Interleukin-1R3 mediates interleukin-1-induced potassium current increase through fast activation of Akt kinase.
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) performs multiple functions in the central nervous system. The type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) form a functional IL-1 receptor complex that is thought to mediate most, if not all, IL-1-induced effects. Several recent studies, however, suggest the existence of a heretofore-unidentified receptor for IL-1. In this study, we report that the IL-1R1 gene contains an internal promoter that drives the transcription of a shortened IL-1R1 mRNA. This mRNA is the template for a unique IL-1R protein that is identical to IL-1R1 at the C terminus, but with a shorter extracellular domain at the N terminus. We have termed this molecule IL-1R3. The mRNA and protein for IL-1R3 are expressed in normal and two strains of commercially available IL-1R1 knockout mice. Western blot analysis shows IL-1R3 is preferentially expressed in neural tissues. Furthermore, IL-1? binds specifically to IL-1R3 when it is complexed with the newly discovered alternative IL-1 receptor accessory protein, IL-1RAcPb. Stimulation of neurons expressing both IL-1R3 and IL-1RAcPb with IL-1? causes fast activation of the Akt kinase, which leads to an increase in voltage-gated potassium current. These results demonstrate that IL-1R3/IL-1RAcPb complex mediates a unique subset of IL-1 activity that accounts for many previously unexplained IL-1 effects in the central nervous system.
Project description:The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways.
Project description:IL-1 cytokine family plays a key role in the innate immune response against pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns. More recently, IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-R1) signaling has been identified as a critical step in the differentiation and commitment of Th17 cells, which mediate the development of autoimmune diseases. Given its significance in the induction of the adoptive immune response, this complex signaling pathway is tightly regulated. Upon binding of IL-1 to IL-1R1, IL-1R accessory protein (AcP) is recruited to form a high affinity IL-1R1-IL-1RAcP heterodimeric receptor, which initiates the downstream signaling cascade. Multiple negative regulators of this pathway, including inhibitory membrane-bound IL-RII, secreted soluble (s)IL-1RI, sIL-RII and sIL-1RAcP, the regulatory IL-1R1 antagonist (IL-1R1a) and the IL-1R1-signlaing-induced single Ig-IL-1R-related (SIGIRR), provide a negative feedback control of this pathway, and suppress excessive IL-1 signaling and Th17 cell differentiation. IL-1R1 signaling induces human Th17 cell differentiation, leading to the expression of IL-1R-associated protein kinase (IRAK)4 and retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor (ROR), Th17 cell lineage transcription factors, which together with signal transducer and activator of the transcription (STAT)3, activate this cell lineage's specific cytokine expression profile, including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22. Given the role of IL-1 signaling and Th17 cells in the development of the autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases, therapeutic strategies inhibiting IL-1R1 signaling are discussed as a novel approach for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and particularly multiple sclerosis (MS).
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) activates the transcription of many genes encoding acute phase and proinflammatory proteins, a function mediated primarily by the transcription factor NF-kappaB. An early IL-1 signaling event is the recruitment of the Ser/Thr kinase IRAK to the type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI). Here we describe the function of a previously identified IL-1 receptor subunit designated IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). IL-1 treatment of cells induces the formation of a complex containing both IL-1RI and IL-1RAcP. IRAK is recruited to this complex through its association with IL-1RAcP. Overexpression of an IL-1RAcP mutant lacking its intracellular domain, the IRAK-binding domain, prevented the recruitment of IRAK to the receptor complex and blocked IL-1-induced NF-kappaB activation.
Project description:IL-36 cytokines signal through the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) and a shared subunit, IL-1RAcP (IL-1 receptor accessory protein). The activation mechanism for the IL-36 pathway is proposed to be similar to that of IL-1 in that an IL-36R agonist (IL-36α, IL-36β, or IL-36γ) forms a binary complex with IL-36R, which then recruits IL-1RAcP. Recent studies have shown that IL-36R interacts with IL-1RAcP even in the absence of an agonist. To elucidate the IL-36 activation mechanism, we considered all possible binding events for IL-36 ligands/receptors and examined these events in direct binding assays. Our results indicated that the agonists bind the IL-36R extracellular domain with micromolar affinity but do not detectably bind IL-1RAcP. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we found that IL-1RAcP also does not bind IL-36R when no agonist is present. In the presence of IL-36α, however, IL-1RAcP bound IL-36R strongly. These results suggested that the main pathway to the IL-36R·IL-36α·IL-1RAcP ternary complex is through the IL-36R·IL-36α binary complex, which recruits IL-1RAcP. We could not measure the binding affinity of IL-36R to IL-1RAcP directly, so we engineered a fragment crystallizable-linked construct to induce IL-36R·IL-1RAcP heterodimerization and predicted the binding affinity during a complete thermodynamic cycle to be 74 μm The SPR analysis also indicated that the IL-36R antagonist IL-36Ra binds IL-36R with higher affinity and a much slower off rate than the IL-36R agonists, shedding light on IL-36 pathway inhibition. Our results reveal the landscape of IL-36 ligand and receptor interactions, improving our understanding of IL-36 pathway activation and inhibition.
Project description:Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, which has diverse actions in the brain as a regulator of host defence responses and a mediator of inflammation. Two major agonists, IL-1α and IL-1β bind to a single known functional (type-1) IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI), which associates with an accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) leading to signal transduction. However, recent evidence suggests that some actions of IL-1 in the brain may be independent of IL-1R1 and its classical signalling pathways, pointing to an as yet unidentified functional receptor for IL-1 expressed in the CNS. In this study, cDNA array based gene expression profiling was used to identify possible genes induced by IL-1β independently of IL-1R1. The results show that IL-1β may indeed regulate some genes independently of IL-1R1, suggesting the presence of additional functional IL-1 receptors in the mouse brain. Keywords: experimental treatment (IL-1β), gene ablation (IL-1R1), glia Overall design: Wild-type and IL-1R1-/- primary mixed glial cells were treated for 4 hours with 10 ng/ml rrIL-1β or vehicle alone. Paired treatments were undertaken in three independent biological replicates for each cell type.
Project description:The cytokine interleukin 1(IL-1) initiates a wide range of proinflammatory cascades and its inhibition has been shown to decrease inflammation in a variety of diseases. IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) is an indispensible part of the IL-1R complex that stabilizes IL-1/IL-1R interaction and plays an important role in the signal transduction of the receptor complex. The soluble form of IL-1RAcP (sIL-1RAcP) contains only the extracellular domain and serves as a natural inhibitor of IL-1 signaling. Therefore, increasing sIL-1RAcP levels might be an attractive therapeutic strategy to inhibit IL-1-driven inflammation. To achieve this we designed specific antisense oligonucleotides (AON), to redirect pre-mRNA IL-1RAcP splicing by skipping of the transmembrane domain encoding exon 9. This would give rise to a novel ?9IL-1RAcP mRNA encoding a soluble, secreted form of IL-1RAcP, which might have similar activity as natural sIL-1RAcP. AON treatment resulted in exon 9 skipping both in vitro and in vivo. A single dose injection of 10?mg AON/kg body weight induced 90% skipping in mouse liver during at least 5 days. The truncated mRNA encoded for a secreted, soluble ?9IL-1RAcP protein. IL-1RAcP skipping resulted in a substantial inhibition of IL-1 signaling in vitro. These results indicate that skipping of the transmembrane encoding exon 9 of IL-1RAcP using specific AONs might be a promising therapeutic strategy in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e66; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.58; published online 22 January 2013.
Project description:Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to neuronal injury in various degenerative diseases, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. It exerts its biological effect by activating the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and recruiting a signalling core complex consisting of the myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) and the IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). This pathway has been clearly described in the peripheral immune system, but only scattered information is available concerning the molecular composition and distribution of its members in neuronal cells. The findings of this study show that IL-1RI and its accessory proteins MyD88 and IL-1RAcP are differently distributed in the hippocampus and in the subcellular compartments of primary hippocampal neurons. In particular, only IL-1RI is enriched at synaptic sites, where it co-localises with, and binds to the GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptors. Furthermore, treatment with NMDA increases IL-1RI interaction with NMDA receptors, as well as the surface expression and localization of IL-1RI at synaptic membranes. IL-1? also increases IL-1RI levels at synaptic sites, without affecting the total amount of the receptor in the plasma membrane. Our results reveal for the first time the existence of a dynamic and functional interaction between NMDA receptor and IL-1RI systems that could provide a molecular basis for IL-1? as a neuromodulator in physiological and pathological events relying on NMDA receptor activation.
Project description:Members of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family of cytokines play major roles in host defense and immune system regulation in infectious and inflammatory diseases. IL-1 cytokines trigger a biological response in effector cells by assembling a heterotrimeric signaling complex with two IL-1 receptor chains, a high-affinity primary receptor and a low-affinity coreceptor. To gain insights into the signaling mechanism of the novel IL-1-like cytokine IL-33, we first solved its solution structure and then performed a detailed biochemical and structural characterization of the interaction between IL-33, its primary receptor ST2, and the coreceptor IL-1RAcP. Using nuclear magnetic resonance data, we obtained a model of the IL-33/ST2 complex in solution that is validated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data and is similar to the IL-1beta/IL-1R1 complex. We extended our SAXS analysis to the IL-33/ST2/IL-1RAcP and IL-1beta/IL-1R1/IL-1RAcP complexes and propose a general model of the molecular architecture of IL-1 ternary signaling complexes.
Project description:Receptor-binding and subsequent signal-activation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) are essential to immune and proinflammatory responses. We mutated 12 residues to identify sites important for biological activity and/or receptor binding. Four of these mutants with mutations in loop 9 (T117A, E118K, E118A, E118R) displayed significantly reduced biological activity. Neither T117A nor E118K mutants substantially affected receptor binding, whereas both mutants lack the IL-1? signaling in vitro but can antagonize wild-type (WT) IL-1?. Crystal structures of T117A, E118A, and E118K revealed that the secondary structure or surface charge of loop 9 is dramatically altered compared with that of wild-type chicken IL-1?. Molecular dynamics simulations of IL-1? bound to its receptor (IL-1RI) and receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) revealed that loop 9 lies in a pocket that is formed at the IL-1RI/IL-1RAcP interface. This pocket is also observed in the human ternary structure. The conformations of above mutants in loop 9 may disrupt structural packing and therefore the stability in a chicken IL-1?/IL-1RI/IL-1RAcP signaling complex. We identify the hot spots in IL-1? that are essential to immune responses and elucidate a mechanism by which IL-1? activity can be inhibited. These findings should aid in the development of new therapeutics that neutralize IL-1 activity.
Project description:The type 1 interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1) mediates diverse functions of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the nervous, immune, and neuroendocrine systems. It has been suggested previously that the versatile functions of IL-1 may in part be conferred by the multiple promoters of IL-1R1 that have been identified for the human IL-1R1 gene. Promoters for murine IL-1R1 (mIL-1R1) gene have not been studied in detail. We performed 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to determine the transcription start sites (TSS) in mIL-1R1, using mRNAs derived from 24 different tissues. The results revealed three putative TSSs of mIL-1R1. Three full-length cDNAs containing these distinct TSSs were recovered in screens of cloned cDNA libraries. Translation of these cDNAs produced IL-1R1 proteins that were verified by Western blot analysis. IL-1 stimulation of the individual IL-1R1 proteins resulted in the activation of NF-kappaB. Promoter-reporter assay for genomic DNA sequences immediately upstream of the three TSSs validated that the sequences possess promoter activity in a cell type-specific manner. These promoters are termed P1, P2, and P3 of the mIL-1R1, in 5' to 3' order. Quantitative PCR analysis of P1-, P2-, and P3-specific mIL-1R1 mRNAs showed that there is tissue-specific distribution of these mRNAs in vivo, and there are distinct patterns of P1, P2, and P3 mRNA expression in different cell lines. In the brain, P3 mRNA is expressed preferentially in the dentate gyrus. Further, glucocorticoids differentially regulate these promoters in a cell type-specific manner. Together, these results suggest that the different IL-1R1 promoters contribute to the discrete and diverse actions of IL-1.