Phenylacetic acid catabolism and its transcriptional regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
ABSTRACT: The industrially important organism Corynebacterium glutamicum has been characterized in recent years for its robust ability to assimilate aromatic compounds. In this study, C. glutamicum strain AS 1.542 was investigated for its ability to catabolize phenylacetic acid (PAA). The paa genes were identified; they are organized as a continuous paa gene cluster. The type strain of C. glutamicum, ATCC 13032, is not able to catabolize PAA, but the recombinant strain ATCC 13032/pEC-K18mob2::paa gained the ability to grow on PAA. The paaR gene, encoding a TetR family transcription regulator, was studied in detail. Disruption of paaR in strain AS 1.542 resulted in transcriptional increases of all paa genes. Transcription start sites and putative promoter regions were determined. An imperfect palindromic motif (5'-ACTNACCGNNCGNNCGGTNAGT-3'; 22 bp) was identified in the upstream regions of paa genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated specific binding of PaaR to this motif, and phenylacetyl coenzyme A (PA-CoA) blocked binding. It was concluded that PaaR is the negative regulator of PAA degradation and that PA-CoA is the PaaR effector. In addition, GlxR binding sites were found, and binding to GlxR was confirmed. Therefore, PAA catabolism in C. glutamicum is regulated by the pathway-specific repressor PaaR, and also likely by the global transcription regulator GlxR. By comparative genomic analysis, we reconstructed orthologous PaaR regulons in 57 species, including species of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Flavobacteria, that carry PAA utilization genes and operate by conserved binding motifs, suggesting that PaaR-like regulation might commonly exist in these bacteria.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Pristinamycin I (PI), produced by Streptomyces pristinaespiralis, is a streptogramin type B antibiotic, which contains two proteinogenic and five aproteinogenic amino acid precursors. PI is coproduced with pristinamycin II (PII), a member of streptogramin type A antibiotics. The PI biosynthetic gene cluster has been cloned and characterized. However, thus far little is understood about the regulation of PI biosynthesis. In this study, a TetR family regulator (encoded by SSDG_03033) was identified as playing a positive role in PI biosynthesis. Its homologue, PaaR, from Corynebacterium glutamicum serves as a transcriptional repressor of the paa genes involved in phenylacetic acid (PAA) catabolism. Herein, we also designated the identified regulator as PaaR. Deletion of paaR led to an approximately 70% decrease in PI production but had little effect on PII biosynthesis. Identical to the function of its homologue from C. glutamicum, PaaR is also involved in the suppression of paa expression. Given that phenylacetyl coenzyme A (PA-CoA) is the common intermediate of the PAA catabolic pathway and the biosynthetic pathway of L-phenylglycine (L-Phg), the last amino acid precursor for PI biosynthesis, we proposed that derepression of the transcription of paa genes in a ?paaR mutant possibly diverts more PA-CoA to the PAA catabolic pathway, thereby with less PA-CoA metabolic flux toward L-Phg formation, thus resulting in lower PI titers. This hypothesis was verified by the observations that PI production of a ?paaR mutant was restored by L-Phg supplementation as well as by deletion of the paaABCDE operon in the ?paaR mutant. Altogether, this study provides new insights into the regulation of PI biosynthesis by S. pristinaespiralis.<h4>Importance</h4>A better understanding of the regulation mechanisms for antibiotic biosynthesis will provide valuable clues for Streptomyces strain improvement. Herein, a TetR family regulator PaaR, which serves as the repressor of the transcription of paa genes involved in phenylacetic acid (PAA) catabolism, was identified as playing a positive role in the regulation of pristinamycin I (PI) by affecting the supply of one of seven amino acid precursors, L-phenylglycine, in Streptomyces pristinaespiralis. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the interplay between PAA catabolism and antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces strains. Considering that the PAA catabolic pathway and its regulation by PaaR are widespread in antibiotic-producing actinomycetes, it could be suggested that PaaR-dependent regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis might commonly exist.
Project description:The activity of bacteriophages and phage-related mobile elements is a major source for genome rearrangements and genetic instability of their bacterial hosts. The genome of the industrial amino acid producer Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 contains three prophages (CGP1, CGP2, and CGP3) of so far unknown functionality. Several phage genes are regularly expressed, and the large prophage CGP3 (∼190 kbp) has recently been shown to be induced under certain stress conditions. Here, we present the construction of MB001, a prophage-free variant of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 with a 6% reduced genome. This strain does not show any unfavorable properties during extensive phenotypic characterization under various standard and stress conditions. As expected, we observed improved growth and fitness of MB001 under SOS-response-inducing conditions that trigger CGP3 induction in the wild-type strain. Further studies revealed that MB001 has a significantly increased transformation efficiency and produced about 30% more of the heterologous model protein enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP), presumably as a consequence of an increased plasmid copy number. These effects were attributed to the loss of the restriction-modification system (cg1996-cg1998) located within CGP3. The deletion of the prophages without any negative effect results in a novel platform strain for metabolic engineering and represents a useful step toward the construction of a C. glutamicum chassis genome of strain ATCC 13032 for biotechnological applications and synthetic biology.
Project description:We determined the complete and draft genome sequences of two strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum and revealed their genomic islands (GEIs). The two strains, ATCC 21799 and ATCC 31831, were found to have 3,079 and 3,109 coding sequences, respectively, with 13 GEIs each not present in the reference strain, ATCC 13032.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032.Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld) by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The absorption spectrum of purified Dld indicated the presence of FAD as bound cofactor. Inactivation of dld resulted in the loss of the ability to grow with D-lactate, which could be restored by plasmid-borne expression of dld. Heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 in C. efficiens enabled this species to grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source. Homologs of dld of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 are not encoded in the sequenced genomes of other corynebacteria and mycobacteria. However, the dld locus of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 shares 2367 bp of 2372 bp identical nucleotides with the dld locus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, a bacterium used in Swiss-type cheese making. Both loci are flanked by insertion sequences of the same family suggesting a possible event of horizontal gene transfer.Cg1067 encodes quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Dld is essential for growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source. The genomic region of dld likely has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer.
Project description:Proteome analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 showed that levels of several proteins increased drastically in response to heat shock. These proteins were identified as DnaK, GroEL1, GroEL2, ClpB, GrpE, and PoxB, and their heat response was in agreement with previous transcriptomic results. A major heat-induced protein was absent in the proteome of strain 13032B of C. glutamicum, used for genome sequencing in Germany, compared with the wild-type ATCC 13032 strain. The missing protein was identified as GroEL1 by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight peptide mass fingerprinting, and the mutation was found to be due to an insertion sequence, IsCg1, that was integrated at position 327 downstream of the translation start codon of the groEL1 gene, resulting in a truncated transcript of this gene, as shown by Northern analysis. The GroEL1 chaperone is, therefore, dispensable in C. glutamicum. On the other hand, GroEL2 appears to be essential for growth. Based on these results, the role of the duplicate groEL1 and groEL2 genes is analyzed.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium of the class Actinobacteria, is an industrially relevant producer of amino acids. Several methods for the targeted genetic manipulation of this organism and rational strain improvement have been developed. An efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the completely sequenced type strain ATCC 13032 would significantly advance functional genome analysis in this bacterium.A comprehensive transposon mutant library comprising 10,080 independent clones was constructed by electrotransformation of the restriction-deficient derivative of strain ATCC 13032, C. glutamicum RES167, with an IS6100-containing non-replicative plasmid. Transposon mutants had stable cointegrates between the transposon vector and the chromosome. Altogether 172 transposon integration sites have been determined by sequencing of the chromosomal inserts, revealing that each integration occurred at a different locus. Statistical target site analyses revealed an apparent absence of a target site preference. From the library, auxotrophic mutants were obtained with a frequency of 2.9%. By auxanography analyses nearly two thirds of the auxotrophs were further characterized, including mutants with single, double and alternative nutritional requirements. In most cases the nutritional requirement observed could be correlated to the annotation of the mutated gene involved in the biosynthesis of an amino acid, a nucleotide or a vitamin. One notable exception was a clone mutagenized by transposition into the gene cg0910, which exhibited an auxotrophy for histidine. The protein sequence deduced from cg0910 showed high sequence similarities to inositol-1(or 4)-monophosphatases (EC 184.108.40.206). Subsequent genetic deletion of cg0910 delivered the same histidine-auxotrophic phenotype. Genetic complementation of the mutants as well as supplementation by histidinol suggests that cg0910 encodes the hitherto unknown essential L-histidinol-phosphate phosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11) in C. glutamicum. The cg0910 gene, renamed hisN, and its encoded enzyme have putative orthologs in almost all Actinobacteria, including mycobacteria and streptomycetes.The absence of regional and sequence preferences of IS6100-transposition demonstrate that the established system is suitable for efficient genome-scale random mutagenesis in the sequenced type strain C.glutamicum ATCC 13032. The identification of the hisN gene encoding histidinol-phosphate phosphatase in C. glutamicum closed the last gap in histidine synthesis in the Actinobacteria. The system might be a valuable genetic tool also in other bacteria due to the broad host-spectrum of IS6100.
Project description:The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032deltaporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA.
Project description:3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase (EC 18.104.22.168) catalyzes the first step of the shikimate pathway that finally leads to the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), and tyrosine (Tyr). In Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, two chromosomal genes, NCgl0950 (aroF) and NCgl2098 (aroG), were located that encode two putative DAHP synthases. The deletion of NCgl2098 resulted in the loss of the ability of C. glutamicum RES167 (a restriction-deficient strain derived from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032) to grow in mineral medium; however, the deletion of NCgl0950 did not result in any observable phenotypic alteration. Analysis of DAHP synthase activities in the wild type and mutants of C. glutamicum RES167 indicated that NCgl2098, rather than NCgl0950, was involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli showed that both NCgl0950 and NCgl2098 encoded active DAHP synthases. Both the NCgl0950 and NCgl2098 DAHP synthases were purified from recombinant E. coli cells and characterized. The NCgl0950 DAHP synthase was sensitive to feedback inhibition by Tyr and, to a much lesser extent, by Phe and Trp. The NCgl2098 DAHP synthase was slightly sensitive to feedback inhibition by Trp, but not sensitive to Tyr and Phe, findings that were in contrast to the properties of previously known DAHP synthases from C. glutamicum subsp. flavum. Both Co2+ and Mn2+ significantly stimulated the NCgl0950 DAHP synthase's activity, whereas Mn2+ was much more stimulatory than Co2+ to the NCgl2098 DAHP synthase's activity.
Project description:The cyclic AMP-dependent transcriptional regulator GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a member of the super-family of CRP/FNR (cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) transcriptional regulators that play central roles in bacterial metabolic regulatory networks. In C. glutamicum, which is widely used for the industrial production of amino acids and serves as a non-pathogenic model organism for members of the Corynebacteriales including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the GlxR homodimer controls the transcription of a large number of genes involved in carbon metabolism. GlxR therefore represents a key target for understanding the regulation and coordination of C. glutamicum metabolism. Here we investigate cylic AMP and DNA binding of GlxR from C. glutamicum and describe the crystal structures of apo GlxR determined at a resolution of 2.5 Å, and two crystal forms of holo GlxR at resolutions of 2.38 and 1.82 Å, respectively. The detailed structural analysis and comparison of GlxR with CRP reveals that the protein undergoes a distinctive conformational change upon cyclic AMP binding leading to a dimer structure more compatible to DNA-binding. As the two binding sites in the GlxR homodimer are structurally identical dynamic changes upon binding of the first ligand are responsible for the allosteric behavior. The results presented here show how dynamic and structural changes in GlxR lead to optimization of orientation and distance of its two DNA-binding helices for optimal DNA recognition.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was found to be able to utilize a broad range of sulfonates and sulfonate esters as sulfur sources. The two gene clusters potentially involved in sulfonate utilization, ssuD1CBA and ssuI-seuABC-ssuD2, were identified in the genome of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 by similarity searches. While the ssu genes encode proteins resembling Ssu proteins from Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, the seu gene products exhibited similarity to the dibenzothiophene-degrading Dsz monooxygenases of Rhodococcus strain IGTS8. Growth tests with the C. glutamicum wild-type and appropriate mutant strains showed that the clustered genes ssuC, ssuB, and ssuA, putatively encoding the components of an ABC-type transporter system, are required for the utilization of aliphatic sulfonates. In C. glutamicum sulfonates are apparently degraded by sulfonatases encoded by ssuD1 and ssuD2. It was also found that the seu genes seuA, seuB, and seuC can effectively replace ssuD1 and ssuD2 for the degradation of sulfonate esters. The utilization of all sulfonates and sulfonate esters tested is dependent on a novel putative reductase encoded by ssuI. Obviously, all monooxygenases encoded by the ssu and seu genes, including SsuD1, SsuD2, SeuA, SeuB, and SeuC, which are reduced flavin mononucleotide dependent according to sequence similarity, have SsuI as an essential component. Using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, the ssu and seu gene cluster was found to be expressed considerably more strongly during growth on sulfonates and sulfonate esters than during growth on sulfate.