Light-induced oxidative stress, N-formylkynurenine, and oxygenic photosynthesis.
ABSTRACT: Light stress in plants results in damage to the water oxidizing reaction center, photosystem II (PSII). Redox signaling, through oxidative modification of amino acid side chains, has been proposed to participate in this process, but the oxidative signals have not yet been identified. Previously, we described an oxidative modification, N-formylkynurenine (NFK), of W365 in the CP43 subunit. The yield of this modification increases under light stress conditions, in parallel with the decrease in oxygen evolving activity. In this work, we show that this modification, NFK365-CP43, is present in thylakoid membranes and may be formed by reactive oxygen species produced at the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex. NFK accumulation correlates with the extent of photoinhibition in PSII and thylakoid membranes. A modest increase in ionic strength inhibits NFK365-CP43 formation, and leads to accumulation of a new, light-induced NFK modification (NFK317) in the D1 polypeptide. Western analysis shows that D1 degradation and oligomerization occur under both sets of conditions. The NFK modifications in CP43 and D1 are found 17 and 14 Angstrom from the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster, respectively. Based on these results, we propose that NFK is an oxidative modification that signals for damage and repair in PSII. The data suggest a two pathway model for light stress responses. These pathways involve differential, specific, oxidative modification of the CP43 or D1 polypeptides.
Project description:Photosystem II (PSII) is the membrane protein complex that catalyzes the photo-induced oxidation of water at a manganese-calcium active site. Light-dependent damage and repair occur in PSII under conditions of high light stress. The core reaction center complex is composed of the D1, D2, CP43, and CP47 intrinsic polypeptides. In this study, a new chromophore formed from the oxidative post-translational modification of tryptophan is identified in the CP43 subunit. Tandem mass spectrometry peptide sequencing is consistent with the oxidation of the CP43 tryptophan side chain, Trp-365, to produce N-formylkynurenine (NFK). Characterization with ultraviolet visible absorption and ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy supports this assignment. An optical assay suggests that the yield of NFK increases 2-fold (2.2 ± 0.5) under high light illumination. A concomitant 2.4 ± 0.5-fold decrease is observed in the steady-state rate of oxygen evolution under the high light conditions. NFK is the product formed from reaction of tryptophan with singlet oxygen, which can be produced under high light stress in PSII. Reactive oxygen species reactions lead to oxidative damage of the reaction center, D1 protein turnover, and inhibition of electron transfer. Our results are consistent with a role for the CP43 NFK modification in photoinhibition.
Project description:Photosystem II (PSII) is a multisubunit pigment-protein complex and catalyzes light-driven water oxidation, leading to the conversion of light energy into chemical energy and the release of molecular oxygen. Psb27 is a small thylakoid lumen-localized protein known to serve as an assembly factor for the biogenesis and repair of the PSII complex. The exact location and binding fashion of Psb27 in the intermediate PSII remain elusive. Here, we report the structure of a dimeric Psb27-PSII complex purified from a <i>psbV</i> deletion mutant (ΔPsbV) of the cyanobacterium <i>Thermosynechococcus vulcanus</i>, solved by cryo-electron microscopy. Our structure showed that Psb27 is associated with CP43 at the luminal side, with specific interactions formed between Helix 2 and Helix 3 of Psb27 and a loop region between Helix 3 and Helix 4 of CP43 (loop C) as well as the large, lumen-exposed and hydrophilic E-loop of CP43. The binding of Psb27 imposes some conflicts with the N-terminal region of PsbO and also induces some conformational changes in CP43, CP47, and D2. This makes PsbO unable to bind in the Psb27-PSII. Conformational changes also occurred in D1, PsbE, PsbF, and PsbZ; this, together with the conformational changes occurred in CP43, CP47, and D2, may prevent the binding of PsbU and induce dissociation of PsbJ. This structural information provides important insights into the regulation mechanism of Psb27 in the biogenesis and repair of PSII.
Project description:Oxidative modification of proteins in photosystem II (PSII) exposed to high light has been studied for a few decades, but the characterization of protein radicals formed by protein oxidation is largely unknown. Protein oxidation is induced by the direct reaction of proteins with reactive oxygen species known to form highly reactive protein radicals comprising carbon-centered (alkyl) and oxygen-centered (peroxyl and alkoxyl) radicals. In this study, protein radicals were monitored in Arabidopsis exposed to high light by immuno-spin trapping technique based on the detection of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) nitrone adducts using the anti-DMPO antibody. Protein radicals were imaged in Arabidopsis leaves and chloroplasts by confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluorescein conjugated with the anti-DMPO antibody. Characterization of protein radicals by standard blotting techniques using PSII protein specific antibodies shows that protein radicals are formed on D1, D2, CP43, CP47, and Lhcb3 proteins. Protein oxidation reflected by the appearance/disappearance of the protein bands reveals that formation of protein radicals was associated with protein fragmentation (cleavage of the D1 peptide bonds) and aggregation (cross-linking with another PSII subunits). Characterization of protein radical formation is important for better understating of the mechanism of oxidative modification of PSII proteins under high light.
Project description:While the composition and function of the major thylakoid membrane complexes are well understood, comparatively little is known about their biogenesis. The goal of this work was to shed more light on the role of auxiliary factors in the biogenesis of photosystem II (PSII). Here we have identified the homolog of LOW PSII ACCUMULATION 2 (LPA2) in Chlamydomonas. A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lpa2 mutant grew slower in low light, was hypersensitive to high light, and exhibited aberrant structures in thylakoid membrane stacks. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was reduced by 38%. Synthesis and stability of newly made PSII core subunits D1, D2, CP43, and CP47 were not impaired. However, complexome profiling revealed that in the mutant CP43 was reduced to ~23% and D1, D2, and CP47 to ~30% of wild type levels. Levels of PSI and the cytochrome b6f complex were unchanged, while levels of the ATP synthase were increased by ~29%. PSII supercomplexes, dimers, and monomers were reduced to ~7%, ~26%, and ~60% of wild type levels, while RC47 was increased ~6-fold and LHCII by ~27%. We propose that LPA2 catalyses a step during PSII assembly without which PSII monomers and further assemblies become unstable and prone to degradation. The LHCI antenna was more disconnected from PSI in the lpa2 mutant, presumably as an adaptive response to reduce excitation of PSI. From the co-migration profiles of 1734 membrane-associated proteins, we identified three novel putative PSII associated proteins with potential roles in regulating PSII complex dynamics, assembly, and chlorophyll breakdown.
Project description:Photosystem II (PSII), a large multisubunit pigment-protein complex localized in the thylakoid membrane of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, mediates light-driven evolution of oxygen from water. Recently, a high-resolution X-ray structure of the mature PSII complex has become available. Two PSII polypeptides, D1 and CP43, provide many of the ligands to an inorganic Mn(4)Ca center that is essential for water oxidation. Because of its unusual redox chemistry, PSII often undergoes degradation followed by stepwise assembly. Psb27, a small luminal polypeptide, functions as an important accessory factor in this elaborate assembly pathway. However, the structural location of Psb27 within PSII assembly intermediates has remained elusive. Here we report that Psb27 binds to CP43 in such assembly intermediates. We treated purified genetically tagged PSII assembly intermediate complexes from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 with chemical cross-linkers to examine intermolecular interactions between Psb27 and various PSII proteins. First, the water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) was used to cross-link proteins with complementary charged groups in close association to one another. In the His27?ctpAPSII preparation, a 58-kDa cross-linked species containing Psb27 and CP43 was identified. This species was not formed in the HT3?ctpA?psb27PSII complex in which Psb27 was absent. Second, the homobifunctional thiol-cleavable cross-linker 3,3'-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidylpropionate) (DTSSP) was used to reversibly cross-link Psb27 to CP43 in His27?ctpAPSII preparations, which allowed the use of liquid chromatography/tandem MS to map the cross-linking sites as Psb27K(63)?CP43D(321) (trypsin) and CP43K(215)?Psb27D(58)AGGLK(63)?CP43D(321) (chymotrypsin), respectively. Our data suggest that Psb27 acts as an important regulatory protein during PSII assembly through specific interactions with the luminal domain of CP43.
Project description:To study the synthesis and assembly of multisubunit thylakoid protein complexes, we performed [35S]Met pulse and chase experiments with isolated chloroplasts and intact leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), followed by Blue Native gel separation of the (sub)complexes and subsequent identification of the newly synthesized and assembled protein subunits. PSII (photosystem II) core subunits were the most intensively synthesized proteins, particularly in vitro and at high light intensities in vivo, and could be sequestered in several distinct PSII subassemblies. Newly synthesized D1 was first found in the reaction centre complex that also contained labelled D2 and two labelled low-molecular-mass proteins. The next biggest PSII subassembly contained CP47 also. Then PsbH was assembled together with at least two other labelled chloroplast-encoded low-molecular-mass subunits, PsbM and PsbTc, and a nuclear-encoded PsbR. Subsequently, CP43 was inserted into the PSII complex concomitantly with PsbK. These assembly steps seemed to be essential for the dimerization of PSII core monomers. Intact PSII core monomer was the smallest subcomplex harbouring the newly synthesized 33 kDa oxygen-evolving complex protein PsbO. Nuclear-encoded PsbW was synthesized only at low light intensities concomitantly with Lhcb polypeptides and was distinctively present in PSII-LHCII (where LHC stands for light-harvesting complex) supercomplexes. The PsbH protein, on the contrary, was vigorously synthesized and incorporated into PSII core monomers together with the D1 protein, suggesting an intrinsic role for PsbH in the photoinhibition-repair cycle of PSII.
Project description:Photosystem II (PSII) is a large membrane-protein complex composed of about 20 subunits and various cofactors, which mediates the light-driven oxidation of water and reduction of plastoquinone, and is part of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain that is localized in the thylakoid membrane of cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. The stepwise assembly of PSII is guided and facilitated by numerous auxiliary proteins that play specific roles in this spatiotemporal process. Psb27, a small protein localized in the thylakoid lumen, appears to associate with an intermediate PSII complex that is involved in assembly of the Mn4CaO5 cluster. Its precise binding position on the PSII intermediate remains elusive, as previous approaches to the localization of Psb27 on PSII have yielded contradictory results. This was our motivation for a critical assessment of previously used methods and the development of an improved analysis pipeline. The combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (CX-MS) with isotope-coded cross-linkers was refined and validated with reference to the PSII crystal structure. Psb27 was localized on the PSII surface adjacent to the large lumenal domain of CP43 on the basis of a cross-link connecting Psb27-K91 to CP43-K381. Additional contacts associating Psb27 with CP47 and the C-termini of D1 and D2 were detected by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. This information was used to model the binding of Psb27 to the PSII surface in a region that is occupied by PsbV in the mature complex.
Project description:Photosystem II (PSII) mutants are useful experimental tools to trap potential intermediates involved in the assembly of the oxygen-evolving PSII complex. Here, we focus on the subunit composition of the RC47 assembly complex that accumulates in a psbC null mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 unable to make the CP43 apopolypeptide. By using native gel electrophoresis, we showed that RC47 is heterogeneous and mainly found as a monomer of 220 kDa. RC47 complexes co-purify with small Cab-like proteins (ScpC and/or ScpD) and with Psb28 and its homologue Psb28-2. Analysis of isolated His-tagged RC47 indicated the presence of D1, D2, the CP47 apopolypeptide, plus nine of the 13 low-molecular-mass (LMM) subunits found in the PSII holoenzyme, including PsbL, PsbM and PsbT, which lie at the interface between the two momomers in the dimeric holoenzyme. Not detected were the LMM subunits (PsbK, PsbZ, Psb30 and PsbJ) located in the vicinity of CP43 in the holoenzyme. The photochemical activity of isolated RC47-His complexes, including the rate of reduction of P680(+), was similar to that of PSII complexes lacking the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster. The implications of our results for the assembly and repair of PSII in vivo are discussed.
Project description:In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, photosystem II (PSII) is a unique membrane protein complex that catalyzes light-driven oxidation of water. PSII undergoes frequent damage due to its demanding photochemistry. It must undergo a repair and reassembly process following photodamage, many facets of which remain unknown. We have discovered a PSII subcomplex that lacks 5 key PSII core reaction center polypeptides: D1, D2, PsbE, PsbF, and PsbI. This pigment-protein complex does contain the PSII core antenna proteins CP47 and CP43, as well as most of their associated low molecular mass subunits, and the assembly factor Psb27. Immunoblotting, mass spectrometry, and ultrafast spectroscopic results support the absence of a functional reaction center in this complex, which we call the "no reaction center" complex (NRC). Analytical ultracentrifugation and clear native PAGE analysis show that NRC is a stable pigment-protein complex and not a mixture of free CP47 and CP43 proteins. NRC appears in higher abundance in cells exposed to high light and impaired protein synthesis, and genetic deletion of PsbO on the PSII luminal side results in an increased NRC population, indicative that NRC forms in response to photodamage as part of the PSII repair process. Our finding challenges the current model of the PSII repair cycle and implies an alternative PSII repair strategy. Formation of this complex may maximize PSII repair economy by preserving intact PSII core antennas in a single complex available for PSII reassembly, minimizing the risk of randomly diluting multiple recycling components in the thylakoid membrane following a photodamage event.
Project description:Photosystem II (PSII), a unique membrane-bound oxidoreductase, catalyzes light-driven oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Although high-resolution structures of PSII are known, the exact path of the substrate water molecules to the catalytic Mn4CaO5 center within the PSII complex remains poorly understood. PSII produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), responsible for the frequent damage and turnover of this megacomplex that occur under physiological conditions. Such ROS are known to specifically modify PSII proteins. Using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, we identified oxidative modifications on 36 amino acid residues on the lumenal side of PSII, in the core PSII proteins D1, D2, and CP43 of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Remarkably, these oxidized residues clustered into three nearly continuous formations, tracking the pathways of ROS diffusion from the manganese center all the way out to the surface of PSII. We suggest that these profiles of oxidized residues reveal the locations of water channels within PSII. Our results provide the most comprehensive experimental evidence to date of physiologically relevant oxidized residues in PSII and illuminate three possible channels for water between the catalytic Mn cluster in the PSII complex and the bulk medium around it.