Novel mutations associated with resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in a polymorphic region of the Culex quinquefasciatus cqm1 gene.
ABSTRACT: Bin toxin from Bacillus sphaericus acts on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae by binding to Cqm1 midgut-bound receptors, and disruption of the cqm1 gene is the major cause of resistance. The goal of this work was to screen for a laboratory-selected resistance cqm1(REC) allele in field populations in the city of Recife, Brazil, and to describe other resistance-associated polymorphisms in the cqm1 gene. The cqm1(REC) allele was detected in the four nontreated populations surveyed at frequencies from 0.001 to 0.017, and sequence analysis from these samples revealed a novel resistant allele (cqm1(REC-D16)) displaying a 16-nucletotide (nt) deletion which is distinct from the 19-nt deletion associated with cqm1(REC). Yet a third resistant allele (cqm1(REC-D25)), displaying a 25-nt deletion, was identified in samples from a treated area exposed to B. sphaericus. A comparison of the three deletion events revealed that all are located within the same 208-nt region amplified during the screening procedure. They also introduce equivalent frameshifts in the sequence and generate the same premature stop codon, leading to putative transcripts encoding truncated proteins which are unable to locate to the midgut epithelium. The populations analyzed in this study contained a variety of alleles with mutations disrupting the function of the corresponding Bin toxin receptor. Their locations reveal a hot spot that can be exploited to assess the resistance risk through DNA screening.
Project description:The Cqm1 ?-glucosidase of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae acts as the midgut receptor for the binary toxin of the biolarvicide Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Mutations within the cqm1 gene can code for aberrant polypeptides that can no longer be properly expressed or bind to the toxin, leading to insect resistance. The cqm1 REC and cqm1 REC-2 alleles were identified in a laboratory selected colony and both displayed mutations that lead to equivalent phenotypes of refractoriness to L. sphaericus. cqm1 REC was first identified as the major resistance allele in this colony but it was subsequently replaced by cqm1 REC-2 , suggesting the better adaptive features of the second allele. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of cqm1 REC-2 and track its origin in field populations where cqm1 REC was previously identified.The screening of the cqm1 REC-2 allele was based on more than 2000 C. quinquefasciatus larvae from five localities in the city of Recife, Brazil and used a multiplex PCR assay that is also able to identify cqm1 REC . Full-length sequencing of the cqm1 REC-2 and selected cqm1 samples was performed to identify further polymorphisms between these alleles.The cqm1 REC-2 allele was found in field samples, specifically in two heterozygous individuals from a single locality with an overall frequency and distribution much lower than that observed for cqm1 REC . The full-length sequences from these two cqm1 REC-2 copies were almost identical to the cqm1 REC-2 derived from the resistant colony but displayed more than 30 SNPs when compared with cqm1 and cqm1 REC . The cqm1 REC and cqm1 REC-2 resistant alleles were found to be associated with two distinct sets of wild-type cqm1 variants found in field populations.The cqm1 REC-2 allele occurs in populations in Recife and was probably already present in the samples used to establish the laboratory resistant colony. The data generated indicates that cqm1 REC-2 can be selected in field populations, although its low frequency and distribution in Recife suggest that cqm1 REC-2 presents a lower risk of selection compared to cqm1 REC .
Project description:BACKGROUND:The study of the mechanisms by which larvae of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito survive exposure to the entomopathogen Lysinibacillus sphaericus has benefited substantially from the generation of laboratory-selected colonies resistant to this bacterium. One such colony, RIAB59, was selected after regular long-term exposure of larvae to the L. sphaericus IAB59 strain. This strain is characterized by its ability to produce the well known Binary (Bin) toxin, and the recently characterized Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa toxin, able to kill Bin-resistant larvae. Resistance to Bin is associated with the depletion of its receptor, Cqm1 α-glucosidase, from the larvae midgut. This study aimed to identify novel molecules and pathways associated with survival of the RIAB59 larvae and the resistance phenotype. METHODS:A transcriptomic approach and bioinformatic tools were used to compare the profiles derived from the midguts of larvae resistant and susceptible to L. sphaericus IAB59. RESULTS:The RNA-seq profiles identified 1355 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with 673 down- and 682 upregulated transcripts. One of the most downregulated DEGs was cqm1, which validates the approach. Other strongly downregulated mRNAs encode the enzyme pantetheinase, apolipoprotein D, lipases, heat-shock proteins and a number of lesser known and hypothetical polypeptides. Among the upregulated DEGs, the top most encodes a peroxisomal enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, while others encode enzymes associated with juvenile hormone synthesis, ion channels, DNA binding proteins and defense polypeptides. Further analyses confirmed a strong downregulation of several enzymes involved in lipid catabolism while the assignment of DEGs into metabolic pathways highlighted the upregulation of those related to DNA synthesis and maintenance, confirmed by their clustering into related protein networks. Several other pathways were also identified with mixed profiles of down- and upregulated transcripts. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the changes in levels seen for selected mRNAs. CONCLUSIONS:Our transcriptome-wide dataset revealed that the RIAB59 colony, found to be substantially more resistant to Bin than to the Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa toxin, developed a differential expression profile as well as metabolic features co-selected during the long-term adaptation to IAB59 and that are most likely linked to Bin resistance.
Project description:The binary (Bin) toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus is effective to mosquito larvae, but its utilization is threatened by the development of insect resistance. Bin toxin is composed of the BinB subunit required for binding to midgut receptors and the BinA subunit that causes toxicity after cell internalization, mediated by BinB. Culex quinquefasciatus resistance to this toxin is caused by mutations that prevent expression of Bin toxin receptors in the midgut. Previously, it was shown that the Cyt1Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis restores Bin toxicity to Bin-resistant C. quinquefasciatus and to Aedes aegypti larvae, which are naturally devoid of functional Bin receptors. Our goal was to elucidate the mechanism involved in Cyt1Aa synergism with Bin in such larvae. In vivo assays showed that the mixture of Bin toxin, or its BinA subunit, with Cyt1Aa was effective to kill resistant larvae. However, no specific binding interaction between Cyt1Aa and the Bin toxin, or its subunits, was observed. The synergy between Cyt1Aa and Bin toxins is dependent on functional Cyt1Aa, as demonstrated by using the nontoxic Cyt1AaV122E mutant toxin affected in oligomerization and membrane insertion, which was unable to synergize Bin toxicity in resistant larvae. The synergism correlated with the internalization of Bin or BinA into anterior and medium midgut epithelial cells, which occurred only in larvae treated with wild-type Cyt1Aa toxin. This toxin is able to overcome failures in the binding step involving BinB receptor by allowing the internalization of Bin toxin, or its BinA subunit, into the midgut cells.IMPORTANCE One promising management strategy for mosquito control is the utilization of a mixture of L. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis insecticidal toxins. From this set, Bin and Cyt1Aa toxins synergize and display toxicity to resistant C. quinquefasciatus and to A. aegypti larvae, whose midgut cells lack Bin toxin receptors. Our data set provides evidence that functional Cyt1Aa is essential for internalization of Bin or its BinA subunit into such cells, but binding interaction between Bin and Cyt1Aa is not observed. Thus, this mechanism contrasts with that for the synergy between Cyt1Aa and the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins, where active Cyt1Aa is not necessary but a specific binding between Cry and Cyt1Aa is required. Our study established the initial molecular basis of the synergy between Bin and Cyt1Aa, and these findings enlarge our knowledge of their mode of action, which could help to develop improved strategies to cope with insect resistance.
Project description:Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is one of the most widely used neutron-based approaches to study the solution structure of biological macromolecular systems. The selective deuterium labelling of different protein components of a complex provides a means to probe conformational changes in multiprotein complexes. The Lysinibacillus sphaericus mosquito-larvicidal BinAB proteins exert toxicity through interaction with the receptor Cqm1 protein; however, the nature of the complex is not known. Rationally engineered deuterated BinB (dBinB) protein from the L. sphaericus ISPC-8 species was synthesized using an Escherichia coli-based protein-expression system in M9 medium in D2O for 'contrast-matched' SANS experiments. SANS data were independently analysed by ab initio indirect Fourier transform-based modelling and using crystal structures. These studies confirm the dimeric status of Cqm1 in 100% D2O with a longest intramolecular vector (D max) of ?94?Å and a radius of gyration (R g) of ?31?Å. Notably, BinB binds to Cqm1, forming a heterodimeric complex (D max of ?129?Å and R g of ?40?Å) and alters its oligomeric status from a dimer to a monomer, as confirmed by matched-out Cqm1-dBinB (D max of ?70?Å and R g of ?22?Å). The present study thus provides the first insight into the events involved in the internalization of larvicidal proteins, likely by raft-dependent endocytosis.
Project description:Cqm1 from Culex quinquefasciatus has been identified as the receptor for Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin (BinAB). It is an amylomaltase that is presented on the epithelial membrane in the larval midgut through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. The active core of this protein (residues 23-560) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and successfully crystallized by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using D-arabinose and CaCl2 as additives, as identified using high-throughput differential scanning fluorimetry analysis. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8?Å using a laboratory X-ray source. The crystals had the symmetry of space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 191.3, b = 205.3, c = 59.0?Å and with four monomers in the asymmetric unit. Structure refinement is in progress. This is the first structure report for a binary toxin receptor and for a member of the GH13_17 subfamily in the CAZy database.
Project description:Strains of Bacillus sphaericus exhibit varying levels of virulence against mosquito larvae. The most potent strain, B. sphaericus 2362, which is the active ingredient in the commercial product VectoLex®, together with another well-known larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, are used to control vector and nuisance mosquito larvae in many regions of the world. Although not all strains of B. sphaericus are mosquitocidal, lethal strains produce one or two combinations of three different types of toxins. These are (1) the binary toxin (Bin) composed of two proteins of 42 kDa (BinA) and 51 kDa (BinB), which are synthesized during sporulation and co-crystallize, (2) the soluble mosquitocidal toxins (Mtx1, Mtx2 and Mtx3) produced during vegetative growth, and (3) the two-component crystal toxin (Cry48Aa1/Cry49Aa1). Non-mosquitocidal toxins are also produced by certain strains of B. sphaericus, for examples sphaericolysin, a novel insecticidal protein toxic to cockroaches. Larvicides based on B. sphaericus-based have the advantage of longer persistence in treated habitats compared to B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. However, resistance is a much greater threat, and has already emerged at significant levels in field populations in China and Thailand treated with B. sphaericus. This likely occurred because toxicity depends principally on Bin rather than various combinations of crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins present in B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Here we review both the general characteristics of B. sphaericus, particularly as they relate to larvicidal isolates, and strategies or considerations for engineering more potent strains of this bacterium that contain built-in mechanisms that delay or overcome resistance to Bin in natural mosquito populations.
Project description:Two mosquitocidal bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Ls) are the active ingredients of commercial larvicides used widely to control vector mosquitoes. Bti's efficacy is due to synergistic interactions among four proteins, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, Cry11Aa, and Cyt1Aa, whereas Ls's activity is caused by Bin, a heterodimer consisting of BinA, the toxin, and BinB, a midgut-binding protein. Cyt1Aa is lipophilic and synergizes Bti Cry proteins by increasing midgut binding. We fused Bti's Cyt1Aa to Ls's BinA yielding a broad-spectrum chimeric protein highly mosquitocidal to important vector species including Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti, the latter an important Zika and Dengue virus vector insensitive to Ls Bin. Aside from its vector control potential, our bioassay data, in contrast to numerous other reports, provide strong evidence that BinA does not require conformational interactions with BinB or microvillar membrane lipids to bind to its intracellular target and kill mosquitoes.
Project description:Bacillus sphaericus strains that produce the binary toxin (Bin) are highly toxic to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, and have been used since the late 1980s as a biopesticide for the control of these vectors of infectious disease agents. The Bin toxin produced by these strains targets mosquito larval midgut epithelial cells where it binds to Cpm1 (Culex pipiens maltase 1) a digestive enzyme, and causes severe intracellular damage, including a dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolation. The intoxication of mammalian epithelial MDCK cells engineered to express Cpm1 mimics the cytopathologies observed in mosquito enterocytes following Bin ingestion: pore formation and vacuolation. In this study we demonstrate that Bin-induced vacuolisation is a transient phenomenon that affects autolysosomes. In addition, we show that this vacuolisation is associated with induction of autophagy in intoxicated cells. Furthermore, we report that after internalization, Bin reaches the recycling endosomes but is not localized either within the vacuolating autolysosomes or within any other degradative compartment. Our observations reveal that Bin elicits autophagy as the cell's response to intoxication while protecting itself from degradation through trafficking towards the recycling pathways.
Project description:Lysinibacillus sphaericus produces the mosquito larvicidal binary toxin consisting of BinA and BinB, which are both required for toxicity against Culex and Anopheles larvae. The molecular mechanisms behind Bin toxin-induced damage remain unexplored. We used whole-genome microarray-based transcriptome analysis to better understand how Culex larvae respond to Bin toxin treatment at the molecular level. Our analyses of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae transcriptome changes at 6, 12, and 18 h after Bin toxin treatment revealed a wide range of transcript signatures, including genes linked to the cytoskeleton, metabolism, immunity, and cellular stress, with a greater number of down-regulated genes than up-regulated genes. Bin toxin appears to mainly repress the expression of genes involved in metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and the protein transporter of the outer/inner mitochondrial membrane. The induced genes encode proteins linked to mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and cellular detoxification including autophagic processes and lysosomal compartments. Overall design: Midgut of untreated control vs. Bin toxin treated Culex quinquefasciatus larvae 4 biological replicates each
Project description:The 2297 strain of Bacillus sphaericus produces a crystal of the Bin (binary) toxin that is approximately fourfold larger than that of strain 2362, the strain currently used in VectoLex, a commercial mosquito larvicide. Comparison of the regions downstream from the bin operon in these two strains showed that strain 2362 contained a 1.6-kb region with four orf genes not found in strain 2297. Insertion of a 1.1-kb portion of this region from strain 2362 by homologous recombination downstream from the bin operon in strain 2297 reduced Bin toxin production by 50 to 70% and toxicity to fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by 68%. These results suggest that the 1.6-kb region downstream from the bin operon in B. sphaericus 2362 is responsible for the lower Bin yield and smaller crystal size characteristic of this strain.