Complete genome sequence of porcine circovirus 2b strain CC1.
ABSTRACT: A porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) strain, designated CC1, was isolated and purified from tissue samples from pigs with wasting syndromes in China. We report the complete genome sequence of PCV2b strain CC1 with a deletion of C at position 1053 resulting in elongation of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) and formation of ORF5. There were 11 ORFs in the genome.
Project description:We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strain, which is supposed to be the result of natural genetic recombination between the ORF1 gene of genotype PCV2b-1B and the ORF2 gene of PCV2b-1C. Further analyses revealed that this novel PCV2 strain arose from recombination between PCV2a and PCV2b strains within the ORF2 gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both inter- and intragenotype PCV2 gene rearrangement in the field, and it will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of porcine circovirus type 2(PCV2) in southern China.
Project description:Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) vaccines are based on either inactivated whole virion, or recombinant ORF2 capsid protein assembled into Virus-like Particles (VLPs). No data are available about the immunizing properties of free, non-assembled capsid protein. To investigate this issue, ORF2 of a reference PCV2b strain was expressed in a Baculovirus-based expression system without assembly into VLPs. The free purified protein was formulated into an oil vaccine at three distinct Ag payloads: 10.8/3.6/1.2 micrograms/dose. Each dose was injected intramuscularly into five, 37-day old piglets, carefully matched for maternally-derived antibody. Five control piglets were injected with sterile PBS in oil adjuvant. Twenty-eight days later, all the pigs were challenged intranasally with 10<sup>5.3</sup> TCID<sub>50</sub> of PCV2b strain DV6503. After challenge infection, all the pigs remained in good clinical conditions. The recombinant vaccine did not induce significant antibody and PCV2-specific IFN-γ responses. ELISPOT and lymphocyte proliferation data confirmed poor induction of cell-mediated immunity. In terms of PCV2 viremia, there was no significant difference between vaccinated and control animals. The histological data indicated the absence of a detectable viral load and of PCVAD lesions in both vaccinated and control animals, as well as of histiocytes and multi-nucleated giant cells. We conclude that free, non-assembled ORF2 capsid protein does not induce protective immunity.
Project description:In Korea, three genotypes of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d) have been identified on domestic pig farms, while two genotypes (PCV2a and PCV2b) have been identified in wild boar populations. Here, we investigated genotype diversity and genotypic shift in 91 PCV2 isolates from 1340 wild boars captured in South Korea between 2013 and 2017. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete ORF2 showed that the 91 PCV2 strains were detected as four genotypes by qPCR screening assay: PCV2a (2.2%, 2/91), PCV2b (16.5%, 15/91), PCV2d (80.2%, 73/91), and PCV2h (1.1%, 1/91). Only one intergenotype recombinant event was detected between PCV2 ORF2 in wild boars (PCV2b) and domestic pigs (PCV2a). Amino acid positions 86-89 within ORF2, which distinguishes the different genotypes, were conserved in all PCV2 genotypes isolated from South Korean wild boars, including TNKI in PCV2a/PCV2h, SNPR in PCV2b, and SNPL in PCV2d. The estimated nucleotide substitution rates in the ORF2 region of viruses from South Korean wild boars and domestic pigs were 5.8145 × 10-4 and 4.5838 × 10-4 substitutions per site per year (s/s/y), respectively. The times to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for South Korean domestic pig PCV2 were 1937 (PCV2a), 1972 (PCV2b), 1999 (PCV2d-1), and 2000 (PCV2d-2). By contrast, the tMRCA for South Korean wild boar PCV2b and PCV2d were 1989 and 2001, respectively. Thus, the PCV2d genotype is prevalent among South Korean wild boars and domestic pigs.
Project description:A whole virus, inactivated, Porcine Circovirus 2b (PCV2b) vaccine was submitted to a quantal assay of potency, as explained in detail in our companion paper . To this purpose, twenty, 45-day old piglets, checked for maternally-derived antibody (MDA), were allocated to four groups of 5 animals each; these were vaccinated with 800/266/88/0 nanograms, respectively, of an inactivated PCV2b strain, consisting of two distinct virion populations. Twenty-six days later, all the pigs were challenged intranasally with the homologous PCV2b strain. In the presence of a clear dose-dependent protection in terms of viremia, no such effect was observed in terms of weight gain after challenge. The 800 and 266-ng payloads were associated with neutralizing antibody titers above the MDA levels in oral fluids. Higher levels of viremia in control and 88-ng groups  coincided with a higher Natural Killer activity of tracheobronchial lymph node cells from PCV2-infected pigs. The PCV2 ORF2-specific ELISPOT assay for IFN-g- secreting cells showed very few (2-4) ORF2-specific cells/10<sup>5</sup> peripheral blood mononuclear cells beyond the basal levels under our experimental conditions (non-significant differences among groups). Also, no significant differences were observed in the degree of lymphoid tissue hyperplasia among the different groups.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), family Circoviridae, genus Circovirus infection in domestic pig has been associated with several pathological conditions being the most important of them the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of three PCV2 genotypes (a, b, and c) and recently PCV3. Until now, these genotypes or subgenotypes have not been described in Mexico. We found genetic changes in ORF2 from nine strains of PCV2 obtained from samples of Jalisco, Veracruz, Estado de México, Hidalgo and Sonora states of Mexico. Our results shown the presence of two genotypes (PCV2a and PCV2b) as well as, the presence and differences between the reported subgenotypes. The subgenotype PCV2b (1A/1B, 1A) has a higher prevalence (87.5%) in comparison with PCV2a (2C) (12.5%).
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is one of the smallest known animal viruses and is the main pathogen of PCV-associated diseases (PCVAD). Epidemiological surveillance results have shown that the PCV2 infection rate is on the rise in China, thus, PCV2 disease prevention and control has become a huge challenge for the Chinese swine industry. We collected clinical samples from multiple different provinces in China from 2018 to 2020 and found that the positive rate of PCV2 was 53% (3619/6872), identity between the cloned 62 <i>ORF2</i> genes was 84.4-100% and identity between the cloned 62 ORF2 sequences and reference sequence was 72.9-99.8%. Genetic evolution analysis found that PCV2d accounted for 79% (49/62 samples), PCV2a for 12.9% (8/62 samples), PCV2b for 8% (5/62 samples), and PCV2c and PCV2e genotypes were not found. However, most commercial PCV2 subunit vaccines are based on the PCV2a genotype, and there are very few vaccines based on PCV2b or PCV2d. Therefore, the homologous and heterologous protection ability of PCV2b and PCV2d Cap proteins based on the baculovirus against the PCV2b and PCV2d infections was evaluated, which is expected to design and develop excellent PCV2 protein vaccine candidates. This study found that both PCV2b and PCV2d Cap proteins can increase the level of humoral immunity and cellular immune response in mice. Importantly, both PCV2b and PCV2d cap proteins can provide homologous and heterologous protection against the PCV2b and PCV2d viruses. Overall, this study provides a reference for the prevention and control of PCVAD in mainland China and the development of PCV2 vaccines.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an important pathogen that causes significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Five major PCV2 genotypes have been identified, including PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, PCV2d, and PCV2e. To investigate the prevalence and phylodynamics of the different PCV2 genotypes in Taiwan, 214 PCV2 ORF2 sequences from Taiwan and other countries were analyzed. Genotypic differences were observed among PCV2a, 2b, and 2d at amino acid position 89 in ORF2, with isoleucine (I), arginine (R), and leucine (L), respectively. Similar to other countries, a genotypic shift was also observed in Taiwan, where the predominant genotype shifted from PCV2b to 2d after 2010. The estimated nucleotide substitution rate of Taiwanese strains in the ORF2 region was 8.467 × 10<sup>-4</sup> substitutions per site per year. This rapid evolution rate of PCV2 may lead to the genotypic shift observed in Taiwan. The times to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for PCV2a, -2b, and -2d-2 was dated to 1970, 1992 and 2004, respectively. Thus, the PCV2a, -2b, and -2d genotypes were already present in Taiwan before the introduction of the PCV2 vaccine.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD) that bring about significant economic losses in the pig industry all over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of PCV2 in Russia and characterize the available complete genome sequences. PCV2 DNA was detected at all investigated farms located in different regions of Russia. Whole-genome analysis demonstrated that the majority of PCV2 strains belonged to genotype PCV2d (12 out of 14), while PCV2a and PCV2b were only detected at 2 farms (one at each). Further analysis revealed that all antibody recognition sites in Russian PCV2 strains were different from the corresponding epitopes in a PCV2a vaccine strain, suggesting that PCV2a-based vaccines may only provide limited protection against these strains. PCV2d strains could be grouped into 3 distinct lines which shared 98.7-100% identity within open reading frame 2 (ORF2). It is the first study reporting the genetic diversity of PCV2 strains in Russia. Our data indicated that, similarly to China, Europe, and USA, PCV2a and PCV2b have largely been replaced by PCV2d.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the major swine pathogen associated with Porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) including post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Currently, there are 4 subtypes of PCV2 (PCV2a, b, c and d) and some epidemiological evidences demonstrated that virulence of PCV2 may relate to its subtypes. Recently, PMWS was observed more frequently in swine farms in Thailand; however, the information regarding to PCV2 subtype involved was limited. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the association between occurrence of PMWS and PCV2 subtypes as well as genetically characterize PCV2 in Thailand. PCV2 DNA was isolated from faecal swabs and whole blood of piglets from PMWS-affected and -negative farms. The full length ORF2 sequences were compared using multiple alignment. The results showed that PCV2 DNA was detected more frequently in PMWS-affected farms. The nucleotide identities of the ORF2 from 9 PCV2 isolates representing each PMWS-affected farm and one from the negative farm ranged from 92.4 to 99.5% suggesting that there is some genetic variation of PCV2 in Thai swine. The 10 PCV2 isolates were classified into 2 clusters, in which the 7 isolates from PMWS-positive farms were in PCV2b cluster 1 A/B. The remaining isolates were separated in the new subtype called PCV2e. The results suggest the presence of new PCV2 subtypes in addition to PCV2a and PCV2b in Asian swine population. However, correlation between subtypes and virulence of PCV2 infection is not conclusive due to limited number of the PCV2 sequences from PMWS negative farms.
Project description:In 2012, a mutant porcine circovirus type 2 (mPCV2) strain was identified in cases of PCV-associated disease (PCVAD) in the USA. The mPCV2 had an additional amino acid, lysine (K), in the capsid at position 234. The objectives of this study were to compare the pathogenicity of mPCV2, PCV2a and PCV2b in pigs using biologically pure infectious virus stocks derived from respective infectious DNA clones, and to investigate the importance of genotype-specific ORF2 and the presence of lysine at position 234 of the capsid. A total of 47, 2-week-old, caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (CDCD) pigs were assigned to one of seven groups. At 3 weeks of age, the pigs were experimentally inoculated with saline, PCV2a, PCV2b, mPCV2, PCV2b-234-K (lysine addition in ORF2), chimeric PCV2b-ORF1/mPCV2-ORF2 or reciprocal chimeric mPCV2-ORF1/PCV2b-ORF2. All pigs were necropsied 21 days post-infection (p.i.). Gross lesions were limited to visible icterus and loss of body condition in a portion of the mPCV2 pigs. The amount of PCV2 DNA was significantly higher in pigs inoculated with mPCV2 compared with PCV2b in sera at 7 days p.i. and faecal swabs at 14 days p.i. Based on lymphoid lesions, a higher prevalence of PCVAD was seen in pigs infected with PCV2s containing the additional 234-K (64.3?%) compared with those infected with a PCV2 with the regular 233 bp ORF2 (40?%). Results indicated that all PCV2 isolates were capable of inducing severe lesions and disease in the CDCD pig model, and there was no significant difference in virulence.