Drug response in a genetically engineered mouse model of multiple myeloma is predictive of clinical efficacy.
ABSTRACT: The attrition rate for anticancer drugs entering clinical trials is unacceptably high. For multiple myeloma (MM), we postulate that this is because of preclinical models that overemphasize the antiproliferative activity of drugs, and clinical trials performed in refractory end-stage patients. We validate the Vk*MYC transgenic mouse as a faithful model to predict single-agent drug activity in MM with a positive predictive value of 67% (4 of 6) for clinical activity, and a negative predictive value of 86% (6 of 7) for clinical inactivity. We identify 4 novel agents that should be prioritized for evaluation in clinical trials. Transplantation of Vk*MYC tumor cells into congenic mice selected for a more aggressive disease that models end-stage drug-resistant MM and responds only to combinations of drugs with single-agent activity in untreated Vk*MYC MM. We predict that combinations of standard agents, histone deacetylase inhibitors, bromodomain inhibitors, and hypoxia-activated prodrugs will demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of relapsed MM.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignancy with an unmet need for innovative treatment options. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a new class of anticancer agent that have demonstrated activity in hematological malignancies. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of HDACi (vorinostat, panobinostat, romidepsin) and novel combination therapies using in vitro human MM cell lines and in vivo preclinical screening utilizing syngeneic transplanted Vk*MYC MM. HDACi were combined with ABT-737, which targets the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL/MD5-1), that activates the extrinsic apoptosis pathway or the DNA methyl transferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine. We demonstrate that in vitro cell line-based studies provide some insight into drug activity and combination therapies that synergistically kill MM cells; however, they do not always predict in vivo preclinical efficacy or toxicity. Importantly, utilizing transplanted Vk*MYC MM, we report that panobinostat and 5-azacytidine synergize to prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In contrast, combined HDACi/rhTRAIL-based strategies, while efficacious, demonstrated on-target dose-limiting toxicities that precluded prolonged treatment. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that the transplanted Vk*MYC model of MM is a useful screening tool for anti-MM drugs and should aid in the prioritization of novel drug testing in the clinic.
Project description:The gut microbiota has been causally linked to cancer, yet how intestinal microbes influence progression of extramucosal tumors is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence implying that Prevotella heparinolytica promotes the differentiation of Th17 cells colonizing the gut and migrating to the bone marrow (BM) of transgenic Vk*MYC mice, where they favor progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Lack of IL-17 in Vk*MYC mice, or disturbance of their microbiome delayed MM appearance. Similarly, in smoldering MM patients, higher levels of BM IL-17 predicted faster disease progression. IL-17 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in murine plasma cells, and activated eosinophils. Treatment of Vk*MYC mice with antibodies blocking IL-17, IL-17RA, and IL-5 reduced BM accumulation of Th17 cells and eosinophils and delayed disease progression. Thus, in Vk*MYC mice, commensal bacteria appear to unleash a paracrine signaling network between adaptive and innate immunity that accelerates progression to MM, and can be targeted by already available therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the USA and worldwide. There has been considerable debate about its carcinogenicity. Epidemiological studies suggest that multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have a positive and statistically significant association with glyphosate exposure. As a B cell genome mutator, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a key pathogenic player in both MM and B cell NHL. METHODS:Vk*MYC is a mouse line with sporadic MYC activation in germinal center B cells and considered as the best available MM animal model. We treated Vk*MYC mice and wild-type mice with drinking water containing 1000 mg/L of glyphosate and examined animals after 72 weeks. RESULTS:Vk*MYC mice under glyphosate exposure developed progressive hematological abnormalities and plasma cell neoplasms such as splenomegaly, anemia, and high serum IgG. Moreover, glyphosate caused multiple organ dysfunction, including lytic bone lesions and renal damage in Vk*MYC mice. Glyphosate-treated wild-type mice developed benign monoclonal gammopathy with increased serum IgG, anemia, and plasma cell presence in the spleen and bone marrow. Finally, glyphosate upregulated AID in the spleen and bone marrow of both wild-type and Vk*MYC mice. CONCLUSIONS:These data support glyphosate as an environmental risk factor for MM and potentially NHL and implicate a mechanism underlying the B cell-specificity of glyphosate-induced carcinogenesis observed epidemiologically.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is an age-dependent hematological malignancy. Evaluation of immune interactions that drive MM relies on in vitro experiments that do not reflect the complex cellular stroma involved in MM pathogenesis. Here we used Vk*MYC transgenic mice, which spontaneously develop MM, and demonstrated that the immune system plays a critical role in the control of MM progression and the response to treatment. We monitored Vk*MYC mice that had been crossed with Cd226 mutant mice over a period of 3 years and found that CD226 limits spontaneous MM development. The CD226-dependent anti-myeloma immune response against transplanted Vk*MYC MM cells was mediated both by NK and CD8+ T cells through perforin and IFN-? pathways. Moreover, CD226 expression was required for optimal antimyeloma efficacy of cyclophosphamide (CTX) and bortezomib (Btz), which are both standardly used to manage MM in patients. Activation of costimulatory receptor CD137 with mAb (4-1BB) exerted strong antimyeloma activity, while inhibition of coinhibitory receptors PD-1 and CTLA-4 had no effect. Taken together, the results of this study provide in vivo evidence that CD226 is important for MM immunosurveillance and indicate that specific immune components should be targeted for optimal MM treatment efficacy. As progressive immunosuppression associates with MM development, strategies aimed to increase immune functions may have important therapeutic implications in MM.
Project description:Immunotherapy holds promise for multiple myeloma (MM) patients but little is known about how MM-induced immunosuppression influences response to therapy. Here, we investigated the impact of disease progression on immunotherapy efficacy in the Vk*MYC mouse model. Treatment with agonistic anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAbs efficiently protected mice when administered early but failed to contain MM growth when delayed more than three weeks after Vk*MYC tumor cell challenge. The quality of CD8+ T cell response to CD137 stimulation was not altered by the presence of MM, but CD8+ T cell numbers were profoundly reduced at the time of treatment. Our data suggest that an insufficient ratio of CD8+ T cells over MM cells (CD8/MM) accounts for the loss of anti-CD137 mAb efficacy. We established serum M-protein levels prior to therapy as a predictive factor of response. Moreover, we developed an in silico model to capture the dynamic interactions between CD8+ T cells and MM cells. Finally, we explored two methods to improve the CD8/MM ratio: anti-CD137 mAb immunotherapy combined with Treg-depletion or administered after chemotherapy treatment with cyclophosphamide or melphalan efficiently reduced MM burden and prolonged survival. Altogether, our data indicate that consolidation treatment with anti-CD137 mAbs might prevent MM relapse.
Project description:The Vk*MYC transgenic and transplant mouse models of multiple myeloma (MM) are well established as a research tool for anti-myeloma drug discovery. However, little is known of the immune response in these models. Understanding the immunological relevance of these models is of increasing importance as immunotherapeutic drugs are developed against MM.We set out to examine how cellular immunity is affected in Vk*MYC mouse models and compare that to the immunology of patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory MM.We found that there were significant immunological responses in mice developing either spontaneous (transgenic) or transplanted MM as a consequence of the degree of tumor burden. Particularly striking were the profound B cell lymphopenia and the expansion of CD8(+) effector memory T cells within the lymphocyte population that progressively developed with advancing disease burden, mirroring changes seen in human MM. High disease burden was also associated with increased inflammatory cytokine production by T lymphocytes, which is more fitting with relapsed/refractory MM in humans.These findings have important implications for the application of this mouse model in the development of MM immunotherapies. Trial registration LitVacc ANZCTR trial ID ACTRN12613000344796; RevLite ANZCTR trial ID NCT00482261.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is usually diagnosed in older adults at the time of immunosenescence, a collection of age-related changes in the immune system that contribute to increased susceptibility to infection and cancer. The MM tumor microenvironment and cumulative chemotherapies also add to defects in immunity over the course of disease. In this review we discuss how mouse models have furthered our understanding of the immune defects caused by MM and enabled immunotherapeutics to progress to clinical trials, but also question the validity of using immunodeficient models for these purposes. Immunocompetent models, in particular the 5T series and Vk?MYC models, are increasingly being utilized in preclinical studies and are adding to our knowledge of not only the adaptive immune system but also how the innate system might be enhanced in anti-MM activity. Finally we discuss the concept of immune profiling to target patients who might benefit the most from immunotherapeutics, and the use of humanized mice and 3D culture systems for personalized medicine.
Project description:By misdirecting the activity of Activation-Induced Deaminase (AID) to a conditional MYC transgene, we have achieved sporadic, AID-dependent MYC activation in germinal center B cells of Vk*MYC mice. Whereas control C57BL/6 mice develop benign monoclonal gammopathy with age, all Vk*MYC mice progress to an indolent multiple myeloma associated with the biological and clinical features highly characteristic of the human disease. Furthermore, antigen-dependent myeloma could be induced by immunization with a T-dependent antigen. Consistent with these findings in mice, more frequent MYC rearrangements, elevated levels of MYC mRNA, and MYC target genes distinguish human patients with multiple myeloma from individuals with monoclonal gammopathy, implicating a causal role for MYC in the progression of monoclonal gammopathy to multiple myeloma.
Project description:Adaptation to import iron for proliferation makes cancer cells potentially sensitive to iron toxicity. Iron loading impairs multiple myeloma (MM) cell proliferation and increases the efficacy of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Here, we defined the mechanisms of iron toxicity in MM.1S, U266, H929, and OPM-2 MM cell lines, and validated this strategy in preclinical studies using Vk*MYC mice as MM model. High-dose ferric ammonium citrate triggered cell death in all cell lines tested, increasing malondialdehyde levels, the by-product of lipid peroxidation and index of ferroptosis. In addition, iron exposure caused dose-dependent accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins in highly iron-sensitive MM.1S and H929 cells, suggesting that proteasome workload contributes to iron sensitivity. Accordingly, high iron concentrations inhibited the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity of 26S particles and of MM cellular extracts in vitro. In all MM cells, bortezomib-iron combination induced persistent lipid damage, exacerbated bortezomib-induced polyubiquitinated proteins accumulation, and triggered cell death more efficiently than individual treatments. In Vk*MYC mice, addition of iron dextran or ferric carboxymaltose to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) regimen increased the therapeutic response and prolonged remission without causing evident toxicity. We conclude that iron loading interferes both with redox and protein homeostasis, a property that can be exploited to design novel combination strategies including iron supplementation, to increase the efficacy of current MM therapies.
Project description:The most common genetic abnormality in multiple myeloma (MM) is the deletion of chromosome 13, seen in almost half of newly diagnosed patients. Unlike chronic lymphocytic leukemia, where a recurrent minimally deleted region including MIR15A/MIR16-1 has been mapped, the deletions in MM predominantly involve the entire chromosome and no specific driver gene has been identified. Additional candidate loci include RB1 and DIS3, but while biallelic deletion of RB1 is associated with disease progression, DIS3 is a common essential gene and complete inactivation is not observed. The Vk*MYC transgenic mouse model of MM spontaneously acquires del(14), syntenic to human chromosome 13, and Rb1 complete inactivation, but not Dis3 mutations. Taking advantage of this model, we explored the role in MM initiation and progression of two candidate loci on chromosome 13: RB1 and MIR15A/MIR16-1. Monoallelic deletion of Mir15a/Mir16-1 but not Rb1 was sufficient to accelerate the development of monoclonal gammopathy in wildtype mice, and the progression of MM in Vk*MYC mice, resulting in increased expression of Mir15a/Mir16-1 target genes and plasma cell proliferation, which was similarly observed in patients with MM.