DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (Papio hamadryas).
ABSTRACT: In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals.We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas). We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT) coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284?bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR).The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney) of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene.
Project description:Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan hemoparasites that infect mammalian red blood cells. Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of Babesia infection in a colony of captive baboons and to evaluate potential experimental routes of the transmission of the hemoparasite. DNA was extracted from the blood of baboons and tested for infection with Babesia by PCR and primers that amplify the 18s rRNA gene of the parasite. The overall prevalence of infection of Babesia in the baboon population was 8.8% (73 of 830). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced DNA from 2 baboons revealed that the Babesia isolate found in captive baboons was a novel species most closely related (97% to 99%) to B. leo. Blood from a Babesia-infected donor baboon was inoculated intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously into 3 naive baboons. The intravenously inoculated baboon was PCR-positive at 7 d after inoculation; the 2 baboons inoculated by other routes became PCR-positive at 10 d after inoculation. All 3 baboons remained PCR-positive for Babesia through day 31. Baboons experimentally inoculated with the new Babesia isolate did not exhibit clinical signs of babesiosis during the experiments. We demonstrated that captive baboons are infected with a novel Babesia isolate. In addition we showed that Babesia can be transmitted in the absence of the organism's definitive host (ticks) by transfer of infected blood through intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous routes to naive baboons.
Project description:Expression of the molecules that modulate the synthesis and action of estrogen in, or reflect function of, Sertoli cells was determined in the fetal testis of baboons in which estrogen levels were suppressed in the second half of gestation to determine whether this may account for the previously reported alteration in fetal testis germ cell development. P-450 aromatase, estrogen receptor (ER) ?, and ?-inhibin protein assessed by immunocytochemistry was abundantly expressed in Sertoli cells of the fetal baboon testis, but unaltered in baboons in which estrogen levels were suppressed by letrozole administration. Moreover, P-450 aromatase and ER? and ? mRNA levels, assessed by real-time RT-PCR, were similar in germ/Sertoli cells and interstitial cells isolated from the fetal testis of untreated and letrozole-treated baboons. These results indicate that expression of the proteins that modulate the formation and action of estrogen in, and function of, Sertoli cells is not responsible for the changes in germ cell development in the fetal testis of estrogen-deprived baboons.
Project description:Pregnancy is a complex physiological condition, and the growth hormone (GH)-related hormones produced in the placenta, which emerged during the evolution of primates, are thought to play an important metabolic role in pregnancy that is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify the genes and transcription products of the GH family in baboon (Papio hamadryas) and to assess these in relation to the evolution of this gene family. GH-related transcripts were amplified using total RNA from placental tissue, by reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three different GH-related transcripts were identified in baboon placental tissue, with two encoding chorionic somatomammotropins (CSH) and one the placental variant of GH (GH-2). The CSH transcripts showed some minor allelic variation, and a splice variant of CSH-C that retains its in-frame third intron. Gene sequences for GH-1 (probably representing the GH gene expressed primarily in the pituitary gland), GH-2 and the two CSHs were identified in the baboon genomic database, together with a CSH-related pseudogene. Phylogenetic analysis of the baboon GH-related sequences, together with those of a related Old World monkey, macaque, and ape outgroup (human), showed the equivalence of the genes in baboon and macaque, and revealed evidence for several episodes of rapid adaptive evolution. Many of the substitutions seen during the evolution of these placental proteins have occurred in the receptor-binding sites, especially site 2, contrasting with the strong conservation of the hydrophobic core.
Project description:Are microRNAs (miRs) altered in the eutopic endometrium (EuE) of baboons following the induction of endometriosis?Induction of endometriosis causes significant changes in the expression of eight miRs, including miR-451, in the baboon endometrium as early as 3 months following induction of the disease.Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological disorders and causes chronic pelvic pain and infertility in women of reproductive age. Altered expression of miRs has been reported in women and has been suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of several gynecological disorders including endometriosis.EuE was obtained from the same group of baboons before and 3 months after the induction of endometriosis. The altered expression of miR-451 was validated in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of additional baboons between 3 and 15 months following disease induction. Timed endometrial biopsies from women with and without endometriosis were also used to validate the expression of miR-451.Total RNA was extracted from EuE samples before and after the induction of endometriosis, and miRNA expression was analyzed using a 8 × 15 K miR microarray. Microarray signal data were preprocessed by AgiMiRna software, and an empirical Bayes model was used to estimate the changes. The present study focused on quantitative RT-PCR validation of the microarray data, specifically on miR-451 and its target genes in both baboons (n = 3) and women [control (n = 7) and endometriosis (n = 19)]. Descriptive and correlative analysis of miR-451 and target gene expression was conducted using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, while functional analysis utilized an in vitro 3' untranslated region (UTR) luciferase assay and overexpression of miR-451 in human endometrial and endometriotic cell lines.Induction of endometriosis results in the altered expression of miR-451, -141, -29c, -21, -424, -19b, -200a and -181a in the baboon endometrium. In the baboon, induction of endometriosis significantly decreased the expression of miR-451 at 3 months (P < 0.001), which was also associated with increased expression of its target gene YWHAZ (14.3.3?). A similar significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in miR-451 expression was observed in women with endometriosis. The 3' UTR luciferase assay confirmed the regulation of YWHAZ expression by miR-451. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-451 in 12Z cells (immortalized human endometriotic epithelial cell line) led to the decreased expression of its target YWHAZ and this was correlated with decreased cell proliferation.The study focused only on miR-451 and one of its targets, namely YWHAZ. A single miR could target number of genes and a single gene could also be regulated by number of miRs; hence, it is possible that other miRs and their regulated genes may contribute to the pathophysiology of endometriosis.Our data suggest that the presence of ectopic lesions in baboon causes changes in EuE miR expression as early as 3 months postinduction of the disease, and some of these changes may persist throughout the course of the disease. We propose that the marked down-regulation of miR-451 in both baboons and women with endometriosis increases the expression of multiple target genes. Increased expression of one of the target genes, YWHAZ, increases proliferation, likely contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease.
Project description:Streptococcus spp. are a source of morbidity and mortality in captive nonhuman primate populations. However, little is known about the lesions associated with naturally occurring streptococcal infections in baboons (Papio spp.). The pathology database of the Southwest National Primate Research Center was searched for all baboon autopsies from 1988 to 2018 in which Streptococcus spp. were cultured. Baboons on experimental protocol were excluded. The gross autopsy and histopathology reports were reviewed. Archived specimens were retrieved and reviewed as needed for confirmation or clarification. Fifty-six cultures were positive for Streptococcus spp. in 54 baboons with evidence of bacterial infection. Associated gross lesions included purulent exudate, fibrinous to fibrous adhesions, hemorrhage, mucosal thickening, organomegaly, and abscessation. Histologic lesions included suppurative inflammation, abscessation, necrosis, hemorrhage, fibrin accumulation, and thrombosis. Lungs and pleura (n = 31) were the most commonly infected organ followed by the central nervous system (n = 16), spleen (n = 15), soft tissues (n = 12), air sacs, liver, peritoneum, adrenal glands, heart, lymph nodes, uterus, kidneys, biliary system, bones, ears, umbilical structures, mammary glands, pancreas, placenta, and salivary glands. Infections by non-?-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. predominated in the lungs and air sacs; the most common isolate was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infections by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. predominated in the soft tissues and reproductive tract. Naturally occurring ?-hemolytic and non-?-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. infections cause morbidity and mortality in captive baboon populations. The lesions associated with streptococcal infection are similar to those reported in human infection. Thus, the baboon may represent an underutilized model for studying Streptococcus spp. as pathogens.
Project description:Baboons (genus Papio) are distributed over most of sub-Saharan Africa and in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. Six distinct morphotypes, with clearly defined geographic distributions, are recognized (the olive, chacma, yellow, Guinea, Kinda, and hamadryas baboons). The evolutionary relationships among baboon forms have long been a controversial issue. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the modern baboon morphotypes are mitochondrially paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The discordance between mitochondrial lineages and morphology is indicative of extensive introgressive hybridization between ancestral baboon populations. To gain insights into the evolutionary relationships among morphotypes and their demographic history, we performed an analysis of nuclear variation in baboons. We sequenced 13 noncoding, putatively neutral, nuclear regions, and scored the presence/absence of 18 polymorphic transposable elements in a sample of 45 baboons belonging to five of the six recognized baboon forms. We found that the chacma baboon is the sister-taxon to all other baboons and the yellow baboon is the sister-taxon to an unresolved northern clade containing the olive, Guinea, and hamadryas baboons. We estimated that the diversification of baboons occurred entirely in the Pleistocene, the earliest split dating ?1.5 million years ago, and that baboons have experienced relatively large and constant effective population sizes for most of their evolutionary history (?30,000 to 95,000 individuals).
Project description:Baboons naturally infected with simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV) are a potentially useful model system for the study of vaccination against human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV). Here we expanded the number of available full-length baboon STLV-1 sequences from one to three and related the T cell responses that recognize the immunodominant Tax protein to the tax sequences present in two individual baboons. Continuously growing T cell lines were established from two baboons, animals 12141 and 12752. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of complete STLV genome sequences from these T cell lines revealed them to be closely related but distinct from each other and from the baboon STLV-1 sequence in the NCBI sequence database. Overlapping peptides corresponding to each unique Tax sequence and to the reference baboon Tax sequence were used to analyze recognition by T cells from each baboon using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Individual baboons expressed more gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to Tax peptides corresponding to their own STLV-1 sequence than in response to Tax peptides corresponding to the reference baboon STLV-1 sequence. Thus, our analyses revealed distinct but closely related STLV-1 genome sequences in two baboons, extremely low heterogeneity of STLV sequences within each baboon, no evidence for superinfection within each baboon, and a ready ability of T cells in each baboon to recognize circulating Tax sequences. While amino acid substitutions that result in escape from CD8+ T cell recognition were not observed, premature stop codons were observed in 7% and 56% of tax sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from animals 12141 and 12752, respectively.IMPORTANCE It has been estimated that approximately 100,000 people suffer serious morbidity and 10,000 people die each year from the consequences associated with human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection. There are no antiviral drugs and no preventive vaccine. A preventive vaccine would significantly impact the global burden associated with HTLV infections. Here we provide fundamental information on the simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV) naturally transmitted in a colony of captive baboons. The limited viral sequence heterogeneity in individual baboons, the identity of the viral gene product that is the major target of cellular immune responses, the persistence of viral amino acid sequences that are the major targets of cellular immune responses, and the emergence in vivo of truncated variants in the major target of cellular immune responses all parallel what are seen with HTLV infection of humans. These results justify the use of STLV-infected baboons as a model system for vaccine development efforts.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Baboons of the genus Papio are distributed over wide ranges of Africa and even colonized parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Traditionally, five phenotypically distinct species are recognized, but recent molecular studies were not able to resolve their phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, these studies revealed para- and polyphyletic (hereafter paraphyletic) mitochondrial clades for baboons from eastern Africa, and it was hypothesized that introgressive hybridization might have contributed substantially to their evolutionary history. To further elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among baboons, we extended earlier studies by analysing the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the 'Brown region' from 67 specimens collected at 53 sites, which represent all species and which cover most of the baboons' range. RESULTS: Based on phylogenetic tree reconstructions seven well supported major haplogroups were detected, which reflect geographic populations and discordance between mitochondrial phylogeny and baboon morphology. Our divergence age estimates indicate an initial separation into southern and northern baboon clades 2.09 (1.54-2.71) million years ago (mya). We found deep divergences between haplogroups within several species (~2 mya, northern and southern yellow baboons, western and eastern olive baboons and northern and southern chacma baboons), but also recent divergence ages among species (< 0.7 mya, yellow, olive and hamadryas baboons in eastern Africa). CONCLUSION: Our study confirms earlier findings for eastern Africa, but shows that baboon species from other parts of the continent are also mitochondrially paraphyletic. The phylogenetic patterns suggest a complex evolutionary history with multiple phases of isolation and reconnection of populations. Most likely all these biogeographic events were triggered by multiple cycles of expansion and retreat of savannah biomes during Pleistocene glacial and inter-glacial periods. During contact phases of populations reticulate events (i.e. introgressive hybridization) were highly likely, similar to ongoing hybridization, which is observed between East African baboon populations. Defining the extent of the introgressive hybridization will require further molecular studies that incorporate additional sampling sites and nuclear loci.
Project description:Intergeneric hybridization and introgression was reported from one of two populations of the recently discovered kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji), a critically endangered African monkey species of southern Tanzania. Kipunjis of the introgressed population (from Mount Rungwe) carry a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype closely related to those of parapatric yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), whereas the second kipunji population, in the Udzungwa Mountains, carries the original kipunji mtDNA haplotypes, which diverged from the baboon lineage about 3 million years ago. Interestingly, in our study of yellow baboons in Tanzania, we found that baboons from the southeastern boundary of the Udzungwa Mountains carry mtDNA haplotypes closely related to the original kipunji haplotype, whereas baboons from the northern boundary, as expected, carry mtDNA haplotypes of the northern yellow baboon clade. These findings provide evidence for a case of inverted intergeneric admixture in primates: (i) a baboon mtDNA haplotype introgressed the Mount Rungwe kipunji population by mitochondrial capture and (ii) an Udzungwa Mountains kipunji mtDNA haplotype introgressed a small subpopulation of yellow baboons by either mitochondrial capture or nuclear swamping. The baboon-kipunji example therefore constitutes an interesting system for further studies of the effects of genetic admixture on fitness and speciation.
Project description:The cellular composition of the islet of Langerhans is essential to ensure its physiological function. Morphophysiological islet abnormalities are present in type 2 diabetes but the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and islet cell composition, particularly the role of delta cells, is unknown. We explored these questions in pancreases from baboons (Papio hamadryas) with FPG ranging from normal to type 2 diabetic values.We measured the volumes of alpha, beta and delta cells and amyloid in pancreatic islets of 40 baboons (Group 1 [G1]: FPG < 4.44 mmol/l [n = 10]; G2: FPG = 4.44-5.26 mmol/l [n = 9]; G3: FPG = 5.27-6.94 mmol/l [n = 9]; G4: FPG > 6.94 mmol/l [n = 12]) and correlated islet composition with metabolic and hormonal variables. We also performed confocal microscopy including TUNEL, caspase-3, and anti-caspase cleavage product of cytokeratin 18 (M30) immunostaining, electron microscopy, and immuno-electron microscopy with anti-somatostatin antibodies in baboon pancreases.Amyloidosis preceded the decrease in beta cell volume. Alpha cell volume increased ? 50% in G3 and G4 (p < 0.05), while delta cell volume decreased in these groups by 31% and 39%, respectively (p < 0.05). In G4, glucagon levels were higher, while insulin and HOMA index of beta cell function were lower than in the other groups. Immunostaining of G4 pancreatic sections with TUNEL, caspase-3 and M30 showed apoptosis of beta and delta cells, which was also confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy with anti-somatostatin antibodies.In diabetic baboons, changes in islet composition correlate with amyloid deposition, with increased alpha cell and decreased beta and delta cell volume and number due to apoptosis. These data argue for an important role of delta cells in type 2 diabetes.