Identification of DNA binding motifs of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PhoP/PhoR two-component signal transduction system.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PhoP/PhoR two-component signal transduction system controls the expression of about 2% of the genome and plays a major role in pathogenicity. However, its regulon has not been well characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The binding site of PhoP transcription regulator was identified in the upstream regions of msl3, pks2, lipF and fadD21 genes, by using gene fusions, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting experiments. A consensus sequence for PhoP binding was deduced. It consists of two direct repeats, DR1/DR2, associated with a third repeat, DR3, important in some cases for PhoP binding to DR1/DR2 but located at a variable distance from these direct repeats. DR1/DR2 and DR3 consensus sequences were used to screen the whole-genome sequence for other putative binding sites potentially corresponding to genes directly regulated by PhoP. The identified 87 genes, encoding transcription regulators, and proteins involved in secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism are proposed to belong to the PhoP regulon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A consensus sequence derived from the analysis of PhoP binding to four gene promoter regions is proposed. We show for the first time the involvement of a third direct repeat motif in this binding reaction. The consensus sequence was instrumented to study the global regulation mediated by PhoP in M. tuberculosis. This analysis leads to the identification of several genes that are potentially regulated by this key player.
Project description:Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) release Ca(2+) to initiate striated muscle contraction. Three highly divergent regions (DRs) in the RyR protein sequence (DR1, DR2, and DR3) may confer isoform-specific functional properties to the RyRs. We used cell-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to localize these DRs to the cryoelectron microscopic (cryo-EM) map of the skeletal muscle RyR isoform (RyR1). FRET donors were targeted to RyR1 using five different FKBP12.6 variants labeled with Alexa Fluor 488. FRET was then measured to the FRET acceptors, Cy3NTA or Cy5NTA, targeted to decahistidine tags introduced within the DRs. DR2 and DR3 were localized to separate positions within the "clamp" region of the RyR1 cryo-EM map, which is presumed to interface with Cav1.1. DR1 was localized to the "handle" region, near the regulatory calmodulin-binding site on the RyR. These localizations provide insights into the roles of DRs in RyR allosteric regulation during excitation contraction coupling.
Project description:In methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was initially described in USA300 (t008-ST8) where it is located downstream of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). A common health-care associated MRSA in Copenhagen, Denmark (t024-ST8) is clonally related to USA300 and is frequently PCR positive for the ACME specific arcA-gene. This study is the first to describe an ACME element upstream of the SCCmec in MRSA. By traditional SCCmec typing schemes, the SCCmec of t024-ST8 strain M1 carries SCCmec IVa, but full sequencing of the cassette revealed that the entire J3 region had no homology to published SCCmec IVa. Within the J3 region of M1 was a 1705 bp sequence only similar to a sequence in S. haemolyticus strain JCSC1435 and 2941 bps with no homology found in GenBank. In addition to the usual direct repeats (DR) at each extremity of SCCmec, M1 had two new DR between the orfX gene and the J3 region of the SCCmec. The region between the orfX DR (DR1) and DR2 contained the ccrAB4 genes. An ACME II-like element was located between DR2 and DR3. The entire 26,468 bp sequence between DR1 and DR3 was highly similar to parts of the ACME composite island of S. epidermidis strain ATCC12228. Sequencing of an ACME negative t024-ST8 strain (M299) showed that DR1 and the sequence between DR1 and DR3 was missing. The finding of a mobile ACME II-like element inserted downstream of orfX and upstream of SCCmec indicates a novel recombination between staphylococcal species.
Project description:Several Bacillus strains secrete phytase, an enzyme catalyzing dephosphorylation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate). We identified the phyC (phytase) gene from environmental Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB45 as a member of the phosphate starvation-inducible PhoPR regulon. In vivo and in vitro assays revealed that PhoP approximately P is essential for phyC transcription. The transcriptional start site was identified downstream of a sigmaA-like promoter region located 27 bp upstream of the probable translation ATG start codon. Inspection of the phyC promoter sequence revealed an unusual structure. The -35 and -10 regions are separated by a window of 21 bp. A pair of tandemly repeated PhoP TT(T/A/C)ACA binding boxes was located within and upstream of the -35 consensus promoter region. A single PhoP box was found within the -10 consensus promoter region. DNase I footprinting experiments performed with isolated PhoP confirmed that PhoP approximately P binds at two sites overlapping with the phyC -35 and -10 consensus promoter region. While binding of dimeric PhoP approximately P at -35 is essential for activation of the phyC promoter, binding of PhoP approximately P at -10 suppresses promoter activity. A sixfold enhancement of phyC gene expression was registered after T:G substitution of nucleotide -13 (mutant MUT13), which eliminates PhoP binding at the single PhoP box without impairing the -10 consensus sequence. Moreover, MUT13 also expressed phyC during phosphate-replete growth, suggesting that the repressing effect due to binding of PhoP approximately P at -10 was abolished. A model is presented in which transcription initiation of phyC is positively and negatively affected by the actual concentration of the PhoP approximately P response regulator.
Project description:The Clostridium perfringens macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance gene, ermBP, was sequenced and shown to be identical to the ermB-ermAM gene from the promiscuous Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAM beta 1 and to have at least 98% nucleotide sequence identity to other ermB-ermAM genes. Flanking the ermBP structural gene were almost identical directly repeated 1,341-bp sequences (DR1 and DR2). These repeats potentially encoded a 298 (or 284)-amino-acid protein that had sequence similarity to chromosomal and plasmid partitioning proteins. The pAM beta 1 and Streptococcus agalactiae (pIP501) erm determinants appeared to have DR2 but had similar internal 973- or 956-bp deletions in DR1, respectively. Some of the other ermB-ermAM class determinants had small portions of DR1, but none had complete copies. It is postulated that the C. perfringens ermBP determinant was derived from an enterococcal or streptococcal determinant that had complete copies of both DR1 and DR2.
Project description:Similarities between Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP-phoR mutants and the attenuated laboratory strain M. tuberculosis H37Ra in terms of morphological and cytochemical properties, lipid content, gene expression and virulence attenuation prompted us to analyze the functionality of this two-component regulator in the latter strain. Sequence analysis revealed a base substitution resulting in a one-amino-acid change in the likely DNA-binding region of PhoP in H37Ra relative to H37Rv. Using gel-shift assays, we show that this mutation abrogates the ability of the H37Ra PhoP protein to bind to a 40-bp segment of its own promoter. Consistent with this result, the phoP gene from H37Rv but not that from H37Ra was able to restore the synthesis of sulfolipids, diacyltrehaloses and polyacyltrehaloses in an isogenic phoP-phoR knock-out mutant of M. tuberculosis Moreover, complementation of H37Ra with phoP from H37Rv fully restored sulfolipid, diacyltrehalose and polyacyltrehalose synthesis, clearly indicating that the lack of production of these lipids in H37Ra is solely due to the point mutation in phoP. Using a pks2-3/4 knock-out mutant of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, evidence is further provided that the above-mentioned polyketide-derived acyltrehaloses do not significantly contribute to the virulence of the tubercle bacillus in a mouse model of infection. Reasons for the attenuation of H37Ra thus most likely stand in other virulence factors, many of which are expected to belong to the PhoP regulon and another of which, unrelated to PhoP, appears to be the lack of production of phthiocerol dimycocerosates in this strain.
Project description:Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs) bind RA-response elements in regulatory regions of their target genes. While canonical RAREs comprise direct repeats of the consensus 5’-RGKTCA-3’ sequence separated by 1, 2 or 5 nucleotides (DR1, DR2, DR5), we show that shortly after RA treatement of mouse embryoid bodies or F9 cells, RARs occupy a large repertoire of DR0, DR2, DR5, DR8 and IR0 elements. In vitro, RAR-RXR bind these non-canonical spacings with comparable affinities to DR2 and DR5. Most DR8 elements comprise three half sites with DR2 and DR0 spacings. This specific half site organisation constitutes a previously unrecognised, but frequent signature of RAR binding elements and acts as an RARE. At later stages of embryoid body differentiation, RARs relocalise to a restricted repertoire of sites comprising predominantly DR5 elements. Differentiation thus involves genomic relocalisation of RARs, and a switch from DR0 and DR8 at early times to DR5 at later stages. Examination of genomic localisation of RAR in differentiating embryoid bodies.
Project description:For hepadnaviruses, the RNA primer for plus-strand DNA synthesis is generated by the final RNase H cleavage of the pregenomic RNA at an 11 nt sequence called DR1 during the synthesis of minus-strand DNA. This RNA primer initiates synthesis at one of two distinct sites on the minus-strand DNA template, resulting in two different end products; duplex linear DNA or relaxed circular DNA. Duplex linear DNA is made when initiation of synthesis occurs at DR1. Relaxed circular DNA, the major product, is made when the RNA primer translocates to the sequence complementary to DR1, called DR2 before initiation of DNA synthesis. We studied the mechanism that determines the site of the final RNase H cleavage in hepatitis B virus (HBV). We showed that the sites of the final RNase H cleavage are always a fixed number of nucleotides from the 5' end of the pregenomic RNA. This finding is similar to what was found previously for duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), and suggests that all hepadnaviruses use a similar mechanism. Also, we studied the role of complementarity between the RNA primer and the acceptor site at DR2 in HBV. By increasing the complementarity, we were able to increase the level of priming at DR2 over that seen in the wild-type virus. This finding suggests that the level of initiation of plus-strand DNA synthesis at DR2 is sub-maximal for wild-type HBV. Finally, we studied the role of the sequence at the 5' end of the RNA primer that is outside of the DR sequence. We found that substitutions or insertions in this region affected the level of priming at DR1 and DR2.
Project description:Expression of genes belonging to the pho regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor is positively regulated (as shown by comparing the wild-type and a DeltaphoP mutant) by binding of the response regulator PhoP to 11-nt direct repeats (DRus). These sequences have been found in over 100 genes of Streptomyces coelicolor; 20 of them were cloned and the binding of PhoP(DBD) to most of their promoters has been shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Deletion experiments showed that at least two DRus are required for proper binding of PhoP(DBD). Deletion of 1 nt leaving a 10-nt direct repeat reduced drastically binding of PhoP(DBD). Three different types of operators have been identified. Complex operators (class III) contain up to six DRus, some of them with poor conservation of the 11-nt consensus sequence, which however were protected by PhoP(DBD) in footprinting analyses. A cooperative binding of PhoP(DBD) molecules initiated at conserved core DRus appears to be the mechanism involved in binding of several PhoP(DBD) monomers to those complex operators. The information theory-based model that incorporates the positive or negative contribution to the binding of PhoP(DBD) of adjacent sequences has been used to deduce the structure of PHO boxes and the relevance of each DRu.
Project description:Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and bind to RA response elements (RAREs) in the regulatory regions of their target genes. Although previous studies on limited sets of RA-regulated genes have defined canonical RAREs as direct repeats of the consensus RGKTCA separated by 1, 2, or 5 nucleotides (DR1, DR2, DR5), we show that in mouse embryoid bodies or F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, RARs occupy a large repertoire of sites with DR0, DR8, and IR0 (inverted repeat 0) elements. Recombinant RAR-RXR binds these non-canonical spacings in vitro with comparable affinities to DR2 and DR5. Most DR8 elements comprise three half-sites with DR2 and DR0 spacings. This specific half-site organization constitutes a previously unrecognized but frequent signature of RAR binding elements. In functional assays, DR8 and IR0 elements act as independent RAREs, whereas DR0 does not. Our results reveal an unexpected diversity in the spacing and topology of binding elements for the RAR-RXR heterodimer. The differential ability of RAR-RXR bound to DR0 compared to DR2, DR5, and DR8 to mediate RA-dependent transcriptional activation indicates that half-site spacing allosterically regulates RAR function.
Project description:Dopamine receptor (DR) and somatostatin receptor subtype expression in pituitary adenomas may predict the response to postsurgical therapies.Our objectives were to assess and compare the mRNA levels of DR1-5 and somatostatin receptors 1-5 in normal pituitaries (NPs), nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), and somatotropinomas. In addition, we determined whether the level of DR expression correlates with the in vivo response to octreotide-LAR in acromegalic patients.Eight NPs, 30 NFPAs, and 39 somatotropinomas were analyzed for receptor mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR. The DR2 short variant was estimated as the DR2 long/DR2 total (DR2T). The relationship between DR expression and the postsurgical response to octreotide-LAR was assessed in 19 of the acromegalic patients.DR3 was not detected. The relationship between expression levels of DR subtypes in NPs and somatotropinomas was DR2T>>>DR4>>DR5>DR1, whereas in NFPAs, DR2T>>>DR4>>DR1>DR5. The DR2 short variant was the predominant DR2 variant in the majority of samples. In acromegalics treated with octreotide-LAR, DR1 was negatively correlated with percent GH reduction (3 months: r = -0.67, P = 0.002; and 6 months: r = -0.58, P = 0.009), and DR5 was positively correlated with percent IGF-I reduction (3 months: r = 0.55, P = 0.01; and 6 months: r = 0.47, P = 0.04).DR2 is the predominant DR subtype in NPs, NFPAs, and somatotropinomas. The fact that DR1, DR4, and DR5 are also expressed in many adenomas tested suggests that these receptors might also play a role in the therapeutic impact of postsurgical medical therapies in patients with NFPA and acromegaly. This was supported by the finding that the in vivo response to octreotide-LAR was negatively associated with DR1 and positively associated with DR5.