Age-dependent reduction of the PI3K regulatory subunit p85? suppresses pancreatic acinar cell proliferation.
ABSTRACT: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is important for tissue proliferation. Previously, we found that tissue regeneration after partial pancreatic resection was markedly attenuated in aged mice as compared to young mice and that this attenuation was because of an age-dependent reduction of PI3K/Akt signaling in the pancreatic acini; however, the mechanisms for the age-associated decline of pancreatic PI3K/Akt signaling remained unknown. To better delineate the mechanisms for the decreased PI3K/Akt activation with aging, age-associated changes in cell proliferation and PI3K/Akt signaling were investigated in the present study using in vitro primary pancreatic acinar cell cultures derived from young and aged mice. In response to treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), acinar cells from young but not aged mice showed increased activation of PI3K/Akt signaling and cell proliferation, indicating that intrinsic cellular mechanisms cause the age-associated changes in pancreatic acinar cells. We also found that the expression of PI3K p85? subunit, but not IGF-1 receptor or other PI3K subunits, was significantly reduced in pancreatic acinar cells from aged mice; this age-associated reduction of p85? was confirmed in both mouse and human pancreatic tissues. Finally, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of p85? expression in acinar cells from young mice resulted in markedly attenuated activation of PI3K/Akt downstream signaling in response to IGF-1. From these results, we conclude that exocrine pancreatic expression of PI3K p85? subunit is attenuated by aging, which is likely responsible for the age-associated decrease in activation of pancreatic PI3K signaling and acinar cell proliferation in response to growth-promoting stimuli.
Project description:KRAS mutations are found in ?90% of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). However, mice genetically engineered to express Kras(G12D) from its endogenous locus develop PDACs only after a prolonged latency, indicating that other genetic events or pathway alterations are necessary for PDAC progression. The PTEN-controlled phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling axis is dysregulated in later stages of PDAC. To better elucidate the role of PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling in Kras(G12D)-induced PDAC development, we crossed Pten conditional knockout mice (Pten(lox/lox)) to mice with conditional activation of Kras(G12D). The resulting compound heterozygous mutant mice showed significantly accelerated development of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), malignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN), and PDAC within a year. Moreover, all mice with Kras(G12D) activation and Pten homozygous deletion succumbed to cancer by 3 weeks of age. Our data support a dosage-dependent role for PTEN, and the resulting dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling axis, in both PDAC initiation and progression, and shed additional light on the signaling mechanisms that lead to the development of ADM and subsequent mPanIN and pancreatic cancer.
Project description:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits IGF-I actions, but the mechanism by which AMPK functions is undefined. This study identified signaling events that were induced by AMPK that mediated inhibition of IGF-I-stimulated phosphoinosotide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation. The AMPK activator metformin stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation and inhibited IGF-I-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt/tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K). Expression of constitutively active forms of AMPK suppressed IGF-I-stimulated activation of Akt/TSC2/mTOR/p70S6K and protein synthesis, whereas AMPK knockdown resulted in enhanced responses to IGF-I. To determine the mechanism by which AMPK inhibited IGF-I signaling, the role of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was examined. Both metformin and constitutively activated AMPK enhanced phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser794, which led to decreased IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment of the p85 subunit of PI3K. Overexpression of IRS-1 S794A was associated with increased IGF-I-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, p85 association, and protein synthesis. To determine whether other signaling molecules mediated the effect of AMPK, TSC2 function was examined. Cells overexpressing TSC2/S1345A (the site of AMPK phosphorylation) were less responsive to metformin-induced inhibition of p70S6 kinase. These findings are relevant to whole animal physiology because administration of metformin to mice resulted in inhibition of IGF-I-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K. In conclusion, AMPK functions to inhibit IGF-I-stimulated PI3K pathway activation through stimulation of IRS-1 serine 794 phosphorylation. Because IGF-I is an important stimulant of the anabolic response, this effect of AMPK could account for part of its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis, thus allowing more efficient energy use by other cellular processes.
Project description:Dopamine (DA) neurons in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) display dysregulated gene expression networks and signaling pathways that are implicated in PD pathogenesis. Micro (mi)RNAs are regulators of gene expression, which could be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. We determined the miRNA profiles in laser microdissected DA neurons from postmortem sporadic PD patients' brains and age-matched controls. DA neurons had a distinctive miRNA signature and a set of miRNAs was dysregulated in PD. Bioinformatics analysis provided evidence for correlations of miRNAs with signaling pathways relevant to PD, including an association of miR-126 with insulin/IGF-1/PI3K signaling. In DA neuronal cell systems, enhanced expression of miR-126 impaired IGF-1 signaling and increased vulnerability to the neurotoxin 6-OHDA by downregulating factors in IGF-1/PI3K signaling, including its targets p85?, IRS-1, and SPRED1. Blocking of miR-126 function increased IGF-1 trophism and neuroprotection to 6-OHDA. Our data imply that elevated levels of miR-126 may play a functional role in DA neurons and in PD pathogenesis by downregulating IGF-1/PI3K/AKT signaling and that its inhibition could be a mechanism of neuroprotection.
Project description:Background:Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), which previously known as TCF-4, is a major form of transcription factor involved in the downstream WNT signaling and exhibits the strongest association to diabetes susceptibility. Although we still do not know mechanistically how TCF7L2 exerts its physiological functions on pancreatic endocrine cells, it had been suggested that TCF7L2 may directly affect ?-cell function by regulating the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Methods:MIN6 cells were transfected with TCF7L2 knockdown virus or lenti-TCF7L2 virus for 48 h to evaluate the contribution of TCF7L2 to the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and pancreatic ?-cell function. This was confirmed by measuring the expression of PI3K p85 and p-Akt by western blotting and insulin secretion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to explore the genomic distribution of TCF7L2-binding sites in the promoter of PIK3R1, the affinity between which was analyzed by the luciferase reporter assay. Results:In the present study, we strikingly identified that TCF7L2 could profoundly inhibit the expression of PIK3R1 gene and its encoding protein PI3K p85, which then could lead to the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling and stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic ?-cells. However, the integrity and stability of evolutionarily conserved TCF7L2-binding motif plays a very crucial role in the binding events between transcription factor TCF7L2 and its candidate target genes. We also found that the affinity of TCF7L2 to the promoter region of PIK3R1 alters upon the specific binding sites, which further provides statistical validation to the necessity of TCF7L2-binding motif. Conclusions:This study demonstrated that TCF7L2 is closely bound to the specific binding regions of PIK3R1 promoter and prominently controls the transcription of its encoding protein p85, which further affects the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and insulin secretion.
Project description:Neurotrophins, activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, control neuronal survival and plasticity. Alterations in NGF, BDNF, IGF-1, or insulin signaling are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have previously characterized a bigenic PS1×APP transgenic mouse displaying early hippocampal A? deposition (3 to 4 months) but late (17 to 18 months) neurodegeneration of pyramidal cells, paralleled to the accumulation of soluble A? oligomers. We hypothesized that PI3K/Akt/GSK-3? signaling pathway could be involved in this apparent age-dependent neuroprotective/neurodegenerative status. In fact, our data demonstrated that, as compared with age-matched nontransgenic controls, the Ser-9 phosphorylation of GSK-3? was increased in the 6-month PS1×APP hippocampus, whereas in aged PS1×APP animals (18 months), GSK-3? phosphorylation levels displayed a marked decrease. Using N2a and primary neuronal cell cultures, we demonstrated that soluble amyloid precursor protein-? (sAPP?), the predominant APP-derived fragment in young PS1×APP mice, acting through IGF-1 and/or insulin receptors, activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, phosphorylated the GSK-3? activity, and in consequence, exerted a neuroprotective action. On the contrary, several oligomeric A? forms, present in the soluble fractions of aged PS1×APP mice, inhibited the induced phosphorylation of Akt/GSK-3? and decreased the neuronal survival. Furthermore, synthetic A? oligomers blocked the effect mediated by different neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, insulin, and IGF-1) and sAPP?, displaying high selectivity for NGF. In conclusion, the age-dependent appearance of APP-derived soluble factors modulated the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3? signaling pathway through the major neurotrophin receptors. sAPP? stimulated and A? oligomers blocked the prosurvival signaling. Our data might provide insights into the selective vulnerability of specific neuronal groups in Alzheimer disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We previously identified a correlation between increased expression of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit p85? and improved survival in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of changes in p85? expression on response to chemotherapy and the regulation of p85? by microRNA-21 (miR-21). MATERIALS AND METHODS:PDAC tumor cells overexpressing p85? were generated by viral transduction, and the effect of p85? overexpression on sensitivity to gemcitabine was tested by MTT assay. Primary human PDAC tumors were stained for p85? and miR-21 via immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. Additionally, PDAC cells were treated with miR-21 mimic, and changes in p85? and phospho-AKT were assessed by Western blot. Finally, a luciferase reporter assay system was used to test direct regulation of p85? by miR-21. RESULTS:Higher p85? expression resulted in increased sensitivity to gemcitabine (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased PI3K-AKT activation. Human tumors demonstrated an inverse correlation between miR-21 and p85? expression levels (r = -0.353, P < 0.001). In vitro, overexpression of miR-21 resulted in decreased levels of p85? and increased phosphorylation of AKT. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed the direct regulation of p85? by miR-21 (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that p85? expression is a determinant of chemosensitivity in PDAC. Additionally, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 can influence PI3K-AKT signaling via its direct regulation of p85?. These data provide insight into potential mechanisms for the known relationship between increased p85? expression and improved survival in PDAC.
Project description:New drug targets are urgently needed for the treatment of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Nearly all PDAs contain oncogenic mutations in the KRAS gene. Pharmacological inhibition of KRAS has been unsuccessful, leading to a focus on downstream effectors that are more easily targeted with small molecule inhibitors. We investigated the contributions of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) to KRAS-initiated tumorigenesis.Tumorigenesis was measured in the Kras(G12D/+);Ptf1a(Cre/+) mouse model of PDA; these mice were crossed with mice with pancreas-specific disruption of genes encoding PI3K p110? (Pik3ca), p110? (Pik3cb), or RAC1 (Rac1). Pancreatitis was induced with 5 daily intraperitoneal injections of cerulein. Pancreata and primary acinar cells were isolated; acinar cells were incubated with an inhibitor of p110? (PIK75) followed by a broad-spectrum PI3K inhibitor (GDC0941). PDA cell lines (NB490 and MiaPaCa2) were incubated with PIK75 followed by GDC0941. Tissues and cells were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence analyses for factors involved in the PI3K signaling pathway. We also examined human pancreas tissue microarrays for levels of p110? and other PI3K pathway components.Pancreas-specific disruption of Pik3ca or Rac1, but not Pik3cb, prevented the development of pancreatic tumors in Kras(G12D/+);Ptf1a(Cre/+) mice. Loss of transformation was independent of AKT regulation. Preneoplastic ductal metaplasia developed in mice lacking pancreatic p110? but regressed. Levels of activated and total RAC1 were higher in pancreatic tissues from Kras(G12D/+);Ptf1a(Cre/+) mice compared with controls. Loss of p110? reduced RAC1 activity and expression in these tissues. p110? was required for the up-regulation and activity of RAC guanine exchange factors during tumorigenesis. Levels of p110? and RAC1 were increased in human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias and PDAs compared with healthy pancreata.KRAS signaling, via p110? to activate RAC1, is required for transformation in Kras(G12D/+);Ptf1a(Cre/+) mice.
Project description:Activation of the PI3K-Akt-FoxO pathway induces cell growth, whereas its inhibition reduces cell survival and, in muscle, causes atrophy. Here, we report a novel mechanism that suppresses PI3K-Akt-FoxO signaling. Although skeletal muscle lacks desmosomes, it contains multiple desmosomal components, including plakoglobin. In normal muscle plakoglobin binds the insulin receptor and PI3K subunit p85 and promotes PI3K-Akt-FoxO signaling. During atrophy, however, its interaction with PI3K-p85 is reduced by the ubiquitin ligase Trim32 (tripartite motif containing protein 32). Inhibition of Trim32 enhanced plakoglobin binding to PI3K-p85 and promoted PI3K-Akt-FoxO signaling. Surprisingly, plakoglobin overexpression alone enhanced PI3K-Akt-FoxO signaling. Furthermore, Trim32 inhibition in normal muscle increased PI3K-Akt-FoxO signaling, enhanced glucose uptake, and induced fiber growth, whereas plakoglobin down-regulation reduced PI3K-Akt-FoxO signaling, decreased glucose uptake, and caused atrophy. Thus, by promoting plakoglobin-PI3K dissociation, Trim32 reduces PI3K-Akt-FoxO signaling in normal and atrophying muscle. This mechanism probably contributes to insulin resistance during fasting and catabolic diseases and perhaps to the myopathies and cardiomyopathies seen with Trim32 and plakoglobin mutations.
Project description:Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, and the PI3K p85 regulatory subunit exerts both positive and negative effects on signaling. Expression of Pik3r1, the gene encoding p85, is decreased in human prostate, lung, ovarian, bladder, and liver cancers, consistent with the possibility that p85 has tumor suppressor properties. We tested this hypothesis by studying mice with a liver-specific deletion of the Pik3r1 gene. These mice exhibited enhanced insulin and growth factor signaling and progressive changes in hepatic pathology, leading to the development of aggressive hepatocellular carcinomas with pulmonary metastases. Liver tumors that arose exhibited markedly elevated levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate, along with Akt activation and decreased PTEN expression, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Together, these results substantiate the concept that the p85 subunit of PI3K has a tumor-suppressive role in the liver and possibly other tissues.
Project description:Age-associated defects in both B-lymphocytes and macrophages in elderly result in a reduction in the efficacy of vaccines to many Gram positive bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae. Splenic macrophages from aged mice have been shown to have a defect in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-1?, TNF-?) but exhibit increased production of IL-10 upon TLR-4 ligation. Here we showed that aged macrophages demonstrate similar cytokine dysregulation phenotype upon stimulation with TLR-2 ligands, or killed S. pneumoniae. We hypothesized that an age-associated increase in activity of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway may be playing a causal role in the age-associated cytokine dysregulation. We found that gene expression of both the regulatory (p85?) and the catalytic (p110?) subunits of Class IA PI3K is higher in aged than in young splenic macrophages. The age-associated increase in the activity of PI3K was also demonstrated by an upregulation of P-Akt and its downstream target, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). Inhibition of PI3K enhanced induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, by TLR-2/TLR-1, TLR-2/TLR-6 and TLR-4 ligands as well as heat killed S. pneumoniae (HKSP). Therefore, targeting PI3-Kinase could rescue cytokine dysregulation in aged macrophages and enhance the relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines needed to support B-cell activation and differentiation.