Maternal low-protein diet up-regulates the neuropeptide Y system in visceral fat and leads to abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific manner.
ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates stress-induced obesity in adult male mice by activating its Y2 receptor (Y2R) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here, we studied whether the NPY-Y2R system is also activated by maternal low-protein diet (LPD) and linked to obesity in offspring. Prenatal LPD offspring had lower birth weights compared to normal-protein diet (NPD) offspring. Female prenatal and lactation stress (PLS) offspring from mothers fed an LPD developed abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance associated with a 5-fold up-regulation of NPY mRNA and a 6-fold up-regulation of Y2R mRNA specifically in VAT, in addition to elevated platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) NPY, compared to control females fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Conversely, PLS male offspring showed lower NPY in PRP, a 10-fold decrease of Y2R mRNA in VAT, lower adiposity, and improved glucose tolerance compared to control males. Interestingly, prenatal LPD offspring cross-fostered to control lactating mothers had completely inverse metabolic and NPY phenotypes. Taken together, these findings suggested that maternal LPD activates the VAT NPY-Y2R system and increases abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific fashion, suggesting that the peripheral NPY system is a potential mediator of programming for the offspring's vulnerability to obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Project description:Neuropeptide Y is mainly expressed in the central nervous system to regulate food intake via its receptors, Y receptors, and in various peripheral tissues including adipose tissue. The objectives of this study were to compare Y5R mRNA and adipocyte parameters consisting of area, width, height, and perimeter either between obese and non-obese subjects or between subcutaneous and visceral fat as well as to compare between NPY, Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R mRNA expressions in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, Y5R was greater in obese than in non-obese humans (both P?<?0.05). Y1R mRNA expression was highest followed by Y5R, Y2R, and NPY mRNA expressions, respectively, in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. Visceral Y5R mRNA had positive correlations with body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference (R ? 0.4), and visceral Y1R mRNA (R?=?0.773), but had a negative correlation with the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (R=-0.421) (all P?<?0.05). Subcutaneous and visceral adipocyte parameters were positively correlated with body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, with greater values of correlation coefficient shown in visceral (R ? 0.5-0.8) than in subcutaneous adipocytes (R ? 0.4-0.6, all P?<?0.05). The parameters of visceral adipocytes had positive correlations with serum NPY levels (R ? 0.4, all P?<?0.05). Y5R mRNA in visceral adipose tissue is related to increased obesity and reduced insulin sensitivity. The dominant Y receptors in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue might be the Y1R and Y5R. Visceral adipocytes show higher correlations with obesity parameters than subcutaneous adipocytes, suggestive of an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in visceral obesity. Y1R and Y5R in visceral adipose tissue might be targets of drug development in prevention or treatment of adiposity. Impact statement Obesity, defined as excess fat accumulation, has been increasingly diagnosed worldwide causing adverse health consequences. The novel findings of this study were that Y5R mRNA expression in both subcutaneous and visceral fat was higher in obese than non-obese subjects. Furthermore, Y5R only in visceral fat, not subcutaneous fat, was positively correlated with visceral Y1R and obesity parameters but it was negatively correlated with the QUICKI. Moreover, we found that Y1R expression was highest followed by Y5R and Y2R, respectively, in both subcutaneous and visceral fat. Our results suggested that Y5R in visceral fat was associated with increased obesity and decreased insulin sensitivity. Y1R and Y5R might be the dominant receptors that mediate the effect of NPY-induced fat accumulation in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. Y1R and Y5R in visceral adipose tissue might be targets of drug development in prevention or treatment of obesity.
Project description:Obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of cardiovascular problems, diabetes, asthma, and cognitive impairments, affecting the offspring. It is important to reduce the negative effects of obesity and high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy. We employed a rat model of maternal HF diet to evaluate the possible de-programming effects of resveratrol in rodent male offspring with maternal HF diet/obesity. Male rat offspring were randomized into four groups: maternal control diet/postnatal control diet, maternal HF diet/postnatal control diet, maternal control diet plus maternal resveratrol treatment/postnatal control diet, and maternal HF diet plus maternal resveratrol treatment/postnatal control diet. Maternal HF diet during pregnancy plus lactation resulted in retroperitoneal adiposity in the male offspring. Maternal resveratrol treatment re-programmed maternal HF exposure-induced visceral adiposity. Offspring that received prenatal HF diet showed higher leptin/soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) ratio than offspring that received prenatal control diet. Maternal resveratrol treatment ameliorated maternal HF exposure-induced increase in leptin/sOB-R ratio and altered the expression of genes for crucial fatty acid synthesis enzymes in the offspring. Thus, maternal resveratrol administration reduces retroperitoneal adiposity in rat offspring exposed to prenatal HF diet/obesity and could be used to ameliorate negative effects of maternal HF diet in the offspring.
Project description:Human and animal studies have revealed a strong association between periconceptional environmental factors, such as poor maternal diet, and an increased propensity for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adult offspring. Previously, we reported cardiovascular and physiological effects of maternal low protein diet (LPD) fed during discrete periods of periconceptional development on 6-month-old mouse offspring. Here, we extend the analysis in 1 year aging offspring, evaluating mechanisms regulating growth and adiposity. Isocaloric LPD (9% casein) or normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) was fed to female MF-1 mice either exclusively during oocyte maturation (for 3.5 days prior to mating; Egg-LPD, Egg-NPD, respectively), throughout gestation (LPD, NPD) or exclusively during preimplantation development (for 3.5 days post mating; Emb-LPD). LPD and Emb-LPD female offspring were significantly lighter and heavier than NPD females respectively for up to 52 weeks. Egg-LPD, LPD and Emb-LPD offspring displayed significantly elevated systolic blood pressure at 52 weeks compared to respective controls (Egg-NPD, NPD). LPD females had significantly reduced inguinal and retroperitoneal fat pad: body weight ratios compared to NPD females. Expression of the insulin receptor (Insr) and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (Igf1r) in retroperitoneal fat was significantly elevated in Emb-LPD females (P<0.05), whilst Emb-LPD males displayed significantly decreased expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) gene compared to NPD offspring. LPD females displayed significantly increased expression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue when compared to NPD offspring. Our results demonstrate that aging offspring body weight, cardiovascular and adiposity homeostasis can be programmed by maternal periconceptional nutrition. These adverse outcomes further exemplify the criticality of dietary behaviour around the time of conception on long-term offspring health.
Project description:Although NPY has potent anxiolytic actions within the BLA, selective activation of BLA NPY Y2 receptors (Y2Rs) acutely increases anxiety by an unknown mechanism. Using ex vivo male rat brain slice electrophysiology, we show that the selective Y2R agonist, [ahx5-24]NPY, reduced the frequency of GABAA-mediated mIPSCs in BLA principal neurons (PNs). [ahx5-24]NPY also reduced tonic activation of GABAB receptors (GABABR), which increased PN excitability through inhibition of a tonic, inwardly rectifying potassium current (KIR ). Surprisingly, Y2R-sensitive GABABR currents were action potential-independent, persisting after treatment with TTX. Additionally, the Ca2+-dependent, slow afterhyperpolarizing K+ current (IsAHP ) was enhanced in approximately half of the Y2R-sensitive PNs, possibly from enhanced Ca2+ influx, permitted by reduced GABABR tone. In male and female mice expressing tdTomato in Y2R-mRNA cells (tdT-Y2R mice), immunohistochemistry revealed that BLA somatostatin interneurons express Y2Rs, as do a significant subset of BLA PNs. In tdT-Y2R mice, [ahx5-24]NPY increased excitability and suppressed the KIR in nearly all BLA PNs independent of tdT-Y2R fluorescence, consistent with presynaptic Y2Rs on somatostatin interneurons mediating the above effects. However, only tdT-Y2R-expressing PNs responded to [ahx5-24]NPY with an enhancement of the IsAHP Ultimately, increased PN excitability via acute Y2R activation likely correlates with enhanced BLA output, consistent with reported Y2R-mediated anxiogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate the following: (1) a novel mechanism whereby activity-independent GABA release can powerfully dampen BLA neuronal excitability via postsynaptic GABABRs; and (2) that this tonic inhibition can be interrupted by neuromodulation, here by NPY via Y2Rs.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Within the BLA, NPY is potently anxiolytic. However, selective activation of NPY2 receptors (Y2Rs) increases anxiety by an unknown mechanism. We show that activation of BLA Y2Rs decreases tonic GABA release onto BLA principal neurons, probably from Y2R-expressing somatostatin interneurons, some of which coexpress NPY. This increases principal neuron excitability by reducing GABAB receptor (GABABR)-mediated activation of G-protein-coupled, inwardly rectifying K+ currents. Tonic, Y2R-sensitive GABABR currents unexpectedly persisted in the absence of action potential firing, revealing, to our knowledge, the first report of substantial, activity-independent GABABR activation. Ultimately, we provide a plausible explanation for Y2R-mediated anxiogenesis in vivo and describe a novel and modulatable means of damping neuronal excitability.
Project description:Accumulated evidences show that neuroinflammation play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of depression. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammative as well as antidepressant effects. In the present study, the ability of NPY to modulate depressive-like behaviors induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in rats and the receptors and signaling mechanisms involved were investigated. Continuous injection LPS (i.p) for 4 days led to development of depressive-like behaviors in rats, accompanied with M1-type microglia activation and increased levels of IL-1? as well as decreased levels of NPY and Y2R expression in the mPFC selectively. Local injection of NPY into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) ameliorated the depression-like behaviors and suppressed the NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway. Y2R agonist PYY (3-36) mimicked and Y2R antagonist BIIE0246 abolished the NPY effects in the mPFC. All these results suggest that NPY and Y2R in the mPFC are involved in the pathophysiology of depression and NPY plays an antidepressant role in the mPFC mainly via Y2R, which suppresses the NLRP3 signaling pathway, in LPS-induced depression model rats.
Project description:The role of neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor (Y2R) in human diseases such as obesity, mood disorders, and alcoholism could be better resolved by the use of small-molecule chemical probes that are substantially different from the currently available Y2R antagonist, N-[(1S)-4-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-1-[[[2-(3,5-dioxo-1,2-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazolidin-4-yl)ethyl]amino]carbonyl]butyl]-1-[2-[4-(6,11-dihydro-6-oxo-5H-dibenz[b,e]azepin-11-yl)-1-piperazinyl]-2-oxoethyl]-cyclopentaneacetamide) (BIIE0246). Presented here are five potent, selective, and publicly available Y2R antagonists identified by a high-throughput screening approach. These compounds belong to four chemical scaffolds that are structurally distinct from the peptidomimetic BIIE0246. In functional assays, IC(50) values between 199 and 4400 nM against the Y2R were measured, with no appreciable activity against the related NPY-Y1 receptor (Y1R). Compounds also displaced radiolabeled peptide YY from the Y2R with high affinity (K(i) values between 1.55 and 60 nM) while not displacing the same ligand from the Y1R. In contrast to BIIE0246, Schild analysis with NPY suggests that two of the five compounds behave as competitive antagonists. Profiling against a panel of 40 receptors, ion channels, and transporters found in the central nervous system showed that the five Y2R antagonists demonstrate greater selectivity than BIIE0246. Furthermore, the ability of these antagonists to penetrate the blood-brain barrier makes them better suited for pharmacological studies of Y2R function in both the brain and periphery.
Project description:Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a multifunctional neurotransmitter acting via G protein-coupled receptors - Y1R, Y2R and Y5R. NPY activities, such as its proliferative effects, are mediated by multiple receptors, which have the ability to dimerize. However, the role of this receptor interplay in NPY functions remains unclear. The goal of the current study was to identify NPY receptor interactions, focusing on the ligand-binding fraction, and determine their impact on the mitogenic activity of the peptide. Y1R, Y2R and Y5R expressed in CHO-K1 cells formed homodimers detectable on the cell surface by cross-linking. Moreover, Y1R and Y5R heterodimerized, while no Y2R/Y5R heterodimers were detected. Nevertheless, Y5R failed to block internalization of its cognate receptor in both Y1R/Y5R and Y2R/Y5R transfectants, indicating Y5R transactivation upon stimulation of the co-expressed receptor. These receptor interactions correlated with an augmented mitogenic response to NPY. In Y1R/Y5R and Y2R/Y5R transfectants, the proliferative response started at picomolar NPY concentrations, while nanomolar concentrations were needed to trigger proliferation in cells transfected with single receptors. Thus, our data identify direct and indirect heterotypic NPY receptor interactions as the mechanism amplifying its activity. Understanding these processes is crucial for the design of treatments targeting the NPY system.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY) and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD) consumption are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control). At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid) metabolic markers were measured. RESULTS:Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanism. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.
Project description:Childhood malnutrition is a risk factor for mental disorders, such as major depression and anxiety. Evidence shows that similar early life adversities induce sex-dependent epigenetic reprogramming. However, little is known about how genes are specifically affected by early malnutrition and the implications for males and females respectively. One relevant target is neuropeptide Y (NPY), which regulates both stress and food-intake. We studied maternal low protein diet (LPD) during pregnancy/lactation in mice. Male, but not female, offspring of LPD mothers consistently displayed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors under acute stress. Transcriptome-wide analysis of the effects of acute stress in the amygdala, revealed a list of transcription factors affected by either sex or perinatal LPD. Among these immediate early genes (IEG), members of the Early growth response family (Egr1/2/4) were consistently upregulated by perinatal LPD in both sexes. EGR1 also bound the NPY receptor Y1 gene (Npy1r), which co-occurred with sex-specific effects of perinatal LPD on both Npy1r DNA-methylation and gene transcription. Our proposed pathway connecting early malnutrition, sex-independent regulatory changes in Egr1, and sex-specific epigenetic reprogramming of its effector gene, Npy1r, represents the first molecular evidence of how early life risk factors may generate sex-specific epigenetic effects relevant for mental disorders.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-mediated gender-difference in blood pressure (BP) regulation are largely unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>Baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) was evaluated by measuring the response of BP to phenylephrine/nitroprusside. Serum NPY concentration was determined using ELISA. The mRNA and protein expression of NPY receptors were assessed in tissue and single-cell by RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry. NPY was injected into the nodose while arterial pressure was monitored. Electrophysiological recordings were performed on nodose neurons from rats by patch-clamp technique.<h4>Results</h4>The BRS was higher in female than male and ovariectomized rats, while serum NPY concentration was similar among groups. The sex-difference was detected in Y1R, not Y2R protein expression, however, both were upregulated upon ovariectomy and canceled by estrogen replacement. Immunostaining confirmed Y1R and Y2R expression in myelinated and unmyelinated afferents. Single-cell PCR demonstrated that Y1R expression/distribution was identical between A- and C-types, whereas, expressed level of Y2R was ~15 and ~7 folds higher in Ah- and C-types than A-types despite similar distribution. Activation of Y1R in nodose elevated BP, while activation of Y2R did the opposite. Activation of Y1R did not alter action potential duration (APD) of A-types, but activation of Y2R- and Y1R/Y2R in Ah- and C-types frequency-dependently prolonged APD. N-type ICa was reduced in A-, Ah- and C-types when either Y1R, Y2R, or both were activated. The sex-difference in Y1R expression was also observed in NTS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Sex- and afferent-specific expression of Neuropeptide-Y receptors in baroreflex afferent pathway may contribute to sexual-dimorphic neurocontrol of BP regulation.