A protective role for human IL-10-expressing CD4+ T cells in colitis.
ABSTRACT: IL-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine expressed by numerous cell types. Studies in mice confirm that different IL-10-expressing cell subsets contribute differentially to disease phenotypes. However, little is known about the relationship between cell- or tissue-specific IL-10 expression and disease susceptibility in humans. In this study, we used the previously described human (h)IL10BAC transgenic model to examine the role of hIL-10 in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Genomically controlled hIL-10 expression rescued Il10(-/-) mice from Helicobacter-induced colitis and was associated with control of proinflammatory cytokine expression and Th17 cell accumulation in gut tissues. Resistance to colitis was associated with an accumulation of hIL-10-expressing CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells specifically within the lamina propria but not other secondary lymphoid tissues. Cotransfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(lo) cells from Il10(-/-)/hIL10BAC mice rescued Rag1(-/-) mice from colitis, further suggesting that CD4(+) T cells represent a protective source of hIL-10 in the colon. In concordance with an enhanced capacity to express IL-10, CD4(+)CD44(+) T cells isolated from the lamina propria exhibited lower levels of the repressive histone mark H3K27Me3 and higher levels of the permissive histone mark acetylated histone H3 in both the human and mouse IL10 locus compared with the spleen. These results provide experimental evidence verifying the importance of T cell-derived hIL-10 expression in controlling inflammation within the colonic mucosa. We also provide molecular evidence suggesting the tissue microenvironment influences IL-10 expression patterns and chromatin structure in the human (and mouse) IL10 locus.
Project description:IL-37, a newly described member of the IL-1 family, functions as a fundamental inhibitor of innate inflammation and immunity. In the present study, we examined a role for IL-37 during experimental colitis. A transgenic mouse strain was generated to express human IL-37 (hIL-37tg), and these mice were subjected to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Despite the presence of a CMV promoter to drive expression of IL-37, mRNA transcripts were not present in colons at the resting state. Expression was observed only upon disruption of the epithelial barrier, with a six- to sevenfold increase (P = 0.02) on days 3 and 5 after continuous exposure to DSS. During the development of colitis, clinical disease scores were reduced by 50% (P < 0.001), and histological indices of colitis were one-third less in hIL-37tg mice compared with WT counterparts (P < 0.001). Reduced inflammation was associated with decreased leukocyte recruitment into the colonic lamina propria. In addition, release of IL-1? and TNF? from ex vivo colonic explant tissue was decreased 5- and 13-fold, respectively, compared with WT (P ? 0.005), whereas IL-10 was increased sixfold (P < 0.001). However, IL-10 was not required for the anti-inflammatory effects of IL-37 because IL-10-receptor antibody blockade did not reverse IL-37-mediated protection. Mechanistically, IL-37 originating from hematopoietic cells was sufficient to exert anti-inflammatory effects because WT mice reconstituted with hIL-37tg bone marrow were protected from colitis. Thus, IL-37 emerges as key modulator of intestinal inflammation.
Project description:The p110? subunit of class IA PI3K modulates signaling in innate immune cells. We previously demonstrated that mice harboring a kinase-dead p110? subunit (p110?(KD)) develop spontaneous colitis. Macrophages contributed to the Th1/Th17 cytokine bias in p110?(KD) mice through increased IL-12 and IL-23 expression. In this study, we show that the enteric microbiota is required for colitis development in germfree p110?(KD) mice. Colonic tissue and macrophages from p110?(KD) mice produce significantly less IL-10 compared with wild-type mice. p110?(KD) APCs cocultured with naive CD4+ Ag-specific T cells also produce significantly less IL-10 and induce more IFN-?- and IL-17A-producing CD4+ T cells compared with wild-type APCs. Illustrating the importance of APC-T cell interactions in colitis pathogenesis in vivo, Rag1(-/-)/p110?(KD) mice develop mild colonic inflammation and produced more colonic IL-12p40 compared with Rag1(-/-) mice. However, CD4+ CD45RB(high/low) T cell Rag1(-/-)/p110?(KD) recipient mice develop severe colitis with increased percentages of IFN-?- and IL-17A-producing lamina propria CD3+D4+ T cells compared with Rag1(-/-) recipient mice. Intestinal tissue samples from patients with Crohn's disease reveal significantly lower expression of PIK3CD compared with intestinal samples from non-inflammatory bowel disease control subjects (p < 0.05). PIK3CD expression inversely correlates with the ratio of IL12B:IL10 expression. In conclusion, the PI3K subunit p110? controls homeostatic APC-T cell interactions by altering the balance between IL-10 and IL-12/23. Defects in p110? expression and/or function may underlie the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease and lead to new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+) DCs from Il10(-/-), Tlr2(-/-), and Myd88(-/-) mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+) DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/-) T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/-) mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+) DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+) T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.
Project description:Immunological disorders of the gastrointestinal tract such as inflammatory bowel disease often result in recurrent and persistently elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) is involved in tumor necrosis factor-mediated colon epithelial cell survival, yet its role in chronic inflammation has not been defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that KSR1 is protective against spontaneous experimental colitis.KSR1(-/-)Interleukin-10 (Il10)(-/-) mice were generated and histolopathologic parameters of intestinal inflammation were scored. Bone marrow transplants performed on wild-type and KSR1(-/-)Il10(-/-) mice determined the contribution of KSR1 in hematopoietic lineages. Mucosal T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cytokine were also examined. In vitro Th1 and Th17 polarization assays were conducted and interleukin (IL)-17A and interferon-? (IFN-?) production analyzed by flow cytometry. Neutralizing antibodies against IgG, IL-17A, or IFN-? were administered to 3-week-old KSR1(-/-)Il10(-/-) mice for 3 weeks and scored for colitis.KSR1(-/-)Il10(-/-) mice developed accelerated and severe spontaneous colitis by 4 weeks of age. KSR1 expression in hematopoietic lineages was protective against colitis. Both IFN-? and IL-17A transcripts were elevated in colons of KSR1(-/-) and KSR1(-/-)Il10(-/-) mice. IFN-? production was increased in lamina propria T cells isolated from KSR1(-/-) and KSR1(-/-)Il10(-/-) mice. Additionally, in vitro Th1 polarization was increased while Th17 polarization was impaired in KSR1-deficient naïve T cells. Finally, administration of IFN-? neutralizing antibodies attenuated colitis in KSR1(-/-)Il10(-/-) mice.Mice lacking both KSR1 and IL-10 develop exacerbated colitis due to dysregulated IFN-? production in T lymphocytes.
Project description:The levels of some murine mRNAs and proteins are expressed discrepantly between the central immune system and the gut immune system in murine colitis. It was possible that RNA interference would result in some of the discrepancy. Thus, we compared microRNAs that are expressed in CD4+ T cells of spleen (SP) and lamina propria (LP) using Il-10+/- mice (C57BL/6 background) in order to reveal the role of miRNAs in murine colitis. Using 10-week-old female Il-10+/- mice, we investigated the difference in miRNA expressions between CD4+ T cells of spleen and that of lamina propria.
Project description:The levels of some murine mRNAs and proteins are expressed discrepantly between the central immune system and the gut immune system in murine colitis. It was possible that RNA interference would result in some of the discrepancy. Thus, we compared microRNAs that are expressed in CD4+ T cells of spleen (SP) and lamina propria (LP) using Il-10+/- mice (C57BL/6 background) in order to reveal the role of miRNAs in murine colitis. Overall design: Using 10-week-old female Il-10+/- mice, we investigated the difference in miRNA expressions between CD4+ T cells of spleen and that of lamina propria.
Project description:Mucosal immune dysregulation associated with T cells plays a critical role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the definite significances of these cells in IBD still remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the population and expression of CD4+CD161+ T cells in the colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) in patients with IBD by analyses using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels in both LPMCs and CD4+ T cells in lamina propria (LP-CD4+ T cells) were measured using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. IL-10 production was investigated with immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that the population of CD4+CD161+ T cells was significantly decreased in active ulcerative colitis (UC) compared with inactive UC (P < 0.05). The CD4+CD161+ T cell population was inversely correlated with disease activity in patients with UC (r = -0.6326, P = 0.0055), but there was no significant correlation in those with Crohn's disease. Over-expression of IL-10 mRNA in both LPMCs and LP-CD4+ T cells were detected in active UC. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased frequency of CD161+ cells and increased IL-10 positive cells in active UC. The frequency of CD4+CD161+ T cells and IL-10 expression was supposed to be associated with the pathological status of mucosal immunoregulation in IBD.
Project description:Although IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine reportedly involved in various autoimmune inflammatory disorders, its role remains unclear in murine models of colitis. Acute colitis was induced by 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 5 days. A novel sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist W-061, a prototype of ONO-4641, was orally administered daily, and histopathological analysis was performed on the colon. The number of lymphocytes and their cytokine production were also evaluated in spleen, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patch and lamina propria of the colon. Daily administration of W-061 resulted in improvement of DSS-induced colitis, and significantly reduced the number of CD4+ T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Numbers of both Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by W-061 treatment. W-061, however, had no influence on the number of Treg cells in lamina propria. Thus, Th17 and Th1 cells in lamina propria were thought to be the key subsets in the pathogenesis of DSS-induced colitis. In conclusion, W-061 may be a novel therapeutic strategy to ameliorate acute aggravation of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Project description:Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), some HIV-infected persons maintain lower than normal CD4(+) T-cell counts in peripheral blood and in the gut mucosa. This incomplete immune restoration is associated with higher levels of immune activation manifested by high systemic levels of biomarkers, including sCD14 and D-dimer, that are independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. In this 12-week, single-arm, open-label study, we tested the efficacy of IL-7 adjunctive therapy on T-cell reconstitution in peripheral blood and gut mucosa in 23 ART suppressed HIV-infected patients with incomplete CD4(+) T-cell recovery, using one cycle (consisting of three subcutaneous injections) of recombinant human IL-7 (r-hIL-7) at 20 µg/kg. IL-7 administration led to increases of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in peripheral blood, and importantly an expansion of T-cells expressing the gut homing integrin ?4?7. Participants who underwent rectosigmoid biopsies at study baseline and after treatment had T-cell increases in the gut mucosa measured by both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. IL-7 therapy also resulted in apparent improvement in gut barrier integrity as measured by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the rectosigmoid lamina propria 12 weeks after IL-7 administration. This was also accompanied by decreased TNF and increased FOXP3 expression in the lamina propria. Plasma levels of sCD14 and D-dimer, indicative of systemic inflammation, decreased after r-hIL-7. Increases of colonic mucosal T-cells correlated strongly with the decreased systemic levels of sCD14, the LPS coreceptor - a marker of monocyte activation. Furthermore, the proportion of inflammatory monocytes expressing CCR2 was decreased, as was the basal IL-1? production of peripheral blood monocytes. These data suggest that administration of r-hIL-7 improves the gut mucosal abnormalities of chronic HIV infection and attenuates the systemic inflammatory and coagulation abnormalities that have been linked to it.
Project description:Regulation of innate inflammatory responses against the enteric microbiota is essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Key participants in innate defenses are macrophages. In these studies, the basic leucine zipper protein, NFIL3, is identified as a regulatory transcription factor in macrophages, controlling IL-12 p40 production induced by bacterial products and the enteric microbiota. Exposure to commensal bacteria and bacterial products induced NFIL3 in cultured macrophages and in vivo. The Il12b promoter has a putative DNA-binding element for NFIL3. Basal and LPS-activated NFIL3 binding to this site was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. LPS-induced Il12b promoter activity was inhibited by NFIL3 expression and augmented by NFIL3-short hairpin RNA in an Il12b-bacterial artificial chromosome-GFP reporter macrophage line. Il12b inhibition by NFIL3 does not require IL-10 expression, but a C-terminal minimal repression domain is necessary. Furthermore, colonic CD11b(+) lamina propria mononuclear cells from Nfil3(-/-) mice spontaneously expressed Il12b mRNA. Importantly, lower expression of NFIL3 was observed in CD14(+) lamina propria mononuclear cells from Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients compared with control subjects. Likewise, no induction of Nfil3 was observed in colons of colitis-prone Il10(-/-) mice transitioned from germ-free to a conventional microbiota. In conclusion, these experiments characterize NFIL3 as an Il12b transcriptional inhibitor. Interactions of macrophages with the enteric microbiota induce NFIL3 to limit their inflammatory capacity. Furthermore, altered intestinal NFIL3 expression may have implications for the pathogenesis of experimental and human inflammatory bowel diseases.