Transient interactions of a slow-folding protein with the Hsp70 chaperone machinery.
ABSTRACT: Most known proteins have at least one local Hsp70 chaperone binding site. Does this mean that all proteins interact with Hsp70 as they fold? This study makes an initial step to address the above question by examining the interaction of the E.coli Hsp70 chaperone (known as DnaK) and its co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE with a slow-folding E.coli substrate, RNase H(D). Importantly, this protein is a nonobligatory client, and it is able to fold in vitro even in the absence of chaperones. We employ stopped-flow mixing, chromatography, and activity assays to analyze the kinetic perturbations induced by DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE (K/J/E) on the folding of RNase H(D). We find that K/J/E slows down RNase H(D)'s apparent folding, consistent with the presence of transient chaperone-substrate interactions. However, kinetic retardation is moderate for this slow-folding client and it is expected to be even smaller for faster-folding substrates. Given that the interaction of folding-competent substrates such as RNase H(D) with the K/J/E chaperones is relatively short-lived, it does not significantly interfere with the timely production of folded biologically active substrate. The above mode of action is important because it preserves K/J/E bioavailability, enabling this chaperone system to act primarily by assisting the folding of other misfolded and (or) aggregation-prone cellular proteins that are unable to fold independently. When refolding is carried out in the presence of K/J and absence of the nucleotide exchange factor GrpE, some of the substrate population becomes trapped as a chaperone-bound partially unfolded state.
Project description:The conserved, ATP-dependent bacterial DnaK chaperones process client substrates with the aid of the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE. However, in the absence of structural information, how these proteins communicate with each other cannot be fully delineated. For the study reported here, we solved the crystal structure of a full-length Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 GrpE homodimer in complex with a nearly full-length G. kaustophilus HTA426 DnaK that contains the interdomain linker (acting as a pseudo-substrate), and the N-terminal nucleotide-binding and C-terminal substrate-binding domains at 4.1-Å resolution. Each complex contains two DnaKs and two GrpEs, which is a stoichiometry that has not been found before. The long N-terminal GrpE α-helices stabilize the linker of DnaK in the complex. Furthermore, interactions between the DnaK substrate-binding domain and the N-terminal disordered region of GrpE may accelerate substrate release from DnaK. These findings provide molecular mechanisms for substrate binding, processing, and release during the Hsp70 chaperone cycle.
Project description:The ATP-dependent Hsp70 chaperones (DnaK in E. coli) mediate protein folding in cooperation with J proteins and nucleotide exchange factors (E. coli DnaJ and GrpE, respectively). The Hsp70 system prevents protein aggregation and increases folding yields. Whether it also enhances the rate of folding remains unclear. Here we show that DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE accelerate the folding of the multi-domain protein firefly luciferase (FLuc) ~20-fold over the rate of spontaneous folding measured in the absence of aggregation. Analysis by single-pair FRET and hydrogen/deuterium exchange identified inter-domain misfolding as the cause of slow folding. DnaK binding expands the misfolded region and thereby resolves the kinetically-trapped intermediates, with folding occurring upon GrpE-mediated release. In each round of release DnaK commits a fraction of FLuc to fast folding, circumventing misfolding. We suggest that by resolving misfolding and accelerating productive folding, the bacterial Hsp70 system can maintain proteins in their native states under otherwise denaturing stress conditions.
Project description:The Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones participates in vital cellular processes including the heat shock response and protein homeostasis. E. coli's Hsp70, known as DnaK, works in concert with the DnaJ and GrpE co-chaperones (K/J/E chaperone system), and mediates cotranslational and post-translational protein folding in the cytoplasm. While the role of the K/J/E chaperones is well understood in the presence of large substrates unable to fold independently, it is not known if and how K/J/E modulates the folding of smaller proteins able to fold even in the absence of chaperones. Here, we combine experiments and computation to evaluate the significance of kinetic partitioning as a model to describe the interplay between protein folding and binding to the K/J/E chaperone system. First, we target three nonobligatory substrates, that is, proteins that do not require chaperones to fold. The experimentally observed chaperone association of these client proteins during folding is entirely consistent with predictions from kinetic partitioning. Next, we develop and validate a computational model (CHAMP70) that assumes kinetic partitioning of substrates between folding and interaction with K/J/E. CHAMP70 quantitatively predicts the experimentally measured interaction of RNase H(D) as it refolds in the presence of various chaperones. CHAMP70 shows that substrates are posed to interact with K/J/E only if they are slow-folding proteins with a folding rate constant k(f) <50 s?¹, and/or thermodynamically unstable proteins with a folding free energy ?G? (UN) ?-2 kcal mol?¹. Hence, the K/J/E system is tuned to use specific protein folding rates and thermodynamic stabilities as substrate selection criteria.
Project description:Hsp70 chaperones comprise two domains, the nucleotide-binding domain (Hsp70NBD), responsible for structural and functional changes in the chaperone, and the substrate-binding domain (Hsp70SBD), involved in substrate interaction. Substrate binding and release in Hsp70 is controlled by the nucleotide state of DnaKNBD, with ATP inducing the open, substrate-receptive DnaKSBD conformation, whereas ADP forces its closure. DnaK cycles between the two conformations through interaction with two cofactors, the Hsp40 co-chaperones (DnaJ in Escherichia coli) induce the ADP state, and the nucleotide exchange factors (GrpE in E. coli) induce the ATP state. X-ray crystallography showed that the GrpE dimer is a nucleotide exchange factor that works by interaction of one of its monomers with DnaKNBD. DnaKSBD location in this complex is debated; there is evidence that it interacts with the GrpE N-terminal disordered region, far from DnaKNBD. Although we confirmed this interaction using biochemical and biophysical techniques, our EM-based three-dimensional reconstruction of the DnaK-GrpE complex located DnaKSBD near DnaKNBD. This apparent discrepancy between the functional and structural results is explained by our finding that the tail region of the GrpE dimer in the DnaK-GrpE complex bends and its tip contacts DnaKSBD, whereas the DnaKNBD-DnaKSBD linker contacts the GrpE helical region. We suggest that these interactions define a more complex role for GrpE in the control of DnaK function.
Project description:The 70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) function as molecular chaperones through the allosteric coupling of their nucleotide- and substrate-binding domains, the structures of which are highly conserved. In contrast, the roles of the poorly structured, variable length C-terminal regions present on Hsp70s remain unclear. In many eukaryotic Hsp70s, the extreme C-terminal EEVD tetrapeptide sequence associates with co-chaperones via binding to tetratricopeptide repeat domains. It is not known whether this is the only function for this region in eukaryotic Hsp70s and what roles this region performs in Hsp70s that do not form complexes with tetratricopeptide repeat domains. We compared C-terminal sequences of 730 Hsp70 family members and identified a novel conservation pattern in a diverse subset of 165 bacterial and organellar Hsp70s. Mutation of conserved C-terminal sequence in DnaK, the predominant Hsp70 in Escherichia coli, results in significant impairment of its protein refolding activity in vitro without affecting interdomain allostery, interaction with co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE, or the binding of a peptide substrate, defying classical explanations for the chaperoning mechanism of Hsp70. Moreover, mutation of specific conserved sites within the DnaK C terminus reduces the capacity of the cell to withstand stresses on protein folding caused by elevated temperature or the absence of other chaperones. These features of the C-terminal region support a model in which it acts as a disordered tether linked to a conserved, weak substrate-binding motif and that this enhances chaperone function by transiently interacting with folding clients.
Project description:It is well established that chaperones modulate the protein folding free-energy landscape. However, the molecular determinants underlying chaperone-mediated mechanical folding remain largely elusive, primarily because the force-extended unfolded conformation fundamentally differs from that characterized in biochemistry experiments. We use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy, combined with molecular dynamics simulations, to study the effect that the Hsp70 system has on the mechanical folding of three mechanically stiff model proteins. Our results demonstrate that, when working independently, DnaJ (Hsp40) and DnaK (Hsp70) work as holdases, blocking refolding by binding to distinct substrate conformations. Whereas DnaK binds to molten globule-like forms, DnaJ recognizes a cryptic sequence in the extended state in an unanticipated force-dependent manner. By contrast, the synergetic coupling of the Hsp70 system exhibits a marked foldase behavior. Our results offer unprecedented molecular and kinetic insights into the mechanisms by which mechanical force finely regulates chaperone binding, directly affecting protein elasticity.
Project description:The 70-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp70s) function as molecular chaperones in a wide variety of cellular processes through cycles of binding and release from substrate proteins coupled to cycles of ATP hydrolysis. In the prokaryote Escherichia coli, the hsp70 DnaK functions with two other proteins, DnaJ and GrpE, which modulate the activity of DnaK. While numerous hsp70s and DnaJ-related proteins have been identified in eukaryotes, to our knowledge no GrpE-related proteins have been reported. We report the isolation and characterization of a eukaryotic grpE-related gene, MGE1. MGE1, an essential nuclear gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes a soluble protein of the mitochondrial matrix. Cells with reduced expression of Mge1p accumulate the precursor form of a mitochondrial protein. Since mitochondrial hsp70 is required for translocation of precursors of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into the matrix of mitochondria, these data suggest that Mge1p acts in concert with mitochondrial hsp70 in protein translocation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In 2004, we discovered an atypical protein in metagenomic data from marine thaumarchaeotal species. This protein, referred as DnaJ-Fer, is composed of a J domain fused to a Ferredoxin (Fer) domain. Surprisingly, the same protein was also found in Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants). Because J domain-containing proteins are known to interact with the major chaperone DnaK/Hsp70, this suggested that a DnaK protein was present in Thaumarchaeota. DnaK/Hsp70, its co-chaperone DnaJ and the nucleotide exchange factor GrpE are involved, among others, in heat shocks and heavy metal cellular stress responses. RESULTS: Using phylogenomic approaches we have investigated the evolutionary history of the DnaJ-Fer protein and of interacting proteins DnaK, DnaJ and GrpE in Thaumarchaeota. These proteins have very complex histories, involving several inter-domain horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) to explain the contemporary distribution of these proteins in archaea. These transfers include one from Cyanobacteria to Viridiplantae and one from Viridiplantae to Thaumarchaeota for the DnaJ-Fer protein, as well as independent HGTs from Bacteria to mesophilic archaea for the DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE system, followed by HGTs among mesophilic and thermophilic archaea. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the chimerical origin of the set of proteins DnaK, DnaJ, GrpE and DnaJ-Fer in Thaumarchaeota and suggest that the HGT of these proteins has played an important role in the adaptation of several archaeal groups to mesophilic and thermophilic environments from hyperthermophilic ancestors. Finally, the evolutionary history of DnaJ-Fer provides information useful for the relative dating of the diversification of Archaeplastida and Thaumarchaeota.
Project description:Hsp70 chaperones assist protein folding by ATP-controlled cycles of substrate binding and release. ATP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of the ATPase cycle that causes locking in of substrates into the substrate-binding cavity of Hsp70. This key step is strongly stimulated by DnaJ cochaperones. We show for the Escherichia coli Hsp70 homolog, DnaK, that stimulation by DnaJ requires the linked ATPase and substrate-binding domains of DnaK. Functional interaction with DnaJ is affected by mutations in an exposed channel located in the ATPase domain of DnaK. It is proposed that binding to this channel, possibly involving the J-domain, allows DnaJ to couple substrate binding with ATP hydrolysis by DnaK. Evolutionary conservation of the channel and the J-domain suggests conservation of the mechanism of action of DnaJ proteins.
Project description:We have identified and reconstituted a multicomponent redox-chaperone network that appears to be designed to protect proteins against stress-induced unfolding and to refold proteins when conditions return to normal. The central player is Hsp33, a redox-regulated molecular chaperone. Hsp33, which is activated by disulfide bond formation and subsequent dimerization, works as an efficient chaperone holdase that binds to unfolding protein intermediates and maintains them in a folding competent conformation. Reduction of Hsp33 is catalyzed by the glutaredoxin and thioredoxin systems in vivo, and leads to the formation of highly active, reduced Hsp33 dimers. Reduction of Hsp33 is necessary but not sufficient for substrate protein release. Substrate dissociation from Hsp33 is linked to the presence of the DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE foldase system, which alone, or in concert with the GroEL/GroES system, then supports the refolding of the substrate proteins. Upon substrate release, reduced Hsp33 dimers dissociate into inactive monomers. This regulated substrate transfer ultimately links substrate release and Hsp33 inactivation to the presence of available DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE, and, therefore, to the return of cells to non-stress conditions.