Mouse and human eosinophils degranulate in response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lysoPAF via a PAF-receptor-independent mechanism: evidence for a novel receptor.
ABSTRACT: Platelet-activating factor (PAF [1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine]) is a phospholipid mediator released from activated macrophages, mast cells, and basophils that promotes pathophysiologic inflammation. Eosinophil responses to PAF are complex and incompletely elucidated. We show in this article that PAF and its 2-deacetylated metabolite (lysoPAF) promote degranulation (release of eosinophil peroxidase) via a mechanism that is independent of the characterized PAFR. Specifically, we demonstrate that receptor antagonists CV-3988 and WEB-2086 and pertussis toxin have no impact on PAF- or lysoPAF-mediated degranulation. Furthermore, cultured mouse eosinophils from PAFR(-/-) bone marrow progenitors degranulate in response to PAF and lysoPAF in a manner indistinguishable from their wild-type counterparts. In addition to PAF and lysoPAF, human eosinophils degranulate in response to lysophosphatidylcholine, but not phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylethanolamine, demonstrating selective responses to phospholipids with a choline head-group and minimal substitution at the sn-2 hydroxyl. Human eosinophils release preformed cytokines in response to PAF, but not lysoPAF, also via a PAFR-independent mechanism. Mouse eosinophils do not release cytokines in response to PAF or lysoPAF, but they are capable of doing so in response to IL-6. Overall, our work provides the first direct evidence for a role for PAF in activating and inducing degranulation of mouse eosinophils, a crucial feature for the interpretation of mouse models of PAF-mediated asthma and anaphylaxis. Likewise, we document and define PAF and lysoPAF-mediated activities that are not dependent on signaling via PAFR, suggesting the existence of other unexplored molecular signaling pathways mediating responses from PAF, lysoPAF, and closely related phospholipid mediators.
Project description:Antigen stimulation of cultured bone-marrow-derived mast cells sensitized with specific monoclonal IgE induced cell degranulation and paf-acether (paf; 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) biosynthesis via the deacylation/acetylation (remodelling) pathway. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 20-100 ng/ml) triggered only acetyltransferase activation, without concomitant lyso-paf (1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and paf formation. A low concentration of PMA (5 ng/ml) potentiated antigen-induced degranulation, acetyltransferase activation and paf formation by about 30% but did not change the level of lyso-paf formation. Stimulation of mast cells with antigen increased intracellular Ca2+ from 61 to 269 nM, whereas no modification of Ca2+ influx was observed when cells were pretreated with PMA (5 ng/ml) before antigen challenge. Gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection revealed that the composition of paf formed by cells stimulated by antigen alone was similar to that of paf formed by PMA-primed antigen-stimulated cells; 84 +/- 8% and 79 +/- 2% (means +/- S.E.M., n = 3) of molecules respectively bore the C16:0 alkyl chain moiety, with the remainder bearing essentially C18:0 molecules. Overnight treatment of mast cells with PMA (200 ng/ml) caused disappearance of protein kinase C (PKC) from both cytosol and membranes. When such cells were stimulated further with antigen, they failed to degranulate, and acetyltransferase activation, paf production and lyso-paf production were decreased by 33 +/- 11%, 57 +/- 4% and 96 +/- 3% respectively (n = 3 or 5). The PKC inhibitors chlorpromazine and staurosporine inhibited to a significant extent both cell degranulation and all steps leading to paf biosynthesis. Our data suggest that PKC-dependent mechanisms are operational during cell degranulation and contribute only in part to paf biosynthesis. The PKC-dependent signal directly generated by PMA or diacylglycerol is not sufficient to trigger the full cell response, which is obtained only through receptor-operated antigen challenge.
Project description:Eosinophils have been long associated with helminthic infections, although their functions in these diseases remain unclear. During schistosomiasis caused by the trematode <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i>, eosinophils are specifically recruited and migrate to sites of granulomatous responses where they degranulate. However, little is known about the mechanisms of eosinophil secretion during this disease. Here, we investigated the degranulation patterns, including the cellular mechanisms of major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) release, from inflammatory eosinophils in a mouse model of <i>S. mansoni</i> infection (acute phase). Fragments of the liver, a major target organ of this disease, were processed for histologic analyses (whole slide imaging), conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunonanogold EM using a pre-embedding approach for precise localization of major basic protein 1 (MBP-1), a typical cationic protein stored pre-synthesized in eosinophil secretory (specific) granules. A well-characterized granulomatous inflammatory response with a high number of infiltrating eosinophils surrounding <i>S. mansoni</i> eggs was observed in the livers of infected mice. Moreover, significant elevations in the levels of plasma Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10) and serum enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) reflecting altered liver function were detected in response to the infection. TEM quantitative analyses revealed that while 19.1% of eosinophils were intact, most of them showed distinct degranulation processes: cytolysis (13.0%), classical and/or compound exocytosis identified by granule fusions (1.5%), and mainly piecemeal degranulation (PMD) (66.4%), which is mediated by vesicular trafficking. Immunonanogold EM showed a consistent labeling for MBP-1 associated with secretory granules. Most MBP-1-positive granules had PMD features (79.0 ± 4.8%). MBP-1 was also present extracellularly and on vesicles distributed in the cytoplasm and attached to/surrounding the surface of emptying granules. Our data demonstrated that liver-infiltrating mouse eosinophils are able to degranulate through different secretory processes during acute experimental <i>S. mansoni</i> infections with PMD being the predominant mechanism of eosinophil secretion. This means that a selective secretion of MBP-1 is occurring. Moreover, our study demonstrates, for the first time, a vesicular trafficking of MBP-1 within mouse eosinophils elicited by a helminth infection. Vesicle-mediated secretion of MBP-1 may be relevant for the rapid release of small concentrations of MBP-1 under cell activation.
Project description:Chronic bladder inflammation can result in a significant reduction in quality of life. Smoking remains a leading preventable risk factor in many diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence supporting the risks of smoking, roughly 45 million people in the United States remain smokers. The impact of cigarette smoking on inflammation is well established, but how smoking promotes bladder inflammation is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoke exposure impacts inflammatory cell adherence to bladder endothelial cells and if targeting the platelet-activating factor (PAF)-PAF receptor (PAFR) interaction could be beneficial in managing bladder inflammation. In response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) incubation, bladder endothelial cells from human or mouse displayed increased PAF accumulation, decreased PAF-AH activity, and increased inflammatory cell adherence. Inhibition of endothelial cell calcium-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) with (S)-BEL, to block PAF production, prevented adherence of inflammatory cells. Pretreatment of inflammatory cells with PAFR antagonists, ginkgolide B or WEB2086 significantly reduced the number of adhered cells to bladder endothelium. Wild-type mice exposed to cigarette smoke displayed increased presence of inflammatory infiltration which was absent in iPLA2β(-/-) mice and those exposed to room air. In conclusion, cigarette smoke exposure increases endothelial cell PAF accumulation and increased inflammatory cell adherence. Inhibition of PAF accumulation or PAFR antagonism markedly attenuated inflammatory cell adherence to bladder endothelial cells. The results detailed in this study highlight to potential therapeutic targets for managing bladder inflammation.
Project description:The role of lipids in inflammasome activation remains underappreciated. The phospholipid, platelet-activating factor (PAF), exerts multiple physiological functions by binding to a G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor (PAFR). PAF is associated with a number of inflammatory disorders, yet the molecular mechanism underlying its proinflammatory function remains to be fully elucidated. We show that multiple PAF isoforms and PAF-like lipids can activate the inflammasome, resulting in IL-1β and IL-18 maturation. This is dependent on NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and NEK7, but not on NLRC4, NLRP1, NLRP6, AIM2, caspase-11, or GSDMD. Inflammasome activation by PAF also requires potassium efflux and calcium influx but not lysosomal cathepsin or mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. PAF exacerbates peritonitis partly through inflammasome activation, but PAFR is dispensable for PAF-induced inflammasome activation in vivo or in vitro. These findings reveal that PAF represents a damage-associated signal that activates the canonical inflammasome independently of PAFR and provides an explanation for the ineffectiveness of PAFR antagonist in blocking PAF-mediated inflammation in the clinic.
Project description:Platelet-activating factor (PAF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several types of tumors. The biological effects of PAF are mediated by the PAF receptor (PAFR), which can be expressed by tumor cells and host cells that infiltrate the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, we investigated the role of PAFR expressed by leukocytes that infiltrate two types of tumors, one that expresses PAFR (TC-1 carcinoma) and another that does not express the receptor (B16F10 melanoma) implanted in mice that express the receptor or not (PAFR KO). It was found that both tumors grew significantly less in PAFR KO than in wild-type (WT) mice. Analysis of the leukocyte infiltration shown in PAFR KO increased the frequency of neutrophils (Gr1+) and of CD8+ lymphocytes in B16F10 tumors and of CD4+ lymphocytes in TC-1 tumors. PAFR KO also had a higher frequency of M1-like (CD11c+) and lower M2-like (CD206+) macrophages infiltrated in both tumors. This was confirmed in macrophages isolated from the tumors that showed higher iNOS, lower arginase activity, and lower IL10 expression in PAFR KO tumors than WT mice. These data suggest that in the tumor microenvironment, endogenous PAF-like activity molecules bind PAFR in macrophages which acquire an M2-like profile and this promotes tumor growth.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in tumor recurrence, metastasis, and chemoresistance. CSCs can shift between non-CSC and CSC states in certain tumor microenvironments. The mechanisms of this shift are not well understood. We previously demonstrated that platelet-activating factor (PAF), a lipid mediator of inflammation in the tumor microenvironment, can promote ovarian cancer progression and induce chemoresistance via PAF/PAFR-mediated inflammatory signaling pathways. Here, we investigated the role of PAF/PAFR signaling in the stemness of ovarian cancer cell.<h4>Methods</h4>The effects of PAF and PAFR antagonists on the stemness of SKOV3 and A2780 cells were evaluated using sphere-formation assays, FACS analysis and real-time PCR in vitro and a SKOV3 tumor-formation experiment in nude mice in vivo. The potential mechanism of the PAF effect on the stemness of ovarian cancer cells was evaluated by human cytokine antibody microarray analysis.<h4>Results</h4>PAF can promote spheroid formation and inhibit the transition of quiescent ovarian cancer cells into the cell cycle. The percentage of cancer stem cells increased significantly, and the expression of stemness genes increased in PAF-treated group. These effects could be blocked by PAFR inhibitors. Ginkgolide B (GB) inhibited tumor growth and decreased the CSC percentage in vivo. Human cytokine antibody microarray analysis showed that some stemness-maintaining proteins increased in PAF-treated group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results suggest that PAF can regulate the stemness of ovarian cancer cells through the PAF/PAFR pathway, suggesting a new target for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Project description:Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and in immunity to certain organisms. Associations between exposure to an environmental fungus, such as Alternaria, and asthma have been recognized clinically. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein-coupled receptors that are cleaved and activated by serine proteases, but their roles in innate immunity remain unknown. We previously found that human eosinophils respond vigorously to Alternaria organisms and to the secretory product(s) of Alternaria with eosinophils releasing their proinflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the roles of protease(s) produced by Alternaria and of PARs expressed on eosinophils in their immune responses against fungal organisms. We found that Alternaria alternata produces aspartate protease(s) and that human peripheral blood eosinophils degranulate in response to the cell-free extract of A. alternata. Eosinophils showed an increased intracellular calcium concentration in response to Alternaria that was desensitized by peptide and protease ligands for PAR-2 and inhibited by a PAR-2 antagonistic peptide. Alternaria-derived aspartate protease(s) cleaved PAR-2 to expose neo-ligands; these neo-ligands activated eosinophil degranulation in the absence of proteases. Finally, treatment of Alternaria extract with aspartate protease inhibitors, which are conventionally used for HIV-1 and other microbes, attenuated the eosinophils' responses to Alternaria. Thus, fungal aspartate protease and eosinophil PAR-2 appear critical for the eosinophils' innate immune response to certain fungi, suggesting a novel mechanism for pathologic inflammation in asthma and for host-pathogen interaction.
Project description:Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acting via its receptor (PAFR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Effects of long-term oxygen therapy on newborn lung are not well understood; therefore, we studied the effect of oxygen tension on ovine newborn pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (NBPASMC). Our global hypothesis is that PPHN results from failure of newborn lamb pulmonary system to downregulate PAFR activity or to upregulate vasodilatory cyclic nucleotides (Cnucs) activity. NBPASMC from newborns 6-12 days old were studied in vitro at three different oxygen tensions (pO2, [Torr]: hypoxia, <40; normoxia, 80-100; and hyperoxia, >100 Torr often clinically imposed upon newborns with PPHN) PAFR- and Cnucs mediated effects were determined. PAFR and PKA C? mRNA expression as well as prostacyclin, thromboxane, cAMP production, and DNA synthesis was studied to assess PAFR-mediated hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia. Hypoxia and hyperoxia increased specific PAFR binding. PAF treatment during hyperoxia increased PAFR gene, but decreased PKA-C? gene expression. Hypoxia and hyperoxia increased NBPASMC proliferation via PAFR signaling. Baseline prostacyclin level was ninefold greater than in fetal PASMC, whereas baseline thromboxane was sevenfold less suggesting greater postnatal cyclooxygenase activity in NBPASMC PAF decreased, while forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP increased cAMP production. Decrease of PAFR effects by Cnucs indicates that normal newborn PA physiology favors vasodilator pathways to minimize PAF-induced hypertrophy or hyperplasia. We speculate that failure of newborn lung to anchor downregulation of vasoconstrictors with upregulation of vasodilators leads to PPHN.
Project description:Rapid secretion of eosinophil-associated RNases (EARs), such as the human eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), from intracellular granules is central to the role of eosinophils in allergic diseases and host immunity. Our knowledge regarding allergic inflammation has advanced based on mouse experimental models. However, unlike human eosinophils, capacities of mouse eosinophils to secrete granule proteins have been controversial. To study mechanisms of mouse eosinophil secretion and EAR release, we combined an RNase assay of mouse EARs with ultrastructural studies. In vitro, mouse eosinophils stimulated with the chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) secreted enzymatically active EARs (EC(50) 5 nM) by piecemeal degranulation. In vivo, in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, increased airway eosinophil infiltration (24-fold) correlated with secretion of active RNases (3-fold). Moreover, we found that eosinophilic inflammation in mice can involve eosinophil cytolysis and release of cell-free granules. Cell-free mouse eosinophil granules expressed functional CCR3 receptors and secreted their granule proteins, including EAR and eosinophil peroxidase in response to CCL11. Collectively, these data demonstrate chemokine-dependent secretion of EARs from both intact mouse eosinophils and their cell-free granules, findings pertinent to understanding the pathogenesis of eosinophil-associated diseases, in which EARs are key factors.
Project description:Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent, bioactive phospholipid that acts on multiple cells and tissues through its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). PAF is not stored but is rapidly generated via enzymatic acetylation of the precursor 1-O-hexadecyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lysoPAF). The bioactivity of PAF is effectively and tightly regulated by PAF acetylhydrolases, which convert PAF back to lysoPAF. Previous studies report that lysoPAF is an inactive precursor and metabolite of PAF. However, lysoPAF has not been carefully studied in its own context. Here we report that lysoPAF has an opposing effect of PAF in the activation of neutrophils and platelets. Whereas PAF potentiates neutrophil NADPH oxidase activation, lysoPAF dose-dependently inhibits this function. Inhibition by lysoPAF is not affected by the use of a PAF receptor antagonist or genetic deletion of the PAF receptor gene. The mechanism of lysoPAF-mediated inhibition of neutrophils involves an elevation in the intracellular cAMP level, and pharmacological blockade of adenylyl cyclase completely reverses the inhibitory effect of lysoPAF. In addition, lysoPAF increases intracellular cAMP levels in platelets and inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, which can be reversed by inhibition of protein kinase A. These findings identify lysoPAF as a bioactive lipid with opposing functions of PAF and suggest a novel and intrinsic regulatory mechanism for balance of the potent activity of PAF.