Effects of a sulfated exopolysaccharide produced by Altermonas infernus on bone biology.
ABSTRACT: The growth and differentiation of bone cells is controlled by various factors, which can be modulated by heparan sulfates. Here, we investigated the effects of an oversulfated exopolysaccharide (OS-EPS) on the bone. We compared the effect of this compound with that of a native EPS. Long-term administration of OS-EPS causes cancellous bone loss in mice due, in part, to an increase in the number of osteoclasts lining the trabecular bone surface. No significant difference in cancellous bone volume was found between EPS-treated mice and age-matched control mice, underlying the importance of sulfation in trabecular bone loss. However, the mechanism sustaining this osteoporosis was unclear. To clarify OS-EPS activities, we investigated the effect of OS-EPS on osteogenesis. Our results demonstrated that OS-EPS inhibited osteoclastogenesis in two cell models. Using the surface plasmon resonance technique, we revealed that OS-EPS can form a hetero-molecular complex OS-EPS/receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)/RANK and that RANK had a higher affinity for RANKL pre-incubated with OS-EPS than for RANKL alone, which would be in favor of an increase in bone resorption. However, in vitro, OS-EPS inhibited the early steps of osteoclast precursor adhesion and therefore inhibited the cell fusion step. In addition, we showed that OS-EPS reduced proliferation and accelerated osteoblastic differentiation, leading to strong inhibition of mineralized nodule formation, which would be in favor of an increase in bone resorption. Taken together, these data show different levels of bone resorption regulation by EPSs, most of them leading to proresorptive effects.
Project description:Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclast formation and bone remodeling. Nevertheless, the cellular source of RANKL for osteoclastogenesis has not been fully uncovered. Different from peripheral adipose tissue, bone marrow (BM) adipose lineage cells originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). Here, we demonstrate that adiponectin promoter-driven Cre expression (Adipoq<sup>Cre</sup> ) can target bone marrow adipose lineage cells. We cross the Adipoq<sup>Cre</sup> mice with rankl<sup>fl/fl</sup> mice to conditionally delete RANKL from BM adipose lineage cells. Conditional deletion of RANKL increases cancellous bone mass of long bones in mice by reducing the formation of trabecular osteoclasts and inhibiting bone resorption but does not affect cortical bone thickness or resorption of calcified cartilage. Adipoq<sup>Cre</sup> ; rankl<sup>fl/fl</sup> mice exhibit resistance to estrogen deficiency and rosiglitazone (ROS)-induced trabecular bone loss but show bone loss induced by unloading. BM adipose lineage cells therefore represent an essential source of RANKL for the formation of trabecula osteoclasts and resorption of cancellous bone during remodeling under physiological and pathological conditions. Targeting bone marrow adiposity is a promising way of preventing pathological bone loss.
Project description:Notch receptors maintain skeletal homeostasis. NOTCH1 and 2 have been studied for their effects on bone remodeling. Although NOTCH3 plays a significant role in vascular physiology, knowledge about its function in other cellular environments, including bone, is limited. The present study was conducted to establish the function of NOTCH3 in skeletal cells using models of Notch3 misexpression. Microcomputed tomography demonstrated that Notch3 null mice did not have appreciable bone phenotypes. To study the effects of the NOTCH3 activation in the osteoblast lineage, BGLAP-Cre or Dmp1-Cre transgenics were crossed with Rosa<sup>Notch3</sup> mice, where the NOTCH3 intracellular domain is expressed following the removal of a loxP-flanked STOP cassette. Microcomputed tomography demonstrated that BGLAP-Cre;Rosa<sup>Notch3</sup> and Dmp1-Cre;Rosa<sup>Notch3</sup> mice of both sexes exhibited an increase in trabecular bone and in connectivity, with a decrease in cortical bone and increased cortical porosity. Histological analysis revealed a decrease in osteoclast number and bone resorption in trabecular bone and an increase in osteoclast number and void or pore area in cortical bone of Rosa<sup>Notch3</sup> mice. Bone formation was either decreased or could not be determined in Cre;Rosa<sup>Notch3</sup> mice. NOTCH3 activation in osteoblasts inhibited Alpl (alkaline phosphatase) and Bglap (osteocalcin) and induced Tnfsf11 (RANKL) and Tnfrsf11b (osteoprotegerin) mRNA, possibly explaining the trabecular bone phenotype. However, NOTCH3 induced Tnfsf11 and suppressed Tnfrsf11b in osteocytes, possibly explaining the cortical porosity. In conclusion, basal NOTCH3 is dispensable for skeletal homeostasis, whereas activation of NOTCH3 in osteoblasts/osteocytes inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in cancellous bone but increases intracortical remodeling and causes cortical porosity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of continuous pumping of teriparatide (TPTD) on bone metabolism in ovariectomized and normal mice and provide experimental evidence for the selection of animal models for studying the effects of TPTD and its related peptides on osteoclasts. METHODS:Twenty-four female C57BL mice (6-weeks old) were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation followed 7 days later by continuous pumping of TPTD or the solvent vehicle (VEH) via a micropump (SHAM-VEH, SHAM-TPTD, OVX-VEH, and OVX-TPTD groups; n=6). Two weeks later, the tibial and femoral bones were harvested for micro-CT scanning to measure the parameters of the tibia and the femoral cortical bone. Histopathological examinations of the tibial tissue were conducted using HE staining and TRAP staining and the number of osteoclasts and the growth plate thickness were determined. The serum Ca2 + levels of the mice were measured. The primary osteoblasts from the cranial bone were treated with estradiol (E2) and TPTD for 48 h, and the expressions of ?-catenin and RANKL protein in the cells were analyzed. RESULTS:The trabecular bone mass of OVX mice was significantly lower than that of sham-operated mice (P < 0.05). Continuous TPTD pumping significantly reduced tibial cancellous bone mass and femoral cortical bone area in the sham-operated mice, while in the castrated mice, TPTD pumping increased the cancellous bone mass without changing the cortical bone area. TRAP staining showed that cancellous osteoblasts in the tibia increased significantly in the castrated mice as compared with the sham-operated mice, and TPTD pumping significantly increased the number of cancellous osteoblasts in the sham-operated mice (P < 0.05). In the primary cultured osteoblasts, treatment with both E2 and TPTD obviously lowered the expression of ?-catenin and increased the expression of RANKL as compared with TPTD treatment alone. CONCLUSIONS:Continuous pumping of TPTD promotes bone resorption in normal mice but does not produce obvious bone resorption effect in the ovariectomized mice, suggesting that castrated mice are not suitable models for studying the effect of TPTD and the related peptides on the osteoclasts.
Project description:The number and size of resorption cavities in cancellous bone are believed to influence rates of bone loss, local tissue stress and strain and potentially whole bone strength. Traditional two-dimensional approaches to measuring resorption cavities in cancellous bone report the percent of the bone surface covered by cavities or osteoclasts, but cannot measure cavity number or size. Here we use three-dimensional imaging (voxel size 0.7×0.7×5.0 ?m) to characterize resorption cavity location, number and size in human vertebral cancellous bone from nine elderly donors (7 male, 2 female, ages 47-80 years). Cavities were 30.10 ± 8.56 ?m in maximum depth, 80.60 ± 22.23?10(3) ?m(2) in surface area and 614.16 ± 311.93?10(3) ?m(3) in volume (mean ± SD). The average number of cavities per unit tissue volume (N.Cv/TV) was 1.25 ± 0.77 mm(-3). The ratio of maximum cavity depth to local trabecular thickness was 30.46 ± 7.03% and maximum cavity depth was greater on thicker trabeculae (p<0.05, r(2)=0.14). Half of the resorption cavities were located entirely on nodes (the intersection of two or more trabeculae) within the trabecular structure. Cavities that were not entirely on nodes were predominately on plate-like trabeculae oriented in the cranial-caudal (longitudinal) direction. Cavities on plate-like trabeculae were larger in maximum cavity depth, cavity surface area and cavity volume than cavities on rod-like trabeculae (p<0.05). We conclude from these findings that cavity size and location are related to local trabecular microarchitecture.
Project description:The amount of microdamage in bone tissue impairs mechanical performance and may act as a stimulus for bone remodeling. Here we determine how loading mode (tension vs. compression) and microstructure (trabecular microarchitecture, local trabecular thickness, and presence of resorption cavities) influence the number and volume of microdamage sites generated in cancellous bone following a single overload. Twenty paired cylindrical specimens of human vertebral cancellous bone from 10 donors (47–78 years) were mechanically loaded to apparent yield in either compression or tension, and imaged in three dimensions for microarchitecture and microdamage (voxel size 0.7×0.7×5.0 ?m3). We found that the overall proportion of damaged tissue was greater (p=0.01) for apparent tension loading (3.9±2.4%, mean±SD) than for apparent compression loading (1.9±1.3%). Individual microdamage sites generated in tension were larger in volume (p<0.001) but not more numerous (p=0.64) than sites in compression. For both loading modes, the proportion of damaged tissue varied more across donors than with bone volume fraction, traditional measures of microarchitecture (trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, etc.), apparent Young?s modulus, or strength. Microdamage tended to occur in regions of greater trabecular thickness but not near observable resorption cavities. Taken together, these findings indicate that, regardless of loading mode, accumulation of microdamage in cancellous bone after monotonic loading to yield is influenced by donor characteristics other than traditional measures of microarchitecture, suggesting a possible role for tissue material properties.
Project description:Osteocytes, >90% of the cells in bone, lie embedded within the mineralized matrix and coordinate osteoclast and osteoblast activity on bone surfaces by mechanisms still unclear. Bone anabolic stimuli activate Wnt signaling, and human mutations of components along this pathway underscore its crucial role in bone accrual and maintenance. However, the cell responsible for orchestrating Wnt anabolic actions has remained elusive. We show herein that activation of canonical Wnt signaling exclusively in osteocytes [dominant active (da)?cat(Ot) mice] induces bone anabolism and triggers Notch signaling without affecting survival. These features contrast with those of mice expressing the same daß-catenin in osteoblasts, which exhibit decreased resorption and perinatal death from leukemia. daßcat(Ot) mice exhibit increased bone mineral density in the axial and appendicular skeleton, and marked increase in bone volume in cancellous/trabecular and cortical compartments compared with littermate controls. daßcat(Ot) mice display increased resorption and formation markers, high number of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in cancellous and cortical bone, increased bone matrix production, and markedly elevated periosteal bone formation rate. Wnt and Notch signaling target genes, osteoblast and osteocyte markers, and proosteoclastogenic and antiosteoclastogenic cytokines are elevated in bones of daßcat(Ot) mice. Further, the increase in RANKL depends on Sost/sclerostin. Thus, activation of osteocytic ?-catenin signaling increases both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, leading to bone gain, and is sufficient to activate the Notch pathway. These findings demonstrate disparate outcomes of ?-catenin activation in osteocytes versus osteoblasts and identify osteocytes as central target cells of the anabolic actions of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling in bone.
Project description:To elucidate mechanisms of bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI), we evaluated the time-course of cancellous and cortical bone microarchitectural deterioration via microcomputed tomography, measured histomorphometric and circulating bone turnover indices, and characterized the development of whole bone mechanical deficits in a clinically relevant experimental SCI model. 16-weeks-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received T<sub>9</sub> laminectomy (SHAM, n = 50) or moderate-severe contusion SCI (n = 52). Outcomes were assessed at 2-weeks, 1-month, 2-months, and 3-months post-surgery. SCI produced immediate sublesional paralysis and persistent hindlimb locomotor impairment. Higher circulating tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (bone resorption marker) and lower osteoblast bone surface and histomorphometric cancellous bone formation indices were present in SCI animals at 2-weeks post-surgery, suggesting uncoupled cancellous bone turnover. Distal femoral and proximal tibial cancellous bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number were markedly lower after SCI, with the residual cancellous network exhibiting less trabecular connectivity. Periosteal bone formation indices were lower at 2-weeks and 1-month post-SCI, preceding femoral cortical bone loss and the development of bone mechanical deficits at the distal femur and femoral diaphysis. SCI animals also exhibited lower serum testosterone than SHAM, until 2-months post-surgery, and lower serum leptin throughout. Our moderate-severe contusion SCI model displayed rapid cancellous bone deterioration and more gradual cortical bone loss and development of whole bone mechanical deficits, which likely resulted from a temporal uncoupling of bone turnover, similar to the sequalae observed in the motor-complete SCI population. Low testosterone and/or leptin may contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying bone deterioration after SCI.
Project description:In traditional oriental medicine, the fruit of Forsythia suspensa has been used as a nutritional supplement to alleviate inflammation and treat gastrointestinal diseases. However, there is no information available on its beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the beneficial effects of F. suspensa water extract (WFS) on osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. The microarchitecture of trabecular bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography. Osteoclast differentiation was evaluated based on tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone resorption activity was examined on a bone-like mineral surface. The mechanism of action of WFS was assessed by evaluating the expression and activation of signaling molecules. Phytochemical constituents were identified and quantitated by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. WFS reduced ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss and inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation and resorption activity. WFS suppressed RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, a crucial transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation by decreasing c-Fos protein levels and suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase. We also identified 12 phytochemicals in WFS including lignans, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids. Collectively, these results suggest that WFS inhibits osteoclast differentiation and can potentially be used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Project description:Previously we observed that capsaicin treatment in rats inhibited sensory neuropeptide signaling, with a concurrent reduction in trabecular bone formation and bone volume, and an increase in osteoclast numbers and bone resorption. Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide richly distributed in sensory neurons innervating the skeleton and we postulated that CGRP signaling regulates bone integrity. In this study we examined CGRP effects on stromal and bone cell differentiation and activity in vitro. CGRP receptors were detected by immunocytochemical staining and real time PCR assays in mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). CGRP effects on BMSC proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation were studied using BrdU incorporation, PCR products, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization assays. CGRP effects on BMM osteoclastic differentiation and activity were determined by quantifying tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive (TRAP(+)) multinucleated cells, pit erosion area, mRNA levels of TRAP and cathepsin K, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear localization. BMSCs, osteoblasts, BMMs, and osteoclasts all expressed CGRP receptors. CGRP (10(-10)-10(-8) M) stimulated BMSC proliferation, up-regulated the expression of osteoblastic genes, and increased ALP activity and mineralization in the BMSCs. In BMM cultures CGRP (10(-8) M) inhibited receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) activation of NF-kappaB. CGRP also down-regulated osteoclastic genes like TRAP and cathepsin K, decreased the numbers of TRAP(+) cells, and inhibited bone resorption activity in RANKL stimulated BMMs. These results suggest that CGRP signaling maintains bone mass both by directly stimulating stromal cell osteoblastic differentiation and by inhibiting RANKL induced NF-kappaB activation, osteoclastogenesis, and bone resorption.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) activate the canonical Smad1/5/8 and non-canonical Tak1-MAPK pathways via BMP receptors I and II to regulate skeletal development and bone remodeling. Specific ablation of Bmpr1a in immature osteoblasts, osteoblasts, or osteocytes results in an increase in cancellous bone mass, yet opposite results have been reported regarding the underlying mechanisms. Moreover, the role for BMPRIA-mediated signaling in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) has not been explored. Here, we specifically ablated Bmpr1a in BM-MSCs in adult mice to study the function of BMPR1A in bone remodeling and found that the mutant mice showed an increase in cancellous and cortical bone mass, which was accompanied by a decrease in bone formation rate and a greater decrease in bone resorption. Decreased bone formation was associated with a defect in BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation whereas decreased bone resorption was associated with a decrease in RANKL production and osteoclastogenesis. However, ablation of Tak1, a critical non-canonical signaling molecule downstream of BMP receptors, in BM-MSCs at adult stage did not affect bone remodeling. These results suggest that BMP signaling through BMPRIA controls BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation/bone formation and RANKL expression/osteoclastogenesis in adult mice independent of Tak1 signaling.