D-Carnosine octylester attenuates atherosclerosis and renal disease in ApoE null mice fed a Western diet through reduction of carbonyl stress and inflammation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lipoxidation-derived reactive carbonyl species (RCS) such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) react with proteins to form advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs), which have been implicated in both atherosclerosis and renal disease. L-carnosine acts as an endogenous HNE scavenger, but it is rapidly inactivated by carnosinase. This study aimed at assessing the effect of the carnosinase-resistant, D-carnosine, on HNE-induced cellular injury and of its bioavailable prodrug D-carnosine octylester on experimental atherosclerosis and renal disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were exposed to HNE or H?O? plus D-carnosine. ApoE null mice fed a Western, pro-atherogenic diet were treated with D-carnosine octylester for 12 weeks. KEY RESULTS: In vitro, D-carnosine attenuated the effect of HNE, but not of H?O?, on VSMCs. In vivo, D-carnosine octylester-treated mice showed reduced lesion area and a more stable plaque phenotype compared with untreated animals, with reduced foam cell accumulation, inflammation and apoptosis and increased clearance of apoptotic bodies and collagen deposition, resulting in decreased necrotic core formation. Likewise, renal lesions were attenuated in D-carnosine octylester-treated versus untreated mice, with lower inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. This was associated with increased urinary levels of HNE-carnosine adducts and reduced protein carbonylation, circulating and tissue ALEs, expression of receptors for these products, and systemic and tissue oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data indicate RCS quenching with a D-carnosine ester was highly effective in attenuating experimental atherosclerosis and renal disease by reducing carbonyl stress and inflammation and that this may represent a promising therapeutic strategy in humans.
Project description:Lipids can go through lipid peroxidation, an endogenous chain reaction that consists in the oxidative degradation of lipids leading to the generation of a wide variety of highly reactive carbonyl species (RCS), such as short-chain carbonyl derivatives and oxidized truncated phospholipids. RCS exert a wide range of biological effects due to their ability to interact and covalently bind to nucleophilic groups on other macromolecules, such as nucleic acids, phospholipids, and proteins, forming reversible and/or irreversible modifications and generating the so-called advanced lipoxidation end-products (ALEs). Lipoxidation plays a relevant role in the onset of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), mainly in the atherosclerosis-based diseases in which oxidized lipids and their adducts have been extensively characterized and associated with several processes responsible for the onset and development of atherosclerosis, such as endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the sources of lipids that undergo oxidation in the context of cardiovascular diseases, both from the bloodstream and tissues, and the methods for detection, characterization, and quantitation of their oxidative products and protein adducts. Moreover, lipoxidation and ALEs have been associated with many oxidative-based diseases, including CVD, not only as potential biomarkers but also as therapeutic targets. Indeed, several therapeutic strategies, acting at different levels of the ALEs cascade, have been proposed, essentially blocking ALEs formation, but also their catabolism or the resulting biological responses they induce. However, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of formation and targets of ALEs could expand the available therapeutic strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) participate in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) by promoting renal inflammation and injury. L-carnosine acts as a quencher of the AGE precursors reactive carbonyl species (RCS), but is rapidly inactivated by carnosinase. In this study, we evaluated the effect of FL-926-16, a carnosinase-resistant and bioavailable carnosine derivative, on the onset and progression of DN in db/db mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Adult male db/db mice and coeval db/m controls were left untreated or treated with FL-926-16 (30 mg·kg-1 body weight) from weeks 6 to 20 (prevention protocol) or from weeks 20 to 34 (regression protocol). KEY RESULTS:In the prevention protocol, FL-926-16 significantly attenuated increases in creatinine (-80%), albuminuria (-77%), proteinuria (-75%), mean glomerular area (-34%), fractional (-40%) and mean (-42%) mesangial area in db/db mice. This protective effect was associated with a reduction in glomerular matrix protein expression and cell apoptosis, circulating and tissue oxidative and carbonyl stress, and renal inflammatory markers, including the NLRP3 inflammasome. In the regression protocol, the progression of DN was completely blocked, although not reversed, by FL-926-16. In cultured mesangial cells, FL-926-16 prevented NLRP3 expression induced by RCS but not by the AGE Nε -carboxymethyllysine. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:FL-926-16 is effective at preventing the onset of DN and halting its progression in db/db mice by quenching RCS, thereby reducing the accumulation of their protein adducts and the consequent inflammatory response. In a future perspective, this novel compound may represent a promising AGE-reducing approach for DN therapy.
Project description:Advanced Lipoxidation End-products (ALEs) are modified proteins that can act as pathogenic factors in several chronic diseases. Several molecular mechanisms have so far been considered to explain the damaging action of ALEs and among these a pathway involving the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) should be considered. The aim of the present work is to understand if ALEs formed from lipid peroxidation derived reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are able to act as RAGE binders and also to gain a deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the protein-protein engagement. ALEs were produced in vitro, by incubating human serum albumin (HSA) with 4-hydroxy-trans-?2-nonenal (HNE), acrolein (ACR) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The identification of ALEs was performed by MS. ALEs were then subjected to the VC1 Pull-Down assay (VC1 is the ligand binding domain of RAGE) and the enrichment factor (the difference between the relative abundance in the enriched sample minus the amount in the untreated one) as an index of affinity, was determined. Computation studies were then carried out to explain the factors governing the affinity of the adducted moieties and the site of interaction on adducted HSA for VC1-binding. The in silico analyses revealed the key role played by those adducts which strongly reduce the basicity of the modified residues and thus occur at their neutral state at physiological conditions (e.g. the MDA adducts, dihydropyridine-Lysine (DHPK) and N-2-pyrimidyl-ornithine (NPO), and acrolein derivatives, N-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydro-piperidinyl) lysine, FDPK). These neutral adducts become unable to stabilize ion-pairs with the surrounding negative residues which thus can contact the RAGE positive residues. In conclusion, ALEs derived from lipid peroxidation-RCS are binders of RAGE and this affinity depends on the effect of the adduct moiety to reduce the basicity of the target amino acid and on the acid moieties surrounding the aminoacidic target.
Project description:Sugar- and lipid-derived aldehydes are reactive carbonyl species (RCS) frequently used as surrogate markers of oxidative stress in obesity. A pathogenic role for RCS in metabolic diseases of obesity remains controversial, however, partly because of their highly diffuse and broad reactivity and the lack of specific RCS-scavenging therapies. Naturally occurring histidine dipeptides (e.g., anserine and carnosine) show RCS reactivity, but their therapeutic potential in humans is limited by serum carnosinases. Here, we present the rational design, characterization, and pharmacological evaluation of carnosinol, i.e., (2S)-2-(3-amino propanoylamino)-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanol, a derivative of carnosine with high oral bioavailability that is resistant to carnosinases. Carnosinol displayed a suitable ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) profile and was determined to have the greatest potency and selectivity toward α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (e.g., 4-hydroxynonenal, HNE, ACR) among all others reported thus far. In rodent models of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome, carnosinol dose-dependently attenuated HNE adduct formation in liver and skeletal muscle, while simultaneously mitigating inflammation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and steatohepatitis. These improvements in metabolic parameters with carnosinol were not due to changes in energy expenditure, physical activity, adiposity, or body weight. Collectively, our findings illustrate a pathogenic role for RCS in obesity-related metabolic disorders and provide validation for a promising new class of carbonyl-scavenging therapeutic compounds rationally derived from carnosine.
Project description:Increased methylglyoxal (MG) formation is associated with diabetes and its complications. In zebrafish, knockout of the main MG detoxifying system Glyoxalase 1, led to limited MG elevation but significantly elevated aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) activity and aldh3a1 expression, suggesting the compensatory role of Aldh3a1 in diabetes. To evaluate the function of Aldh3a1 in glucose homeostasis and diabetes, aldh3a1<sup>-/-</sup> zebrafish mutants were generated using CRISPR-Cas9. Vasculature and pancreas morphology were analysed by zebrafish transgenic reporter lines. Corresponding reactive carbonyl species (RCS), glucose, transcriptome and metabolomics screenings were performed and ALDH activity was measured for further verification. Aldh3a1<sup>-/-</sup> zebrafish larvae displayed retinal vasodilatory alterations, impaired glucose homeostasis, which can be aggravated via pdx1 silencing induced hyperglycaemia. Unexpectedly, MG was not altered, but 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), another prominent lipid peroxidation RCS exhibited high affinity with Aldh3a1, was increased in aldh3a1 mutants. 4-HNE was responsible for the retinal phenotype via pancreas disruption induced hyperglycaemia and can be rescued via l-Carnosine treatment. Furthermore, in type 2 diabetic patients, serum 4-HNE was increased and correlated with disease progression. Thus, our data suggest impaired 4-HNE detoxification and elevated 4-HNE concentration as biomarkers but also the possible inducers for diabetes, from genetic susceptibility to the pathological progression.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the influence of serum carnosinase (CN1) on the course of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). METHODS:hCN1 transgenic (TG) mice were generated in a BTBROb/Ob genetic background to allow the spontaneous development of DKD in the presence of serum carnosinase. The influence of serum CN1 expression on obesity, hyperglycemia, and renal impairment was assessed. We also studied if aggravation of renal impairment in hCN1 TG BTBROb/Ob mice leads to changes in the renal transcriptome as compared with wild-type BTBROb/Ob mice. RESULTS:hCN1 was detected in the serum and urine of mice from two different hCN1 TG lines. The transgene was expressed in the liver but not in the kidney. High CN1 expression was associated with low plasma and renal carnosine concentrations, even after oral carnosine supplementation. Obese hCN1 transgenic BTBROb/Ob mice displayed significantly higher levels of glycated hemoglobin, glycosuria, proteinuria, and increased albumin-creatinine ratios (1104 ± 696 vs 492.1 ± 282.2 ?g/mg) accompanied by an increased glomerular tuft area and renal corpuscle size. Gene-expression profiling of renal tissue disclosed hierarchical clustering between BTBROb/Wt, BTBROb/Ob, and hCN1 BTBROb/Ob mice. Along with aggravation of the DKD phenotype, 26 altered genes have been found in obese hCN1 transgenic mice; among them claudin-1, thrombospondin-1, nephronectin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha have been reported to play essential roles in DKD. CONCLUSIONS:Our data support a role for serum carnosinase 1 in the progression of DKD. Whether this is mainly attributed to the changes in renal carnosine concentrations warrants further studies. KEY MESSAGES:Increased carnosinase 1 (CN1) is associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). BTBROb/Ob mice with human CN1 develop a more aggravated DKD phenotype. Microarray revealed alterations by CN1 which are not altered by hyperglycemia. These genes have been described to play essential roles in DKD. Inhibiting CN1 could be beneficial in DKD.
Project description:H2O2-induced programmed cell death (PCD) of tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells is mediated by reactive carbonyl species (RCS), degradation products of lipid peroxides, which activate caspase-3-like protease (C3LP). Here, we investigated the mechanism of RCS accumulation in the H2O2-induced PCD of BY-2 cells. The following biochemical changes were observed in 10-min response to a lethal dose (1.0 mM) of H2O2, but they did not occur in a sublethal dose (0.5 mM) of H2O2. (1) The C3LP activity was increased twofold. (2) The intracellular levels of RCS, i.e., 4-hydroxy-(E)-hexenal and 4-hydroxy-(E)-nonenal (HNE), were increased 1.2-1.5-fold. (3) The activity of a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent carbonyl reductase, scavenging HNE, and n-hexanal was decreased. Specifically, these are the earliest events leading to PCD. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 suppressed the H2O2-induced PCD, indicating that the C3LP activity of the 1 subunit of the 20S proteasome was responsible for PCD. The addition of H2O2 to cell-free protein extract inactivated the carbonyl reductase. Taken together, these results suggest a PCD-triggering mechanism in which H2O2 first inactivates a carbonyl reductase(s), allowing RCS levels to rise, and eventually leads to the activation of the C3LP activity of 20S proteasome. The carbonyl reductase thus acts as an ROS sensor for triggering PCD.
Project description:Protein carbonylation has been associated with various pathophysiological processes. A representative reactive carbonyl species (RCS), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), has been implicated specifically as a causative factor for the initiation and/or progression of various diseases. To date, however, little is known about the proteins and their modification sites susceptible to "carbonyl stress" by this RCS, especially in the liver. Using chemoprecipitation based on a solid-phase hydrazine chemistry coupled with LC-MS/MS bottom-up approach and database searching, we identified several protein-HNE adducts in isolated rat liver mitochondria upon HNE exposure. The identification of selected major protein targets, such as the ATP synthase ?-subunit, was further confirmed by immunoblotting and a gel-based approach in combination with LC-MS/MS. A network was also created based on the identified protein targets, which showed that the main protein interactions were associated with cell death, tumor morphology and drug metabolism, implicating the toxic nature of HNE in the liver mitoproteome. The functional consequence of carbonylation was illustrated by its detrimental impact on the activity of ATP synthase, a representative major mitochondrial protein target for HNE modifications.
Project description:Histidine-containing dipeptides like carnosine and anserine have protective functions in both health and disease. Animal studies suggest that carnosine can be metabolized within the kidney. The goal of this study was to obtain evidence of carnosine metabolism in the human kidney and to provide insight with regards to diabetic nephropathy. Expression, distribution, and localization of carnosinase-1 (CNDP1), carnosine synthase (CARNS), and taurine transporters (TauT) were measured in human kidneys. CNDP1 and CARNS activities were measured in vitro. CNDP1 and CARNS were located primarily in distal and proximal tubules, respectively. Specifically, CNDP1 levels were high in tubular cells and podocytes (20.3 ± 3.4 and 15 ± 3.2 ng/mg, respectively) and considerably lower in endothelial cells (0.5 ± 0.1 ng/mg). CNDP1 expression was correlated with the degradation of carnosine and anserine (r = 0.88 and 0.81, respectively). Anserine and carnosine were also detectable by HPLC in the renal cortex. Finally, TauT mRNA and protein were found in all renal epithelial cells. In diabetic patients, CNDP1 seemed to be reallocated to proximal tubules. We report compelling evidence that the kidney has an intrinsic capacity to metabolize carnosine. Both CNDP1 and CARNS are expressed in glomeruli and tubular cells. Carnosine-synthesizing and carnosine-hydrolyzing enzymes are localized in distinct compartments in the nephron and increased CNDP1 levels suggest a higher CNDP1 activity in diabetic kidneys.
Project description:Reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs) formed during lipid peroxidation and sugar glycoxidation, namely Advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) and Advanced Glycation end products (AGEs), accumulate with ageing and oxidative stress-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes or neurodegenerative diseases. RCCs induce the 'carbonyl stress' characterized by the formation of adducts and cross-links on proteins, which progressively leads to impaired protein function and damages in all tissues, and pathological consequences including cell dysfunction, inflammatory response and apoptosis. The prevention of carbonyl stress involves the use of free radical scavengers and antioxidants that prevent the generation of lipid peroxidation products, but are inefficient on pre-formed RCCs. Conversely, carbonyl scavengers prevent carbonyl stress by inhibiting the formation of protein cross-links. While a large variety of AGE inhibitors has been developed, only few carbonyl scavengers have been tested on ALE-mediated effects. This review summarizes the signalling properties of ALEs and ALE-precursors, their role in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-associated diseases, and the different agents efficient in neutralizing ALEs effects in vitro and in vivo. The generation of drugs sharing both antioxidant and carbonyl scavenger properties represents a new therapeutic challenge in the treatment of carbonyl stress-associated diseases.