The intrathecal CD163-haptoglobin-hemoglobin scavenging system in subarachnoid hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT: Delayed cerebral ischemia resulting from extracellular hemoglobin is an important determinant of outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hemoglobin is scavenged by the CD163-haptoglobin system in the circulation, but little is known about this scavenging pathway in the human CNS. The components of this system were analyzed in normal cerebrospinal fluid and after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The intrathecal presence of the CD163-haptoglobin-hemoglobin scavenging system was unequivocally demonstrated. The resting capacity of the CD163-haptoglobin-hemoglobin system in the normal CNS was 50 000-fold lower than that of the circulation. After subarachnoid hemorrhage, the intrathecal CD163-haptoglobin-hemoglobin system was saturated, as shown by the presence of extracellular hemoglobin despite detectable haptoglobin. Hemoglobin efflux from the CNS was evident, enabling rescue hemoglobin scavenging by the systemic circulation. Therefore, the CNS is not capable of dealing with significant intrathecal hemolysis. Potential therapeutic options to prevent delayed cerebral ischemia ought to concentrate on augmenting the capacity of the intrathecal CD163-haptoglobin-hemoglobin scavenging system and strategies to encourage hemoglobin efflux from the brain.
Project description:Survivors of cerebral aneurysm rupture are at risk for significant morbidity and neurological deficits. Much of this is related to the effects of blood in the subarachnoid space which induces an inflammatory cascade with numerous downstream consequences. Recent clinical trials have not been able to reduce the toxic effects of free hemoglobin or improve clinical outcome. One reason for this may be the inability to identify patients at high risk for neurologic decline. Recently, haptoglobin genotype has been identified as a pertinent factor in diabetes, sickle cell, and cardiovascular disease, with the Hp 2-2 genotype contributing to increased complications. Haptoglobin is a protein synthesized by the liver that binds free hemoglobin following red blood cell lysis, and in doing so, prevents hemoglobin induced toxicity and facilitates clearance. Clinical studies in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage indicate that Hp 2-2 patients may be a high-risk group for hemorrhage related complications and poor outcome. We review the relevance of haptoglobin in subarachnoid hemorrhage and discuss the effects of genotype and expression levels on the known mechanisms of early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral ischemia after aneurysm rupture. A better understanding of haptoglobin and its role in preventing hemoglobin related toxicity should lead to novel therapeutic avenues.
Project description:Immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged antibiotic use, and intrathecal injections are known risk factors for the development of invasive aspergillosis. Central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis can manifest in many forms, including mycotic aneurysm formation. The majority of the mycotic aneurysms presents with subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture and are associated with high mortality. Only 3 cases of true mycotic aneurysms have been reported following trans-sphenoidal surgery.A 38-year-old man was admitted with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma for which he underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery. Three weeks later, he presented with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea and meningitis. He was treated with intrathecal and intravenous antibiotics, stress dose of glucocorticoids, and lumbar drain. The defect in the sphenoid bone was closed endoscopically. After 3 weeks of therapy, he suddenly became unresponsive, and computed tomography of the head showed subarachnoid hemorrhage. He succumbed to illness on the next day, and a limited autopsy of the brain was performed. The autopsy revealed extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysmal dilatation, thrombosis of the basilar artery (BA), multiple hemorrhagic infarcts in the midbrain, and pons. Histopathology of the BA revealed the loss of internal elastic lamina and septate hyphae with an acute angle branching on Grocott's methenamine silver stain, conforming to the morphology of Aspergillus.The possibility of intracranial fungal infection should be strongly considered in any patient receiving intrathecal antibiotics who fails to improve in 1-2 weeks, and frequent CSF culture for fungi should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Since CSF culture has poor sensitivity in the diagnosis of fungal infections of CNS; empirical institution of antifungal therapy may be considered in this scenario.
Project description:After subarachnoid haemorrhage, prolonged exposure to toxic extracellular haemoglobin occurs in the brain. Here, we investigate the role of haemoglobin neurotoxicity in vivo and its prevention. In humans after subarachnoid haemorrhage, haemoglobin in cerebrospinal fluid was associated with neurofilament light chain, a marker of neuronal damage. Most haemoglobin was not complexed with haptoglobin, an endogenous haemoglobin scavenger present at very low concentration in the brain. Exogenously added haptoglobin bound most uncomplexed haemoglobin, in the first 2 weeks after human subarachnoid haemorrhage, indicating a wide therapeutic window. In mice, the behavioural, vascular, cellular and molecular changes seen after human subarachnoid haemorrhage were recapitulated by modelling a single aspect of subarachnoid haemorrhage: prolonged intrathecal exposure to haemoglobin. Haemoglobin-induced behavioural deficits and astrocytic, microglial and synaptic changes were attenuated by haptoglobin. Haptoglobin treatment did not attenuate large-vessel vasospasm, yet improved clinical outcome by restricting diffusion of haemoglobin into the parenchyma and reducing small-vessel vasospasm. In summary, haemoglobin toxicity is of clinical importance and preventable by haptoglobin, independent of large-vessel vasospasm.
Project description:The haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163 and proTNF-? are transmembrane macrophage proteins subjected to cleavage by the inflammation-responsive protease ADAM17. This leads to release of soluble CD163 (sCD163) and bioactive TNF-?. Sequence comparison of the juxtamembrane region identified similar palindromic sequences in human CD163 ((1044)Arg-Ser-Ser-Arg) and proTNF-? ((78)Arg-Ser-Ser-Ser-Arg). In proTNF-? the Arg-Ser-Ser-Ser-Arg sequence is situated next to the previously established ADAM17 cleavage site. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the sequences harbor essential information for efficient cleavage of the two proteins upon ADAM17 stimulation. This was further evidenced by analysis of mouse CD163 that, like CD163 in other non-primates, does not contain the palindromic CD163 sequence in the juxtamembrane region. Mouse CD163 resisted endotoxin- and phorbol ester-induced shedding, and ex vivo analysis of knock-in of the Arg-Ser-Ser-Arg sequence in mouse CD163 revealed a receptor shedding comparable with that of human CD163. In conclusion, we have identified an essential substrate motif for ADAM17-mediated CD163 and proTNF-? cleavage in macrophages. In addition, the present data indicate that CD163, by incorporation of this motif in late evolution, underwent a modification that allows for an instant down-regulation of surface CD163 expression and inhibition of hemoglobin uptake. This regulatory modality seems to have coincided with the evolution of an enhanced hemoglobin-protecting role of the haptoglobin-CD163 system in primates.
Project description:Intraplaque hemorrhage accelerates atherosclerosis via oxidant stress and contributes to lesion development and destabilization. Normally, macrophages scavenge hemoglobin-haptoglobin (HbHp) complexes via CD163, and this process provokes the secretion of the anti-inflammatory atheroprotective cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HbHp complexes may drive monocyte differentiation to an atheroprotective phenotype. Examination of the macrophage phenotype in hemorrhaged atherosclerotic plaques revealed a novel hemorrhage-associated macrophage population (HA-mac), defined by high levels of CD163, but low levels of human leukocyte antigen-DR. HA-mac contained more iron, a pro-oxidant catalyst, but paradoxically had less oxidative injury, measured by 8-oxo-guanosine content. Differentiating monocytes with HbHp complexes reproduced the CD163(high) human leukocyte antigen-DR(low) HA-mac phenotype in vitro. These in vitro HA-mac cells cleared Hb more quickly, and consistently showed less hydrogen peroxide release, highly reactive oxygen species and oxidant stress, and increased survival. Differentiation to HA-mac was prevented by neutralizing IL-10 antibodies, indicating that IL-10 mediates an autocrine feedback mechanism in this system. Nonlinear dynamic modeling showed that an IL-10/CD163-positive feedback loop drove a discrete HA-mac lineage. Simulations further indicated an all-or-none switch to HA-mac at threshold levels of HbHp, and this conversion was experimentally verified. These data demonstrate the creation of a novel atheroprotective (HA-mac) macrophage subpopulation in response to intraplaque hemorrhage and raise the possibility that therapeutically reproducing this macrophage phenotype may be cardio-protective in cases of atherosclerosis.
Project description:Intake of hemoglobin by the hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 leads to a distinct alternative non-foam cell antiinflammatory macrophage phenotype that was previously considered atheroprotective. Here, we reveal an unexpected but important pathogenic role for these macrophages in atherosclerosis. Using human atherosclerotic samples, cultured cells, and a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of intraplaque hemorrhage on macrophage function with respect to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inflammation, and plaque progression. In human atherosclerotic lesions, CD163+ macrophages were associated with plaque progression, microvascularity, and a high level of HIF1? and VEGF-A expression. We observed irregular vascular endothelial cadherin in intraplaque microvessels surrounded by CD163+ macrophages. Within these cells, activation of HIF1? via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases promoted VEGF-mediated increases in intraplaque angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and inflammatory cell recruitment. CD163+ macrophages increased intraplaque endothelial VCAM expression and plaque inflammation. Subjects with homozygous minor alleles of the SNP rs7136716 had elevated microvessel density, increased expression of CD163 in ruptured coronary plaques, and a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in population cohorts. Thus, our findings highlight a nonlipid-driven mechanism by which alternative macrophages promote plaque angiogenesis, leakiness, inflammation, and progression via the CD163/HIF1?/VEGF-A pathway.
Project description:Precise in vivo evaluation of cerebral vasospasm caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage has remained a critical but unsolved issue in experimental small animal models. In this study, we used synchrotron radiation angiography to study the vasospasm of anterior circulation arteries in two subarachnoid hemorrhage models in rats. Synchrotron radiation angiography, laser Doppler flowmetry-cerebral blood flow measurement, [(125)I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine cerebral blood flow measurement and terminal examinations were applied to evaluate the changes of anterior circulation arteries in two subarachnoid hemorrhage models made by blood injection into cisterna magna and prechiasmatic cistern. Using synchrotron radiation angiography technique, we detected cerebral vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats compared to the controls (p<0.05). We also identified two interesting findings: 1) both middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery shrunk the most at day 3 after subarachnoid hemorrhage; 2) the diameter of anterior cerebral artery in the prechiasmatic cistern injection group was smaller than that in the cisterna magna injection group (p<0.05), but not for middle cerebral artery. We concluded that synchrotron radiation angiography provided a novel technique, which could directly evaluate cerebral vasospasm in small animal experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage models. The courses of vasospasm in these two injection models are similar; however, the model produced by prechiasmatic cistern injection is more suitable for study of anterior circulation vasospasm.
Project description:Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced in the cerebral ventricles and circulates within the subarachnoid space (SAS) of the brain and spinal cord, where it exchanges with interstitial fluid of the parenchyma. The access of CSF to the entire central nervous system (CNS) makes it an attractive medium for drug delivery. However, few intrathecal (IT) therapies have reached the clinic due, in part, to limited distribution and rapid clearance. Given the success of nanoparticle (NP) carriers in prolonging circulation and improving delivery of systemically administered agents, we sought to evaluate the distribution of IT injected NPs within the CNS. We administered fluorescent, 100 nm PEGylated-NPs into the cisterna magna of healthy mice and studied their distribution along the brain and spinal cord. Our data demonstrate that NPs are capable of distributing rapidly through the SAS along the entire neuraxis with reproducible, anatomically defined patterns of delivery. NPs were well retained within the leptomeninges for over 3 weeks, showing preference for ventral surfaces and minimal penetration into the CNS parenchyma. Clearance of NPs occurred across the cribriform plate into the nasal mucosa, with a small fraction of NPs localizing with nerve roots exiting the spinal column. Larger 10 µm particles were also capable of moving through the SAS but did not achieve as widespread distribution. These studies demonstrate the ability of NPs to achieve widespread delivery along the neuraxis and highlight IT administration as a potentially significant route of administration for delivery of nanomedicine to the subarachnoid space.
Project description:Background and Purpose- The PILLAR (Extracorporeal Filtration of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Spinal Catheter) study is a first-in-human trial of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filtration in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The study evaluates the safety and feasibility of a novel filtration system to rapidly remove blood and blood breakdown products from CSF after securement of a ruptured aneurysm. Methods- Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage had a dual-lumen lumbar, intrathecal catheter placed after aneurysm securement and received up to 24 hours of CSF filtration (neurapheresis therapy). The catheter aspirated blood-contaminated CSF from the lumbar cistern and returned filtered CSF to the thoracic subarachnoid space. Neuro checks were performed q2 hours, and CSF samples were collected for cell counts, total protein, and gram stain. Computed tomography scans were acquired at baseline and post-filtration. Clinical follow-up occurred at 2 weeks and 30 days. Results- Thirteen patients had a catheter placed (mean time 24:13 hours after ictus). The system processed 632.0 mL (180.6-1447.6 mL) CSF in 15:07 hours (5:32-24:00 hours) of filtration. The mean initial CSF red blood cell count, 2.78×105 cells/µL, reduced to 1.17×105 cells/µL after filtration (52.9% reduction), and total protein reduced 71%. Independent analysis of baseline and postfiltration computed tomographies found notable cisternal blood decrease, with 46.5% mean Hijdra Score reduction. Three mild, anticipated adverse events were reported. Conclusions- The initial safety and feasibility of Neurapheresis therapy in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage demonstrated the potential to safely filter CSF and remove blood and blood byproducts. Future studies are warranted. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT0287263.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During infections involving intracellular pathogens, iron performs a double-edged function by providing the pathogen with nutrients, but also boosts the host's antimicrobial arsenal. Although the role of iron has been described in visceral leishmaniasis, information regarding its status in the dermal sequel, Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) remains limited. Accordingly, this study aimed to establish the status of iron within monocytes/macrophages of PKDL cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The intramonocytic labile iron pool (LIP), status of CD163 (hemoglobin-haptoglobin scavenging receptor) and CD71 (transferrin receptor, Tfr) were evaluated within CD14+ monocytes by flow cytometry, and soluble CD163 by ELISA. At the lesional sites, Fe3+ status was evaluated by Prussian blue staining, parasite load by qPCR, while the mRNA expression of Tfr (TfR1/CD71), CD163, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), Lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2), Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Ferritin, Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP-1) and Ferroportin (Fpn-1) was evaluated by droplet digital PCR. Circulating monocytes demonstrated elevated levels of CD71, CD163 and soluble CD163, which corroborated with an enhanced lesional mRNA expression of TfR, CD163, DMT1 and Lcn-2. Additionally, the LIP was raised along with an elevated mRNA expression of ferritin and HO-1, as also iron exporters NRAMP-1 and Fpn-1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:In monocytes/macrophages of PKDL cases, enhancement of the iron influx gateways (TfR, CD163, DMT-1 and Lcn-2) possibly accounted for the enhanced LIP. However, enhancement of the iron exporters (NRAMP-1 and Fpn-1) defied the classical Ferritinlow/Ferroportinhigh phenotype of alternatively activated macrophages. The creation of such a pro-parasitic environment suggests incorporation of chemotherapeutic strategies wherein the availability of iron to the parasite can be restricted.