The total synthesis of immunostimulant ?-galactosylceramides from naturally configured ?-galactoside raffinose.
ABSTRACT: The total synthesis of absolute anomeric confirmation ?-galactosylceramide analogues from raffinose is described. Using the naturally occurring ?-galactoside raffinose as the starting material, the easily maneuverable protocol without glycosylation reactions ensured the critical ?-linkage in the product and simplified the synthetic procedures. The immunostimulatory activities of the new ?-galactosylceramides were validated by both in vitro and in vivo NKT cell stimulation assays.
Project description:Biofilm formation on biotic or abiotic surfaces has unwanted consequences in medical, clinical, and industrial settings. Treatments with antibiotics or biocides are often ineffective in eradicating biofilms. Promising alternatives to conventional agents are biofilm-inhibiting compounds regulating biofilm development without toxicity to growth. Here, we screened a biofilm inhibitor, raffinose, derived from ginger. Raffinose, a galactotrisaccharide, showed efficient biofilm inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa without impairing its growth. Raffinose also affected various phenotypes such as colony morphology, matrix formation, and swarming motility. Binding of raffinose to a carbohydrate-binding protein called LecA was the cause of biofilm inhibition and altered phenotypes. Furthermore, raffinose reduced the concentration of the second messenger, cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), by increased activity of a c-di-GMP specific phosphodiesterase. The ability of raffinose to inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and its molecular mechanism opens new possibilities for pharmacological and industrial applications.
Project description:This study was aimed to further illustrate the expression files of REN between glucose and raffinose in MRS broth. Transcriptomic analysis combined with mutants of the key genes based on homologous recombination technology indicated that galA1 gene cluster plays an important role in raffinose metabolism. Gene rafP and galA1 are responsible for raffinose transport and α-galactoside hydrolysis, followed by galactose hydrolysis by galKTE and sucrose hydrolysis by scrB. Lactobacillus salivarius Ren expanded the carbon utilization spectrum to adapt the fluctuating carbohydrate sources in the environment and shifted its carbohydrate metabolism to mixed-acid fermentation and then generated extra energy to bacterial growth when exposed to raffinose. Overall design: Sequencing libraries were generated using NEBNext® Ultra™ Directional RNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina® (NEB, USA) following manufacturer’s recommendations
Project description:Two major glycolipids, which comprise approximately 36% of the total lipid mass from Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, were investigated. We determined the fatty acid type, sugar identity, anomeric configuration, and substituent type and position. The structures were identified as cholesteryl 6-O-acyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (B. burgdorferi glycolipid 1, BbGL-I), and 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (BbGL-II). The major fatty acids were palmitate and oleate. The structures were corroborated by gas-liquid chromatography MS, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy, fast atom bombardment MS, detailed NMR spectrometry, and metabolic labeling. This is a previously undescribed demonstration of a cholesteryl galactoside in bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide was not detected in B. burgdorferi. The two glycolipids have several properties suggesting they may function as lipopolysaccharide: both are main components of the bacterial membrane, surface exposed, and have a three-domain structure. BbGL-I elicited specific antibodies in mice and rabbits, and BbGL-II elicited antibodies that reacted with both glycolipids.
Project description:Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the number one oil and protein crop in the United States, but the seed contains several anti-nutritional factors that are toxic to both humans and livestock. RNA interference technology has become an increasingly popular technique in gene silencing because it allows for both temporal and spatial targeting of specific genes. The objective of this research is to use RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the soybean gene raffinose synthase 2 (RS2), to reduce total raffinose content in mature seed. Raffinose is a trisaccharide that is indigestible to humans and monogastric animals, and as monogastric animals are the largest consumers of soy products, reducing raffinose would improve the nutritional quality of soybean. An RNAi construct targeting RS2 was designed, cloned, and transformed to the soybean genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Resulting plants were analyzed for the presence and number of copies of the transgene by PCR and Southern blot. The efficiency of mRNA silencing was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Total raffinose content was determined by HPLC analysis. Transgenic plant lines were recovered that exhibited dramatically reduced levels of raffinose in mature seed, and these lines were further analyzed for other phenotypes such as development and yield. Additionally, a precision-fed rooster assay was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy (TME) in full-fat soybean meal made from the wild-type or transgenic low-raffinose soybean lines. Transgenic low-raffinose soy had a measured TME of 2,703 kcal/kg, an increase as compared with 2,411 kcal/kg for wild-type. As low digestible energy is a major limiting factor in the percent of soybean meal that can be used in poultry diets, these results may substantiate the use of higher concentrations of low-raffinose, full-fat soy in formulated livestock diets.
Project description:1. Reaction of UTP and alpha-d-galactose 1-phosphate with [U-(14)C]sucrose in the presence of a Vicia faba dormant-seed preparation yielded the trisaccharide raffinose. 2. UTP-alpha-d-galactose 1-phosphate-uridylyltransferase activity has been demonstrated in the bean preparation and evidence for the participation of UDP-galactose in the trisaccharide synthesis is presented. 3. UDP-galactose 4-epimerase is present in the dormant seed. 4. The biosynthesis of raffinose in relation to the metabolism of other carbohydrates in plants is discussed.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking the enzyme dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) show markedly reduced ability to grow on raffinose and stachyose as sole carbon sources. Import of these sugars occurs through the previously characterized raffinose ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system, encoded by the raf operon, that lacks the necessary ATP-binding protein. In this study, we identified the raffinose ATP-binding protein RafK and showed that it was directly involved in raffinose and stachyose import. RafK carries a C-terminal regulatory domain present in a subset of ATP-binding proteins that has been involved in both direct regulation of transporter activity (inducer exclusion) and transcription of transporter genes. Pneumococci lacking RafK showed a 50- to 80-fold reduction in expression of the raf operon genes aga (alpha-galactosidase) and rafEFG (raffinose substrate binding and permease genes), and both glucose and sucrose inhibited raffinose uptake through inducer exclusion. Like RafK, the presence of DLDH also activated the expression of raf operon genes, as DLDH-negative pneumococci showed a significantly decreased expression of aga and rafEFG, but DLDH did not regulate rafK or the putative regulatory genes rafR and rafS. DLDH also bound directly to RafK both in vitro and in vivo, indicating the possibility that DLDH regulates raffinose transport by a direct interaction with the regulatory domain of the transporter. Finally, although not as attenuated as DLDH-negative bacteria, pneumococci lacking RafK were significantly outcompeted by wild-type bacteria in colonization experiments of murine lung and nasopharynx, indicating a role for raffinose and stachyose transport in vivo.
Project description:The epidermal barrier function requires optimal keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal lipid synthesis. Liver X receptor (LXR) ? and ?, are important transcriptional regulators of the epidermal gene expression. Here, we show that raffinose, a ubiquitously present trisaccharide in plants, activated the transcriptional activity of LXR?/?, which led to the induction of genes required for keratinocyte differentiation such as involucrin and filaggrin, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport including SCD1 and ABCA1 in both HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Raffinose induced the expression of JunD and Fra1, and their DNA binding in the AP1 motif in the promoters of involucrin and loricrin. Interestingly, LXR bound the AP1 motif upon raffinose treatment, and conversely, JunD and Fra1 bound the LXR response element in promoters of LXR target genes, which indicates the presence of a postive cross-talk between LXR and AP1 in the regualtion of these genes. Finally, the effect of raffinose in epidermal barrier function was confirmed by applying raffinose in an ointment formulation to the skin of hairless mice. These findings suggest that raffinose could be examined as an ingredient in functional cosmetics and therapeutic agents for the treatment of cutaneous disorders associated with abnormal epidermal barrier function.
Project description:Herein, we present a biocatalytic method to produce raffinose and stachyose using sucrose as the substrate. An in vitro multienzyme system was developed using five enzymes, namely, sucrose synthase (SUS), UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (GalE), galactinol synthase (GS), raffinose synthase (RS), and stachyose synthase (STS), and two intermedia, namely, UDP and inositol, which can be recycled. This reaction system produced 11.1 mM raffinose using purified enzymes under optimal reaction conditions and substrate concentrations. Thereafter, a stepwise cascade reaction strategy was employed to circumvent the instability of RS and STS in this system, and a 4.2-fold increase in raffinose production was observed. The enzymatic cascade reactions were then conducted using cell extracts to avoid the need for enzyme purification and supplementation with UDP. Such modification further increased raffinose production to 86.6 mM and enabled the synthesis of 61.1 mM stachyose. The UDP turnover number reached 337. Finally, inositol in the reaction system was recycled five times, and 255.8 mM raffinose (128.9 g/liter) was obtained.IMPORTANCE Soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) have elicited considerable attention because of their potential applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. This study demonstrates an alternative method to produce raffinose and stachyose, which are the major bioactive components of SBOS, from sucrose via an in vitro enzyme system. High concentrations of galactinol, raffinose, and stachyose were synthesized with the aid of a stepwise cascade reaction process, which can successfully address the issue of mismatched enzyme characteristics of an in vitro metabolic engineering platform. The biocatalytic approach presented in this work may enable the synthesis of other valuable galactosyl oligosaccharides, such as verbascose and higher homologs, which are difficult to obtain through plant extraction.
Project description:<i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> is commonly carried asymptomatically in the human nasopharynx, but it also causes serious and invasive diseases such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, as well as less serious but highly prevalent infections such as otitis media. We have previously shown that closely related pneumococci (of the same capsular serotype and multilocus sequence type [ST]) can display distinct pathogenic profiles in mice that correlate with clinical isolation site (e.g., blood versus ear), suggesting stable niche adaptation within a clonal lineage. This has provided an opportunity to identify determinants of disease tropism. Genomic analysis identified 17 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or insertions/deletions in protein coding sequences between blood and ear isolates of serotype 14 ST15 and serotype 3 ST180, respectively. SNPs in raffinose uptake and utilization genes (<i>rafR</i> or <i>rafK</i>) were detected in both serotypes/lineages. Ear isolates were consistently defective in growth in media containing raffinose as the sole carbon source, as well as in expression of raffinose pathway genes <i>aga</i>, <i>rafG</i>, and <i>rafK</i>, relative to their serotype/ST-matched blood isolates. Similar differences were also seen between serotype 23F ST81 blood and ear isolates. Analysis of <i>rafR</i> allelic exchange mutants of the serotype 14 ST15 blood and ear isolates demonstrated that the SNP in <i>rafR</i> was entirely responsible for their distinct <i>in vitro</i> phenotypes and was also the determinant of differential tropism for the lungs versus ear and brain in a mouse intranasal challenge model. These data suggest that the ability of pneumococci to utilize raffinose determines the nature of disease.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> <i>S. pneumoniae</i> is a component of the commensal nasopharyngeal microflora of humans, but from this reservoir, it can progress to localized or invasive disease with a frequency that translates into massive global morbidity and mortality. However, the factors that govern the switch from commensal to pathogen, as well as those that determine disease tropism, are poorly understood. Here we show that capacity to utilize raffinose can determine the nature of the disease caused by a given pneumococcal strain. Moreover, our findings provide an interesting example of convergent evolution, whereby pneumococci belonging to two unrelated serotypes/lineages exhibit SNPs in separate genes affecting raffinose uptake and utilization that correlate with distinct pathogenic profiles <i>in vivo</i> This further underscores the critical role of differential carbohydrate metabolism in the pathogenesis of localized versus invasive pneumococcal disease.
Project description:beta-Galactoside transport by Escherichia coli occurs with the concomitant uptake of a proton. The kinetics of beta-galactoside uptake at various values of external pH are interpreted in terms of a model in which both the galactoside and the proton are substrates of the transport reaction. The values of some of the kinetic constants for this two-substrate reaction were determined. The observed effects of the protonmotive force on the apparent Michaelis constant for galactoside can be explained in terms of the proton being a substrate of the transport reaction.