized the intestines of BALB/c mice and attenuated the severity of inflammation seen in the areas of bacterial invasion. These findings suggest that mMBL-C may protect host intestinal mucosa by directly binding to the bacteria.