Plasmacytoid dendritic cells promote host defense against acute pneumovirus infection via the TLR7-MyD88-dependent signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. In human infants, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are recruited to the nasal compartment during infection and initiate host defense through the secretion of type I IFN, IL-12, and IL-6. However, RSV-infected pDC are refractory to TLR7-mediated activation. In this study, we used the rodent-specific pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), to determine the contribution of pDC and TLR7 signaling to the development of the innate inflammatory and early adaptive immune response. In wild-type, but not TLR7- or MyD88-deficient mice, PVM inoculation led to a marked infiltration of pDC and increased expression of type I, II, and III IFNs. The delayed induction of IFNs in the absence of TLR7 or MyD88 was associated with a diminished innate inflammatory response and augmented virus recovery from lung tissue. In the absence of TLR7, PVM-specific CD8(+) T cell cytokine production was abrogated. The adoptive transfer of TLR7-sufficient, but not TLR7-deficient pDC to TLR7 gene-deleted mice recapitulated the antiviral responses observed in wild-type mice and promoted virus clearance. In summary, TLR7-mediated signaling by pDC is required for appropriate innate responses to acute pneumovirus infection. It is conceivable that as-yet-unidentified defects in the TLR7 signaling pathway may be associated with elevated levels of RSV-associated morbidity and mortality among otherwise healthy human infants.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory infectious disease in infants and young children. Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MACs) are known to play important roles in RSV recognition, and in the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokine in RSV infection. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) are known to be important for the RSV sensing pathway in DCs and MACs. However, despite the critical roles of type I IFNs in the anti-RSV immune response, the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are required for RSV sensing in DCs and MACs remain unclear. Here, we investigate the pathway activated by RSV A2 strain infection using an IFN-?/YFP reporter mouse model to visualize IFN-?-producing cells and in vitro RSV infection in bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) and macrophages (BM-DMs). We present our finding that MyD88, but not TLR7, are important for RSV recognition and type I IFN and pro-inflammatory production in DCs and MACs. MAVS-deficient BM-DCs and BM-DMs show impaired induction of IFN-? production upon RSV stimulation, and this effect is RSV replication-dependent. Our study provides information on cell type-specific PRR requirements in innate immune responses against RSV infection.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections, especially in infants. Lung neutrophilia is a hallmark of RSV disease but the mechanism by which neutrophils are recruited and activated is unclear. Here, we investigate the innate immune signaling pathways underlying neutrophil recruitment and activation in RSV-infected mice. We show that MyD88/TRIF signaling is essential for lung neutrophil recruitment while MAVS signaling, leading to type I IFN production, is necessary for neutrophil activation. Consistent with that notion, administration of type I IFNs to the lungs of RSV-infected Mavs-/- mice partially activates lung neutrophils recruited via the MyD88/TRIF pathway. Conversely, lack of neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of RSV-infected Myd88/Trif-/- mice can be corrected by administration of chemoattractants and those neutrophils become fully activated. Interestingly, Myd88/Trif-/- mice did not have increased lung viral loads during RSV infection, suggesting that neutrophils are dispensable for viral control. Thus, two distinct pathogen sensing pathways collaborate for neutrophil recruitment and full activation during RSV infection.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a risk factor for subsequent asthma. We showed previously that toll-like receptor (TLR)7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for protection against bronchiolitis and asthma in mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the mouse homolog of RSV. This lack of redundancy was unexpected as interferon-? promotor stimulator-1 (IPS-1) signalling, downstream of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and not TLR7 activation, contributes to host defence in hRSV-inoculated adult mice. To further clarify the role of IPS-1 signalling, we inoculated IPS-1-/- and WT mice with PVM in early-life, and again in later-life, to model the association between bronchiolitis and asthma. IPS-1 deficiency predisposed to severe PVM bronchiolitis, characterised by neutrophilic inflammation and necroptotic airway epithelial cell death, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and IL-33 release, and downstream type-2 inflammation. Secondary infection induced an eosinophilic asthma-like pathophysiology in IPS-1-/- but not WT mice. Mechanistically, we identified that IPS-1 is necessary for pDC recruitment, IFN-? production and viral control. Our findings suggest that TLR7 and RLR signalling work collaboratively to optimally control the host response to pneumovirus infection thereby protecting against viral bronchiolitis and subsequent asthma.
Project description:Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a critical role in antiviral immunity through their ability to produce large amounts of type I IFNs. Activation of pDCs upon viral infection has been shown to be dependent on MyD88 and mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 9, which sense viral ssRNA and CpG DNA, respectively. In this study, we showed that murine pDC recognition of vaccinia virus (VV), a dsDNA virus, was MyD88-dependent but TLR9-independent. Using HEK293 cells transfected with murine TLR7 or TLR8 and a NF-kappaB luciferase reporter, we demonstrated that stimulation of TLR8-, but not TLR7-, transfected cells with either VV or VV DNA resulted in substantial NF-kappaB activation, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of TLR8 expression in pDCs led to a complete ablation of VV-induced type I IFN production. We further identified that the VV genome was rich in poly(A)/T sequences, and synthetic poly(A) and poly T oligodeoxynucleotides were capable of activating pDCs in a TLR8-dependent manner. In vivo, TLR8-MyD88-dependent pDC activation played a critical role in innate immune control of VV infection. Collectively, our data are unique in demonstrating that TLR8 is required for sensing poly(A)/T-rich DNA in pDCs, and that murine TLR8 is functional in the context of a viral infection.
Project description:Eosinophils are recruited to the lung in response to infection with pneumovirus pathogens and have been associated with both the pathophysiologic sequelae of infection and, more recently, with accelerated virus clearance. Here, we demonstrate that the pneumovirus pathogens, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), can infect human and mouse eosinophils, respectively, and that virus infection of eosinophils elicits the release of disease-related proinflammatory mediators from eosinophils. RSV replication in human eosinophils results in the release of infectious virions and in the release of the proinflammatory mediator, interleukin-6 (IL-6). PVM replication in cultured bone marrow eosinophils (bmEos) likewise results in release of infectious virions and the proinflammatory mediators IL-6, IP-10, CCL2, and CCL3. In contrast to the findings reported in lung tissue of RSV-challenged mice, PVM replication is accelerated in MyD88 gene-deleted bmEos, whereas release of cytokines is diminished. Interestingly, exogenous IL-6 suppresses virus replication in MyD88 gene-deleted bmEos, suggesting a role for a MyD88-dependent cytokine-mediated feedback circuit in modulating this response. Taken together, our findings suggest that eosinophils are targets of virus infection and may have varied and complex contributions to the pathogenesis and resolution of pneumovirus disease.
Project description:Infection by RNA viruses is detected by the host through Toll-like receptors or RIG-I-like receptors. Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors signal through the adaptors MyD88 and MAVS, respectively, to induce type I IFNs (IFN-I) and other antiviral molecules, which are thought to be essential for activating the adaptive immune system. We investigated the role of these adaptors in innate and adaptive immune responses against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common human pathogen. Deletion of Mavs abolished the induction of IFN-I and other proinflammatory cytokines by RSV. Genome-wide expression profiling in the lung showed that the vast majority of RSV-induced genes depended on MAVS. Although Myd88 deficiency did not affect most RSV-induced genes, mice lacking both adaptors harbored a higher and more prolonged viral load and exhibited more severe pulmonary disease than those lacking either adaptor alone. Surprisingly, Myd88(-/-)Mavs(-/-) mice were able to activate a subset of pulmonary dendritic cells that traffic to the draining lymph node in response to RSV. These mice subsequently mounted a normal cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and demonstrated delayed but effective viral clearance. These results provide an example of a normal and effective adaptive immune response in the absence of innate immunity mediated by MAVS and MyD88.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. There are no licensed RSV vaccines available, and the few treatment options for high-risk individuals are either extremely costly or cause severe side effects and toxicity. Immunomodulation mediated by a novel formulation consisting of the toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I:C), an innate defense regulator peptide and a polyphosphazene (P-I-P) was evaluated in the context of lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). Intranasal delivery of a single dose of P-I-P protected adult mice against PVM when given 24 h prior to challenge. These animals experienced minimal weight loss, no clinical disease, 100% survival, and reduced lung pathology. Similar clinical outcomes were observed in mice treated up to 3 days prior to infection. P-I-P pre-treatment induced early mRNA and protein expression of key chemokine and cytokine genes, reduced the recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils, decreased virus titers in the lungs, and modulated the delayed exacerbated nature of PVM disease without any short-term side effects. On day 14 post-infection, P-I-P-treated mice were confirmed to be PVM-free. These results demonstrate the capacity of this formulation to prevent PVM and possibly other viral respiratory infections.
Project description:Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM) is related to the human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pathogens, and has been used to study respiratory virus replication and the ensuing inflammatory response as a component of a natural host—pathogen relationship. As such, PVM infection in mice reproduces many of the clinical and pathologic features of the more severe forms of RSV infection in human infants. Here we review some of the most recent findings on the basic biology of PVM infection and its use as a model of disease, most notably for explorations of virus infection and allergic airways disease, for vaccine evaluation, and for the development of immunomodulatory strategies for acute respiratory virus infection.
Project description:Innate immune responses elicited upon virus exposure are crucial for the effective eradication of viruses, the onset of adaptive immune responses and for establishing proper immune memory. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for a high disease burden in neonates and immune compromised individuals, causing severe lower respiratory tract infections. During primary infections exuberant innate immune responses may contribute to disease severity. Furthermore, immune memory is often insufficient to protect during RSV re-exposure, which results in frequent symptomatic reinfections. Therefore, identifying the cell types and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in RSV-specific innate immune responses is necessary to understand incomplete immunity against RSV. We investigated the innate cellular response triggered upon infection of epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We show that CD14(+) myeloid cells and epithelial cells are the major source of IL-8 and inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-?, when exposed to live RSV Three routes of RSV-induced IFN-? production can be distinguished that depend on the cross-talk of different cell types and the presence or absence of virus specific antibodies, whereby pDC are the ultimate source of IFN-?. RSV-specific antibodies facilitate direct TLR7 access into endosomal compartments, while in the absence of antibodies, infection of monocytes or epithelial cells is necessary to provide an early source of type I interferons, required to engage the IFN-?,? receptor (IFNAR)-mediated pathway of IFN-? production by pDC. However, at high pDC density infection with RSV causes IFN-? production without the need for a second party cell. Our study shows that cellular context and immune status are factors affecting innate immune responses to RSV. These issues should therefore be addressed during the process of vaccine development and other interventions for RSV disease.
Project description:Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokine receptors are key players in the initiation of immune responses to infection. PRRs detecting viral RNA, such as toll like receptor (TLR)-3, -7/8, and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs; RIG-I and MDA-5), as well as cytokine receptors such as interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R), have been implicated in responses to RNA viruses that infect the airways. The latter includes respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a human pathogen that can cause severe lower respiratory tract infections, especially in infants. To evaluate the collective contribution of PRRs and IL-1R signalling to RSV immunity, we generated Myd88/Trif/Mavs(-/-) mice that are deficient in signalling by all TLRs, RLRs and IL-1R, as well as other cytokine receptors such as IL-18 receptor. Early production of pro-inflammatory mediators and lung infiltration by immune cells were completely abrogated in infected Myd88/Trif/Mavs(-/-) mice. However, RSV-specific CD8(+) T cells were elicited and recruited into the lungs and airways. Consistent with these findings, Myd88/Trif/Mavs(-/-) mice survived RSV infection but displayed higher viral load and weight loss. These data highlight an unappreciated level of redundancy in pathways that couple innate virus sensing to adaptive immunity, providing the host with remarkable resilience to infection.