Retinoic acid receptors recognize the mouse genome through binding elements with diverse spacing and topology.
ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and bind to RA response elements (RAREs) in the regulatory regions of their target genes. Although previous studies on limited sets of RA-regulated genes have defined canonical RAREs as direct repeats of the consensus RGKTCA separated by 1, 2, or 5 nucleotides (DR1, DR2, DR5), we show that in mouse embryoid bodies or F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, RARs occupy a large repertoire of sites with DR0, DR8, and IR0 (inverted repeat 0) elements. Recombinant RAR-RXR binds these non-canonical spacings in vitro with comparable affinities to DR2 and DR5. Most DR8 elements comprise three half-sites with DR2 and DR0 spacings. This specific half-site organization constitutes a previously unrecognized but frequent signature of RAR binding elements. In functional assays, DR8 and IR0 elements act as independent RAREs, whereas DR0 does not. Our results reveal an unexpected diversity in the spacing and topology of binding elements for the RAR-RXR heterodimer. The differential ability of RAR-RXR bound to DR0 compared to DR2, DR5, and DR8 to mediate RA-dependent transcriptional activation indicates that half-site spacing allosterically regulates RAR function.
Project description:Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs) bind RA-response elements in regulatory regions of their target genes. While canonical RAREs comprise direct repeats of the consensus 5’-RGKTCA-3’ sequence separated by 1, 2 or 5 nucleotides (DR1, DR2, DR5), we show that shortly after RA treatement of mouse embryoid bodies or F9 cells, RARs occupy a large repertoire of DR0, DR2, DR5, DR8 and IR0 elements. In vitro, RAR-RXR bind these non-canonical spacings with comparable affinities to DR2 and DR5. Most DR8 elements comprise three half sites with DR2 and DR0 spacings. This specific half site organisation constitutes a previously unrecognised, but frequent signature of RAR binding elements and acts as an RARE. At later stages of embryoid body differentiation, RARs relocalise to a restricted repertoire of sites comprising predominantly DR5 elements. Differentiation thus involves genomic relocalisation of RARs, and a switch from DR0 and DR8 at early times to DR5 at later stages. Examination of genomic localisation of RAR in differentiating embryoid bodies.
Project description:Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) as a functional heterodimer with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), bind a diverse series of RA-response elements (RAREs) in regulated genes. Among them, the non-canonical DR0 elements are bound by RXR-RAR with comparable affinities to DR5 elements but DR0 elements do not act transcriptionally as independent RAREs. In this work, we present structural insights for the recognition of DR5 and DR0 elements by RXR-RAR heterodimer using x-ray crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, and hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry. We solved the crystal structures of RXR-RAR DNA-binding domain in complex with the Rarb2 DR5 and RXR-RXR DNA-binding domain in complex with Hoxb13 DR0. While cooperative binding was observed on DR5, the two molecules bound non-cooperatively on DR0 on opposite sides of the DNA. In addition, our data unveil the structural organization and dynamics of the multi-domain RXR-RAR DNA complexes providing evidence for DNA-dependent allosteric communication between domains. Differential binding modes between DR0 and DR5 were observed leading to differences in conformation and structural dynamics of the multi-domain RXR-RAR DNA complexes. These results reveal that the topological organization of the RAR binding element confer regulatory information by modulating the overall topology and structural dynamics of the RXR-RAR heterodimers.
Project description:Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs) as a functional heterodimer with Retinoid X Receptors (RXRs), bind a diverse series of RA-response elements (RAREs) in regulated genes. Among them, the non-canonical DR0 elements are bound by RXR-RAR with comparable affinities to DR5 elements but DR0 elements do not act transcriptionally as independent RAREs. In this work, we present structural insight for the recognition of DR5 and DR0 elements by RXR-RAR heterodimer using x-ray crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, and hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry. We solved the crystal structure of RXR-RAR DNA-binding domain in complex with the Rarb2 DR5 and RXR DNA-binding domain in complex with Hoxb13 DR0. While cooperative binding was observed on DR5, on DR0 the two molecules bound non-cooperatively on opposite sides of the DNA. In addition, our data unveil the structural organization and dynamics of the multi-domain RXR-RAR DNA complexes providing evidence for DNA-dependent allosteric communication between domains. Differential binding mode between DR0 and DR5 were observed leading to differences in the conformation and structural dynamics of the multi-domain RXR-RAR DNA complex. These results reveal that the topological organization of the RAR binding element confer regulatory information by modulating the overall topology and structural dynamics of the RXR-RAR heterodimers.
Project description:In mouse embryonic cells, ligand-activated retinoic acid receptors (RARs) play a key role in inhibiting pluripotency-maintaining genes and activating some major actors of cell differentiation. To investigate the mechanism underlying this dual regulation, we performed joint RAR/RXR ChIP-seq and mRNA-seq time series during the first 48 h of the RA-induced Primitive Endoderm (PrE) differentiation process in F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. We show here that this dual regulation is associated with RAR/RXR genomic redistribution during the differentiation process. In-depth analysis of RAR/RXR binding sites occupancy dynamics and composition show that in undifferentiated cells, RAR/RXR interact with genomic regions characterized by binding of pluripotency-associated factors and high prevalence of the non-canonical DR0-containing RA response element. By contrast, in differentiated cells, RAR/RXR bound regions are enriched in functional Sox17 binding sites and are characterized with a higher frequency of the canonical DR5 motif. Our data offer an unprecedentedly detailed view on the action of RA in triggering pluripotent cell differentiation and demonstrate that RAR/RXR action is mediated via two different sets of regulatory regions tightly associated with cell differentiation status.
Project description:Functional retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) have been described wherein the direct repeats are separated by 1, 2 or 5 bp (termed DR1, DR2 and DR5 respectively). We have previously shown that retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptor (RAR/RXR) binds a DR1 RARE within the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter and is the trans-acting complex that mediates the retinoic acid (RA) response. However, the mechanism of trans-activation is unknown. The consequences of RAR/RXR binding to the PEPCK RARE were examined using a circular permutation analysis as a first step to explore the possible role of DNA conformational changes in the RA response. The RAR/RXR heterodimer produced a distortion angle of 78 degrees. The DNA distortion was shown to be at the centre of the PEPCK RARE; RA did not affect the severity of the distortion angle or the location of the distortion centre. Monomers and homodimers of RAR also distorted the DNA, but to a lesser extent than did RAR/RXR. The results of a phasing analysis demonstrated that RAR/RXR heterodimers did not induce a static DNA bend, in either the presence or the absence of RA. A cyclization kinetics assay was employed to show that RAR/RXR binding affected DNA ring closure in a phase-sensitive, RA-insensitive, manner. Taken together, these observations support the idea that RAR/RXR heterodimers distort the structure of the PEPCK RARE, at least in part, by altering DNA flexibility. The conformational change in the PEPCK RARE upon RAR/RXR binding has implications for how RAR/RXR heterodimers recognize various RARE structures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nuclear receptors are hormone-regulated transcription factors whose signaling controls numerous aspects of development and physiology. Many receptors recognize DNA hormone response elements formed by direct repeats of RGKTCA motifs separated by 1 to 5 bp (DR1-DR5). Although many known such response elements are conserved in the mouse and human genomes, it is unclear to which extent transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors has evolved specifically in primates. RESULTS: We have mapped the positions of all consensus DR-type hormone response elements in the human genome, and found that DR2 motifs, recognized by retinoic acid receptors (RARs), are heavily overrepresented (108,582 elements). 90% of these are present in Alu repeats, which also contain lesser numbers of other consensus DRs, including 50% of consensus DR4 motifs. Few DR2s are in potentially mobile AluY elements and the vast majority are also present in chimp and macaque. 95.5% of Alu-DR2s are distributed throughout subclasses of AluS repeats, and arose largely through deamination of a methylated CpG dinucleotide in a non-consensus motif present in AluS sequences. We find that Alu-DR2 motifs are located adjacent to numerous known retinoic acid target genes, and show by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in squamous carcinoma cells that several of these elements recruit RARs in vivo. These findings are supported by ChIP-on-chip data from retinoic acid-treated HL60 cells revealing RAR binding to several Alu-DR2 motifs. CONCLUSION: These data provide strong support for the notion that Alu-mediated expansion of DR elements contributed to the evolution of gene regulation by RARs and other nuclear receptors in primates and humans.
Project description:The diverse biological actions of retinoic acid (RA) are mediated by RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Modulation of transcription by RARs/RXRs is achieved through two activation functions, ligand-independent AF-1 and ligand-dependent AF-2, located in the A/B and E domains, respectively. While the coregulatory proteins that interact with the E domain are well studied, the A/B domain-interacting partners and their influence(s) on the function of RARs are poorly understood. Acinus-S' is an ubiquitous nuclear protein that has been implicated in inducing apoptotic chromatin condensation and regulating mRNA processing. Our data demonstrate that Acinus-S' can specifically repress ligand-independent and ligand-dependent expression of a DR5 RA response element(RARE)-dependent reporter gene and several endogenous RAR-regulated genes in a dose-dependent and gene-specific manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that Acinus-S' associates with RAREs within the promoters of endogenous genes independent of RA treatment. Furthermore, the C-terminal end of Acinus-S' and the B domain of RARbeta interact independently of ligand, and the C-terminal end of Acinus-S' is sufficient for the repression of RAR-regulated gene expression. Finally, histone deacetylase activity only partially accounts for the repressive effect of Acinus-S' on RAR-dependent gene expression. These findings identify Acinus-S' as a novel RAR-interacting protein that regulates the expression of a subset of RAR-regulated genes through direct binding to the N-terminal B domains of RARs.
Project description:One of the primary goals in transcription factor research is the elucidation of the genetic networks controlled by a factor or by members of a family of closely related factors. The pleiotropic effects of retinoic acid (PA) in the developing and adult animal are mediated by ligand-inducible transcription factors (RA receptors [RARs] and retinoid X receptors [RXRs]) that belong to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. Regulatory regions of PA effector genes contain RAR and RXR binding sites (RAR elements [RAREs] and RXR elements [RXREs]) that generally consist of direct or everted repeats of the core half-site motif, (A/G)G(G/T)TCA. In order to identify novel genes regulated by RA, we devised a selection strategy based on the premise that regulatory regions of a large number of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes are embodied within CpG island DNA. In this method, referred to as CpG-selected and amplified binding, fragments derived from the CpG island fraction of the murine genome are selected by a gel mobility shift assay using in vitro-transcribed and -translated RXR-RAR. Multiple rounds of selection coupled with amplification of the fragments by PCR enabled us to clone a population of CG-rich fragments of which approximately one-fifth contained consensus RAREs or RXREs. Twelve genomic fragments containing novel response elements are described, and the transcription unit associated with one of them, NN-84AG, was characterized in detail. The mouse NN-84AG transcript is upregulated by RA in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and is homologous to an expressed sequence tag (EST41159) derived from a human infant brain cDNA library. Cloning of the murine NN8-4AG genomic sequence places the RXRE in the proximity of the transcription initiation sites of the gene. Although sequence analysis indicates that the EST41159 gene product is novel, a region of amino acid identity with sequences of a yeast polypeptide of, as yet, unknown function and the Drosophila trithorax protein suggests the presence of an evolutionarily and functionally conserved domain. Our study demonstrates that transcription factor binding sites and corresponding regulated genes can be identified by selecting fragments derived from the CpG island fraction of the genome.
Project description:The retinoic acid receptors (RARs or rars) and the thyroid hormone receptors are members of the steroid receptor superfamily that interact with their DNA response elements (for RARs: retinoic acid response elements or RAREs) in the regulatory regions of promoters in the absence of their ligand. In this ligand minus configuration, it has been suggested that the RAR provides a binding site for a corepressor (SMRT or N-CoR) that also brings in other proteins to repress the gene. In the presence of the ligand, the receptor goes through an allosteric change eliminating the corepressor binding site and providing a coactivator binding site. In this manuscript we describe the isolation of the zebrafish corepressor, smrt. We show that its association with the zebrafish rar aa is sensitive to retinoic acid and that the corepressor mRNA is present in 8 cell zebrafish embryos - a time at which the embryonic genome is not active. We suggest that this rar-corepressor complex may be part of an embryonic, epigenetic switch that keeps retinoic acid responsive genes off before retinoic becomes available to the embryo.
Project description:An endogenous time-keeping mechanism controls circadian biological rhythms in mammals. Previously, we showed that vitamin A deficiency modifies clock BMAL1 and PER1 as well as BDNF and neurogranin daily rhythmicity in the rat hippocampus when animals are maintained under 12-h-light:12-h-dark conditions. Retinoic acid nuclear receptors, retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), have been detected in the same brain area. Our objectives were (a) to analyze whether RAR?, RAR? and RXR? exhibit a circadian variation in the rat hippocampus and (b) to investigate the effect of a vitamin-A-deficient diet on the circadian expression of BMAL1, PER1 and retinoic acid receptors (RARs and RXR?) genes. Holtzman male rats from control and vitamin-A-deficient groups were maintained under 12-h-light:12-h-dark or 12-h-dark:12-h-dark conditions during the last week of treatment. RAR?, RAR?, RXR?, BMAL1 and PER1 transcript and protein levels were determined in hippocampus samples isolated every 4 h in a 24-h period. Regulatory regions of RARs and RXR? genes were scanned for clock-responsive sites, while BMAL1 and PER1 promoters were analyzed for retinoic acid responsive elements and retinoid X responsive elements. E-box and retinoid-related orphan receptor responsive element sites were found on regulatory regions of retinoid receptors genes, which display an endogenously controlled circadian expression in the rat hippocampus. Those temporal profiles were modified when animals were fed with a vitamin-A-deficient diet. Similarly, the nutritional vitamin A deficiency phase shifted BMAL1 and abolished PER1 circadian expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Our data suggest that vitamin A deficiency may affect the circadian expression in the hippocampus by modifying the rhythmic profiles of retinoic acid receptors.