Identification of paxillin domains interacting with ?-catenin.
ABSTRACT: Barrier-protective agonists induce association of focal adhesions (FA) and adherens junctions (AJ) in endothelial cells. Here we identified specific domains of FA protein paxillin interacting with AJ protein and examined regulation of paxillin domain interactions with ?-catenin by Rac GTPase. Co-expression of paxillin LD-1,2; LD-3,4; LIM-1,2; and LIM-3,4 domains with ?-catenin showed exclusive interaction of LIM-1,2 and LIM-3,4 with ?-catenin, which was enhanced by agonist-induced Rac activation or expression of activated Rac mutant. These results demonstrate a novel function of paxillin LIM domains in targeting ?-catenin in a Rac-dependent manner, which may play a role in Rac-dependent control of FA-AJ interactions and monolayer integrity.
Project description:Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK (focal adhesion kinase) regulates signalling that results from the interaction of integrins with extracellular matrix and growth factor receptors. A critical step in this process is the phosphorylation of Tyr397 of FAK, which creates a binding site for Src family kinases, PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and Shc (Src homology and collagen homology). An intact Tyr397 site is required for FAK-mediated regulation of cell migration, survival signals and full responsiveness to soluble growth factors. We showed previously that the adaptor protein paxillin is required for the overall tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK in embryonic stem cells [Wade, Bohl and Vande Pol (2002) Oncogene 21, 96-107]. In the present paper, we identify the minimal structural features of paxillin that are required to support overall FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and Tyr397 phosphorylation. Paxillin contains N-terminal leucine-rich LD motifs that bind directly to FAK and four LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3) domains in the C-terminus. We show that paxillin LIM domains 1, 2 and 3 are each required for FAK tyrosine phosphorylation, while LIM4 is dispensable. In addition to paxillin LIM domains 1, 2 and 3, a single LD motif on paxillin is required to support FAK tyrosine phosphorylation in embryonic stem cells. Both sequence and spatial requirements exist for LD motifs to support FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, synthetic LD motifs that fail to bind FAK in vitro are able to fully support FAK tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating that minimal interactions of LD motifs with FAK suffice. Our results demonstrate at least four distinct structural domains of paxillin support at least three distinct functions that are each required for FAK tyrosine phosphorylation.
Project description:Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are the causative agent of the C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and its severe form, the pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). TcdB from the C. difficile strain VPI10463 mono-glucosylates (thereby inactivates) the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, while Toxin B from the variant C. difficile strain serotype F 1470 (TcdBF) specifically mono-glucosylates Rac but not Rho(A/B/C). TcdBF is related to lethal toxin from C. sordellii (TcsL) that glucosylates Rac1 but not Rho(A/B/C). In this study, the effects of Rho-inactivating toxins on the concentrations of cellular F-actin were investigated using the rhodamine-phalloidin-based F-actin ELISA. TcdB induces F-actin depolymerization comparable to the RhoA-inactivating exoenzyme C3 from C. limosum (C3-lim). In contrast, the Rac-glucosylating toxins TcdBF and TcsL did not cause F-actin depolymerization. These observations led to the conclusion that F-actin depolymerization depends on the toxin's capability of glucosylating RhoA. Furthermore, the integrity of focal adhesions (FAs) was analyzed using paxillin and p21-activated kinase (PAK) as FA marker proteins. Paxillin dephosphorylation was observed upon treatment of cells with TcdB, TcdBF, or C3-lim. In conclusion, the Rho-inactivating toxins induce loss of cell shape by either F-actin depolymerization (upon RhoA inactivation) or the disassembly of FAs (upon Rac1 inactivation).
Project description:Alpha-parvin is an essential component of focal adhesions (FAs), which are large multiprotein complexes that link the plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Alpha-parvin contains two calponin homology (CH) domains and its C-terminal CH2 domain binds multiple targets including paxillin LD motifs for regulating the FA network and signaling. Here we describe the solution structure of alpha-parvin CH2 bound to paxillin LD1. We show that although CH2 contains the canonical CH-fold, a previously defined N-terminal linker forms an alpha-helix that packs unexpectedly with the C-terminal helix of CH2, resulting in a novel variant of the CH domain. Importantly, such packing generates a hydrophobic surface that recognizes the Leu-rich face of paxillin-LD1, and the binding pattern differs drastically from the classical paxillin-LD binding to four-helix bundle proteins such as focal adhesion kinase. These results define a novel modular recognition mode and reveal how alpha-parvin associates with paxillin to mediate the FA assembly and signaling.
Project description:Paxillin and HIC5 are closely related adapter proteins that regulate cell migration and are tyrosine-phosphorylated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Paxillin, HIC5, and FAK tyrosine phosphorylation increase upon cell attachment and decrease upon detachment from extracellular matrix. Unexpectedly, we found that although FAK tyrosine phosphorylation in attached cells did not require paxillin, in detached fibroblasts there was remaining FAK tyrosine phosphorylation that required expression of paxillin and was not supported by HIC5. The support of attachment-independent FAK tyrosine phosphorylation required the paxillin LIM domains and suggested that paxillin might facilitate oncogenic transformation. Paxillin but not HIC5 augmented anchorage-independent cell proliferation induced by RAS. Both anchorage-independent FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and RAS-induced colony formation required multiple docking sites on paxillin, including LD4 (docking sites for FAK-Src and GIT1/2-PIX-NCK-PAK complex), LD5, and all four carboxyl-terminal LIM domains (that bind tubulin and PTP-PEST). Analysis using paxillin mutants dissociated domains of paxillin that are required for regulation of cell migration from domains that are required for anchorage-independent cell proliferation and demonstrated essential functions of the paxillin LIM domains that are not found in HIC5 LIM domains. These results highlight the role of paxillin in facilitating attachment-independent signal transduction implicated in cancer.
Project description:Invadosomes are acto-adhesive structures able to both bind the extracellular matrix (ECM) and digest it. Paxillin family members-paxillin, Hic-5, and leupaxin-are implicated in mechanosensing and turnover of adhesion sites, but the contribution of each paxillin family protein to invadosome activities is unclear. We use genetic approaches to show that paxillin and Hic-5 have both redundant and distinctive functions in invadosome formation. The essential function of paxillin-like activity is based on the coordinated activity of LD motifs and LIM domains, which support invadosome assembly and morphology, respectively. However, paxillin preferentially regulates invadosome assembly, whereas Hic-5 regulates the coupling between ECM degradation and acto-adhesive functions. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed new partners that are important for paxillin and Hic-5 specificities: paxillin regulates the acto-adhesive machinery through janus kinase 1 (JAK1), whereas Hic-5 controls ECM degradation via IQGAP1. Integrating the redundancy and specificities of paxillin and Hic-5 in a functional complex provides insights into the coupling between the acto-adhesive and ECM-degradative machineries in invadosomes.
Project description:Lung cancer is characterized by abnormal cell growth and invasion, and the actin cytoskeleton plays a major role in these processes. The focal adhesion protein paxillin is a target of a number of oncogenes involved in key signal transduction and important in cell motility and migration. In lung cancer tissues, we have found that paxillin was highly expressed (compared with normal lung), amplified (12.1%, 8 of 66) and correlated with increased MET and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy numbers, or mutated (somatic mutation rate of 9.4%, 18 of 191). Paxillin mutations (19 of 21) were clustered between LD motifs 1 and 2 and the LIM domains. The most frequent point mutation (A127T) enhanced lung cancer cell growth, colony formation, focal adhesion formation, and colocalized with Bcl-2 in vitro. Gene silencing from RNA interference of mutant paxillin led to reduction of cell viability. A murine in vivo xenograft model of A127T paxillin showed an increase in tumor growth, cell proliferation, and invasion. These results establish an important role for paxillin in lung cancer.
Project description:Paxillin is a protein containing four LIM domains, and functions in integrin signaling. We report here that two transcripts are generated from the paxillin gene locus in Drosophila; one encodes a protein homolog of the vertebrate Paxillin (DPxn37), and the other a protein with only three LIM domains, partly encoded by its own specific exon (PDLP). At the myotendinous junctions of Drosophila embryos where integrins play important roles, both DPxn37 and PDLP are highly expressed with different patterns; DPxn37 is predominantly concentrated at the center of the junctions, whereas PDLP is highly enriched at neighboring sides of the junction centers, primarily expressed in the mesodermal myotubes. Northern blot analysis revealed that DPxn37 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the life cycle, whereas PDLP expression exhibits a biphasic pattern during development, largely concomitant with muscle generation and remodeling. Our results collectively reveal that a unique system exists in Drosophila for the generation of a novel type of LIM-only protein, highly expressed in the embryonic musculature, largely utilizing the Paxillin LIM domains.
Project description:We have identified the gene C28H8.6 (pxl-1) as the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of vertebrate paxillin. PXL-1 contains the four C-terminal LIM domains conserved in paxillin across all species and three of the five LD motifs found in the N-terminal half of most paxillins. In body wall muscle, PXL-1 antibodies and a full-length green fluorescent protein translational fusion localize to adhesion sites in the sarcomere, the functional repeat unit in muscle responsible for contraction. PXL-1 also localizes to ring-shaped structures near the sarcolemma in pharyngeal muscle corresponding to podosome-like sites of actin attachment. Our analysis of a loss-of-function allele of pxl-1, ok1483, shows that loss of paxillin leads to early larval arrested animals with paralyzed pharyngeal muscles and eventual lethality, presumably due to an inability to feed. We rescued the mutant phenotype by expressing paxillin solely in the pharynx and found that these animals survived and are essentially wild type in movement and body wall muscle structure. This indicates a differential requirement for paxillin in these two types of muscle. In pharyngeal muscle it is essential for contraction, whereas in body wall muscle it is dispensable for filament assembly, sarcomere stability, and ultimately movement.
Project description:Contractile actomyosin stress fibers are critical for maintaining the force balance between the interior of the cell and its environment. Consequently, the actin cytoskeleton undergoes dynamic mechanical loading. This results in spontaneous, stochastic, highly localized strain events, characterized by thinning and elongation within a discrete region of stress fiber. Previous work showed the LIM-domain adaptor protein, zyxin, is essential for repair and stabilization of these sites. Using live imaging, we show paxillin, another LIM-domain adaptor protein, is also recruited to stress fiber strain sites. Paxillin recruitment to stress fiber strain sites precedes zyxin recruitment. Zyxin and paxillin are each recruited independently of the other. In cells lacking paxillin, actin recovery is abrogated, resulting in slowed actin recovery and increased incidence of catastrophic stress fiber breaks. For both paxillin and zyxin, the LIM domains are necessary and sufficient for recruitment. This work provides further evidence of the critical role of LIM-domain proteins in responding to mechanical stress in the actin cytoskeleton.
Project description:hic-5 protein is a member of the LIM protein family, containing four LIM domains in its C-terminal region. It is mainly localized in focal adhesions and shows striking similarity to paxillin in its LIM domains, although the function of these LIM domains has remained elusive. In the present study, we found that full-length and the C-terminal half of hic-5 protein, including four LIM domains, bound to DNA in a zinc-dependent manner in vitro . Mouse genomic fragments that specifically bound to the hic-5 protein were isolated by successive rounds of hic-5 protein-DNA complex immunoprecipitation and PCR amplification. Seven independent clones were isolated, which contained high amounts of G+A and/or a long A/T tract. A DNA binding protein blot assay revealed the specificity of the interaction between hic-5 protein and the DNA fragment. Using a series of truncated forms of the hic-5 LIM domains, each of the four LIM domains was found to contribute to DNA binding in a distinctive manner.