ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Resistant viruses may emerge in the female genital tract during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to identify predictors of drug-resistant HIV-1 RNA in genital secretions after initiation of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy. DESIGN:We conducted a prospective cohort study with periodic evaluation of plasma and genital swab samples for HIV-1 RNA levels and antiretroviral resistance mutations. METHODS:First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, 6, and 12. Genotypic resistance testing was performed for samples from all participants with RNA >1000 copies per milliliter at month 6 or 12. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with incident genital tract resistance. RESULTS:Detectable genital tract resistance developed in 5 women, all with detectable plasma resistance (estimated incidence, 5.5/100 person-years of observation). Treatment interruption >48 hours, adherence by pill count, adherence by visual analog scale, and baseline plasma viral load were associated with incident genital tract resistance. In multivariate analysis, only treatment interruption was associated with risk of detectable genital tract resistance (adjusted hazard ratio: 14.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 158.4). CONCLUSIONS:Treatment interruption >48 hours during nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy led to a significantly increased risk of detecting genotypically resistant HIV-1 RNA in female genital tract secretions. Patient- and program-level interventions to prevent treatment interruptions could reduce the risk of shedding-resistant HIV-1 during ART.
Project description:If strategies currently in development succeed in eradicating HIV reservoirs in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, residual sources of virus may remain in anatomic compartments. Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 12 individuals enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled therapeutic vaccine clinical trial in people with HIV (PWH) who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute or early infection (ClinicalTrials registration no. NCT01859325). After the week 56 visit (postintervention), all participants interrupted ART. At the first available time points after viral rebound, we sequenced HIV-1 <i>env</i> (C2-V3), <i>gag</i> (p24), and <i>pol</i> (reverse transcriptase) regions amplified from cell-free HIV RNA in blood and seminal plasma using the MiSeq Illumina platform. Comprehensive sequence and phylogenetic analyses were performed to evaluate viral population structure, compartmentalization, and viral diversity in blood and seminal plasma. Compared to that in blood, HIV RNA rebound in semen occurred significantly later (median of 66 versus 42?days post-ART interruption, <i>P</i> < 0.01) and reached lower levels (median 164 versus 16,090 copies/ml, <i>P</i> < 0.01). Three of five participants with available sequencing data presented compartmentalized viral rebound between blood and semen in one HIV coding region. Despite early ART initiation, HIV RNA molecular diversity was higher in semen than in blood in all three coding regions for most participants. Higher HIV RNA molecular diversity in the genital tract (compared to that in blood plasma) and evidence of compartmentalization illustrate the distinct evolutionary dynamics between these two compartments after ART interruption. Future research should evaluate whether the genital compartment might contribute to viral rebound in some PWH interrupting ART.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> To cure HIV, we likely need to target the reservoirs in all anatomic compartments. Here, we used sophisticated statistical and phylogenetic methods to analyze blood and semen samples collected from 12 persons with HIV who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) during very early HIV infection and who interrupted their ART as part of a clinical trial. First, we found that HIV RNA rebound in semen occurred significantly later and reached lower levels than in blood. Second, we found that the virus in semen was genetically different in some participants compared to that in blood. Finally, we found increased HIV RNA molecular diversity in semen compared to that in blood in almost all study participants. These data suggest that the HIV RNA populations emerging from the genital compartment after ART interruption might not be the same as those emerging from blood plasma. Future research should evaluate whether the genital compartment might contribute to viral rebound in some people with HIV (PWH) interrupting ART.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 presents a challenge to the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To examine mechanisms leading to MDR variants in infected individuals, we studied recombination between single viral genomes from the genital tract and plasma of a woman initiating ART. We determined HIV-1 RNA sequences and drug resistance profiles of 159 unique viral variants obtained before ART and semiannually for 4 years thereafter. Soon after initiating zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine, resistant variants and intrapatient HIV-1 recombinants were detected in both compartments; the recombinants had inherited genetic material from both genital and plasma-derived viruses. Twenty-three unique recombinants were documented during 4 years of therapy, comprising ~22% of variants. Most recombinant genomes displayed similar breakpoints and clustered phylogenetically, suggesting evolution from common ancestors. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated that MDR recombinants were common and persistent, demonstrating that recombination, in addition to point mutation, can contribute to the evolution of MDR HIV-1 in viremic individuals.
Project description:Background. ?The accumulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resistance mutations can compromise treatment outcomes and promote transmission of drug-resistant virus. We conducted a study to determine the duration and evolution of genotypic drug resistance in the female genital tract among HIV-1-infected women failing first-line therapy. Methods. ?Treatment failure was diagnosed based on World Health Organization (WHO) clinical or immunologic criteria, and second-line therapy was initiated. Stored plasma and genital samples were tested to determine the presence and timing of virologic failure and emergence of drug resistance. The median duration of genital shedding of genotypically resistant virus prior to regimen switch was estimated. Results. ?Nineteen of 184 women were diagnosed with treatment failure, of whom 12 (63.2%) had confirmed virologic failure at the switch date. All 12 women with virologic failure (viral load, 5855-1 086 500 copies/mL) had dual-class resistance in plasma. Seven of the 12 (58.3%) had genital HIV-1 RNA levels high enough to amplify (673-116 494 copies/swab), all with dual-class resistance. The median time from detection of resistance in stored samples to regimen switch was 895 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 130-1414 days) for plasma and 629 days (95% CI, 341-984 days) for genital tract secretions. Conclusions. ?Among women diagnosed with treatment failure using WHO clinical or immunologic criteria, over half had virologic failure confirmed in stored samples. Resistant HIV-1 RNA was shed in the genital tract at detectable levels for ?1.7 years before failure diagnosis, with steady accumulation of mutations. These findings add urgency to the ongoing scale-up of viral load testing in resource-limited settings.
Project description:We reported previously that the prevalence of drug-resistant HIV-1 among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals in Northern Vietnam was 2.9% in 2007 and 6.2% in 2008. To investigate the continuing trend of prevalence, we collected plasma samples from 958 individuals in Hai Phong and Hanoi in 2009, extracted viral RNA from HIV-1 antibody-positive samples, and analyzed them genetically. HIV-1 antibody prevalence was 26.8% in injecting drug users (n=302), 13.4% in female sex workers (n=284), 0.5% in blood donors (n=206), and 0.6% in pregnant women (n=166). All HIV-1 strains were CRF01_AE. Nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations were found in two (2.0%) of the 102 successfully analyzed cases (one case with the Y181C and one with the K101E). No nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor resistance or protease inhibitor resistance mutations were detected. The prevalence of circulating ART-resistant HIV-1 in Northern Vietnam did not increase from 2007 to 2009, although the rate of ART coverage did increase.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>It is not known if fluctuations in genital tract antiretroviral drug concentrations correlate with genital virus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART).<h4>Methods</h4>Among 20 HIV-infected women on ART (tenofovir [TFV], emtricitabine [FTC], and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir [ATV]) with suppressed plasma virus loads, blood and cervicovaginal samples collected twice weekly for 3 weeks were tested for antiretroviral concentrations, HIV-1 RNA, and proviral DNA.<h4>Results</h4>Cervicovaginal:plasma antiretroviral concentration ratios were highest for FTC (11.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.66-16.3), then TFV (3.52, 95% CI, 2.27-5.48), and ATV (2.39, 95% CI, 1.69-3.38). Within- and between-person variations in plasma and genital antiretroviral concentrations were observed. Low amounts of genital HIV-1 RNA (<50 copies/mL) were detected in 45% of women at 16% of visits. Genital HIV-1 DNA was detected in 70% of women at 35% of visits. Genital virus detection was associated with higher concentrations of mucosal leukocytes but not with genital antiretroviral concentrations, menstrual cycle phase, bacterial vaginosis, genital bleeding, or plasma virus detection.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Standard doses of ART achieved higher genital than plasma concentrations across the menstrual cycle. Therapeutic ART suppresses genital virus shedding throughout the menstrual cycle, even in the presence of factors reported to increase virus shedding.
Project description:Rilpivirine (RPV), dapivirine (DPV), and MIV-150 are in development as microbicides. It is not known whether they will block infection of circulating nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of DPV and MIV-150 is compromised by many resistant viruses containing single or double substitutions. High DPV genital tract concentrations from DPV ring use may block replication of resistant viruses. However, MIV-150 genital tract concentrations may be insufficient to inhibit many resistant viruses, including those harboring K103N or Y181C.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Determine the frequency of genital HIV-1 shedding in a large cohort of women on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) and its association with mucosal inflammation.<h4>Design</h4>We measured levels of HIV-1 RNA and inflammation biomarkers in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) from HIV-seropositive women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).<h4>Methods</h4>HIV-1 was quantified (Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay) from CVL samples of 332 WIHS participants with and without clinical evidence of genital inflammation at the time of CVL collection; participants had suppressed plasma viral load (PVL; limit of quantitation less than 20-4000?copies/ml depending on year of collection) for a median of 7.1 years [interquartile range (IQR) 3.4-9.8, Group 1] or for a median of 1.0 years (IQR?=?0.5-1.0, Group 2). Twenty-two biomarkers of inflammation were measured in CVL to compare with clinical markers.<h4>Results</h4>HIV-1 was detected in 47% of 38 pre-ART CVL samples (median 668?copies/ml) and detection in CVL was associated with higher pre-ART PVL. HIV-1 was detected in only 1 of 38 CVL samples from these women on suppressive antiretroviral therapy for 1 year. No HIV-1 RNA was detected in 294 CVL samples from a cross-sectional set of women with suppressed PVL for a median of 7 years. Clinical inflammation markers were correlated with inflammatory biomarkers in CVL specimens, although genital inflammation was not associated with measurable genital HIV-1 shedding in these WIHS participants on ART.<h4>Conclusion</h4>ART that suppresses HIV-1 in the plasma of women also prevents genital tract HIV-1 shedding, even in the presence of genital tract inflammation.
Project description:Detectable HIV-1 in body compartments can lead to transmission and antiretroviral resistance. Although sex differences in viral shedding have been demonstrated, mechanisms and magnitude are unclear. We compared RNA levels in blood, genital-secretions and saliva; and drug resistance in plasma and genital-secretions of men and women starting/changing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 5077 study.Blood, saliva and genital-secretions (compartment fluids) were collected from HIV-infected adults (? 13 years) at 14 United-States sites, who were initiating or changing ART with plasma viral load (VL) ? 2,000 copies/mL. VL testing was performed on all compartment fluids and HIV resistance genotyping on plasma and genital-secretions. Spearman rank correlations were used to evaluate concordance and Fisher's and McNemar's exact tests to compare VL between sexes and among compartments.Samples were available for 143 subjects; 36% treated (23 men, 29 women) and 64% 'untreated' (40 men, 51 women). RNA detection was significantly more frequent in plasma (100%) than genital-secretions (57%) and saliva (64%) (P<0.001). A higher proportion of men had genital shedding versus women (78% versus 41%), and RNA detection was more frequent in saliva versus genital-secretions in women when adjusted for censoring at the limit of assay detection. Inter-compartment fluid VL concordance was low in both sexes. In 22 (13 men, 9 women) paired plasma-genital-secretion genotypes from treated subjects, most had detectable resistance in both plasma (77%) and genital-secretions (68%). Resistance discordance was observed between compartments in 14% of subjects.HIV shedding and drug resistance detection prior to initiation/change of ART in ACTG 5077 subjects differed among tissues and between sexes, making the gold standard blood-plasma compartment assessment not fully representative of HIV at other tissue sites. Mechanisms of potential sex-dependent tissue compartmentalization should be further characterized to aid in optimizing treatment and prevention of HIV transmission.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00007488.
Project description:A vaginal ring containing dapivirine (DPV) has shown moderate protective efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition, but the activity of DPV against efavirenz (EFV)- and nevirapine (NVP)-resistant viruses that could be transmitted is not well defined. We investigated DPV cross-resistance of subtype C HIV-1 from individuals on failing NVP- or EFV-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. Plasma samples were obtained from individuals with >10,000 copies of HIV RNA/ml and with HIV-1 containing at least one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI) mutation. Susceptibility to NVP, EFV, and DPV in TZM-bl cells was determined for recombinant HIV-1LAI containing bulk-amplified, plasma-derived, full-length reverse transcriptase sequences. Fold change (FC) values were calculated compared with a composite 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) from 12 recombinant subtype C HIV-1LAI plasma-derived viruses from treatment-naive individuals in South Africa. A total of 25/100 (25%) samples showed >500-FCs to DPV compared to treatment-naive samples with IC50s exceeding the maximum DPV concentration tested (132 ng/ml). A total of 66/100 (66%) samples displayed 3- to 306-FCs, with a median IC50 of 17.6 ng/ml. Only 9/100 (9%) samples were susceptible to DPV (FC < 3). Mutations L100I and K103N were significantly more frequent in samples with >500-fold resistance to DPV compared to samples with a ?500-fold resistance. A total of 91% of samples with NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 from individuals on failing first-line ART in South Africa exhibited ?3-fold cross-resistance to DPV. This level of resistance exceeds expected plasma concentrations, but very high genital tract DPV concentrations from DPV ring use could block viral replication. It is critically important to assess the frequency of transmitted and selected DPV resistance in individuals using the DPV ring.
Project description:In sub-Saharan Africa, most HIV-infected patients receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) without virological monitoring. Longitudinal data on secondary resistance are rare.We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected adults initiating ART in 3 clinics using computerized monitoring systems. Patients had plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) tests at months 12 (M12) and 24 (M24) after ART initiation and HIV-1 resistance genotype tests if VL was detectable (≥300 copies/mL).Overall, 1573 patients initiated ART with stavudine/zidovudine plus lamivudine plus nevirapine/efavirenz. At M12 and M24, 944 and 844 patients, respectively, remained in active follow-up. Among them, 25% (M12) and 27% (M24) had detectable VLs and 12% (M12) and 19% (M24) had virus resistant to at least 1 antiretroviral drug, accounting for 54% (M12) and 75% (M24) of patients with detectable VLs. Among the resistant strains, 95% (M12) and 97% (M24) were resistant to lamivudine/emtricitabine, efavirenz, and/or nevirapine, the frequency of thymidine analog mutations increased from 8.1% (M12) to 14.7% (M24) and etravirine resistance increased from 13.5% (M12) to 24.5% (M24).Of the patients with detectable VLs at M24, 25% still did not harbor resistant virus. Preventing mutations from emerging with adherence reinforcement in patients with detectable VLs remains important beyond M24. Switching therapy early in patients with resistance to 3 TC/FTC and/or to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to prevent extended resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and etravirine resistance from occurring is also a major challenge.