Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice.
ABSTRACT: Cannabichromene (CBC) is a major non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that inhibits endocannabinoid inactivation and activates the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1). Both endocannabinoids and TRPA1 may modulate gastrointestinal motility. Here, we investigated the effect of CBC on mouse intestinal motility in physiological and pathological states.Inflammation was induced in the mouse small intestine by croton oil. Endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol), palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; TRPA1 and cannabinoid receptors were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR; upper gastrointestinal transit, colonic propulsion and whole gut transit were evaluated in vivo; contractility was evaluated in vitro by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh or electrical field stimulation (EFS).Croton oil administration was associated with decreased levels of anandamide (but not 2-arachidonoyl glycerol) and palmitoylethanolamide, up-regulation of TRPA1 and CB? receptors and down-regulation of CB? receptors. Ex vivo CBC did not change endocannabinoid levels, but it altered the mRNA expression of TRPA1 and cannabinoid receptors. In vivo, CBC did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. In vitro, CBC reduced preferentially EFS- versus ACh-induced contractions. Both in vitro and in vivo, the inhibitory effect of CBC was not modified by cannabinoid or TRPA1 receptor antagonists.CBC selectively reduces inflammation-induced hypermotility in vivo in a manner that is not dependent on cannabinoid receptors or TRPA1.
Project description:Cannabidiol is a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic compound that exerts a plethora of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antitumour effects, with potential therapeutic interest. However, the actions of cannabidiol in the digestive tract are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol on intestinal motility in normal (control) mice and in mice with intestinal inflammation.Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh.In vivo, cannabidiol did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. The inhibitory effect of cannabidiol was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 (N-[-1S-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide), by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or by the alpha2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. Cannabidiol did not reduce motility in animals treated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor N-arachidonoyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, whereas loperamide was still effective. In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited ACh-induced contractions in the isolated ileum from both control and croton oil-treated mice.Cannabidiol selectively reduces croton oil-induced hypermotility in mice in vivo and this effect involves cannabinoid CB1 receptors and FAAH. In view of its low toxicity in humans, cannabidiol may represent a good candidate to normalize motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two non-psychoactive cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC), are known to modulate in vitro the activity of proteins involved in nociceptive mechanisms, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels of vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) and of ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1), the equilibrative nucleoside transporter and proteins facilitating endocannabinoid inactivation. Here we have tested these two cannabinoids on the activity of the descending pathway of antinociception. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Electrical activity of ON and OFF neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla in anaesthetized rats was recorded extracellularly and tail flick latencies to thermal stimuli were measured. CBD or CBC along with various antagonists were injected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey. KEY RESULTS: Cannabidiol and CBC dose-dependently reduced the ongoing activity of ON and OFF neurons in anaesthetized rats, whilst inducing antinociceptive responses in the tail flick-test. These effects were maximal with 3 nmol CBD and 6 nmol CBC, and were antagonized by selective antagonists of cannabinoid CB(1) adenosine A(1) and TRPA1, but not of TRPV1, receptors. Both CBC and CBD also significantly elevated endocannabinoid levels in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey. A specific agonist at TRPA1 channels and a synthetic inhibitor of endocannabinoid cellular reuptake exerted effects similar to those of CBC and CBD. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: CBD and CBC stimulated descending pathways of antinociception and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. These compounds might represent useful therapeutic agents with multiple mechanisms of action.
Project description:GABA(A) receptors are the major ionotropic inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. The endocannabinoid system is a lipid signaling network that modulates different brain functions. Here we show a direct molecular interaction between the two systems. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) potentiates GABA(A) receptors at low concentrations of GABA. Two residues of the receptor located in the transmembrane segment M4 of ?(2) confer 2-AG binding. 2-AG acts in a superadditive fashion with the neurosteroid 3?, 21-dihydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one (THDOC) and modulates ?-subunit-containing receptors, known to be located extrasynaptically and to respond to neurosteroids. 2-AG inhibits motility in CB(1)/CB(2) cannabinoid receptor double-KO, whereas ?(2)-KO mice show hypermotility. The identification of a functional binding site for 2-AG in the GABA(A) receptor may have far-reaching consequences for the study of locomotion and sedation.
Project description:1. We have studied the effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, 2.5 - 30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on upper gastrointestinal transit in control mice and in mice with chronic intestinal inflammation induced by croton oil. 2. PEA significantly and dose-dependently decreased intestinal transit. The inhibitory effect of PEA (10 mg kg(-1)) was not modified by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (0.3 mg kg(-1), i.p.), the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor antagonist SR144528 (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 25 mg kg(-1), i.p.), yohimbine (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.), naloxone (2 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or hexamethonium (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.). 3. PEA levels were significantly decreased in the small intestine of croton oil-treated mice. In these animals, PEA also inhibited motility and this effect was not counteracted by SR141716A (0.3 mg kg(-1)), or SR144528 (1 mg kg(-1)). 4. Pre-treatment of mice with the amidase inhibitor phenylmethyl sulphonil fluoride (PMSF, 30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) did not modify the inhibitory effect of PEA, either in control or in mice with inflammation. 5. It is concluded that PEA inhibits intestinal motility with a peripheral mechanism independent from cannabinoid receptor activation. The decreased levels of PEA in croton oil-treated might contribute, at least in part, to the exaggerated transit observed during chronic intestinal inflammation.
Project description:1. We have studied the effect of cannabinoid agonists (CP 55,940 and cannabinol) on intestinal motility in a model of intestinal inflammation (induced by oral croton oil in mice) and measured cannabinoid receptor expression, endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol) and anandamide amidohydrolase activity both in physiological and pathophysiological states. 2. CP 55,940 (0.03 - 10 nmol mouse(-1)) and cannabinol (10 - 3000 nmol mouse(-1)) were more active in delaying intestinal motility in croton oil-treated mice than in control mice. These inhibitory effects were counteracted by the selective cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (16 nmol mouse(-1)). SR141716A (1 - 300 nmol mouse(-1)), administered alone, increased intestinal motility to the same extent in both control and croton oil-treated mice. 3. Croton oil-induced intestinal inflammation was associated with an increased expression of CB(1) receptor, an unprecedented example of up-regulation of cannabinoid receptors during inflammation. 4. High levels of anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol were detected in the small intestine, although no differences were observed between control and croton oil-treated mice; by contrast anandamide amidohydrolase activity increased 2 fold in the inflamed small intestine. 5. It is concluded that inflammation of the gut increases the potency of cannabinoid agonists possibly by 'up-regulating' CB(1) receptor expression; in addition, endocannabinoids, whose turnover is increased in inflamed gut, might tonically inhibit intestinal motility.
Project description:Salvinorin A, the active component of the hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum, inhibits intestinal motility through activation of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs). However, this compound may have target(s) other than the KORs in the inflamed gut. Because intestinal inflammation upregulates cannabinoid receptors and endogenous cannabinoids, in the present study we investigated the possible involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system in salvinorin A-induced delay in motility in the inflamed gut.Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of a fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; direct or indirect activity at cannabinoid receptors was evaluated by means of binding, enzymic and cellular uptake assays.Salvinorin A as well as the KOR agonist U-50488 reduced motility in croton oil treated mice. The inhibitory effect of both salvinorin A and U-50488 was counteracted by the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine and by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant. Rimonabant, however, did not counteract the inhibitory effect of salvinorin A on motility in control mice. Binding experiments showed very weak affinity of salvinorin A for cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) and no inhibitory effect on 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide hydrolysis and cellular uptake.The inhibitory effect of salvinorin A on motility reveals a functional interaction between cannabinoid CB(1) receptors and KORs in the inflamed--but not in the normal--gut in vivo.
Project description:Currently, the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in cancer development and possible options for a cancer-regressive effect of cannabinoids are controversially discussed. In recent decades, a number of preclinical studies have shown that cannabinoids have an anticarcinogenic potential. Therefore, especially against the background of several legal simplifications with regard to the clinical application of cannabinoid-based drugs, an extended basic knowledge about the complex network of the individual components of the endocannabinoid system is required. The canonical endocannabinoid system consists of the endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol as well as the Gi/o protein-coupled transmembrane cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. As a result of extensive studies on the broader effect of these factors, other fatty acid derivatives, transmembrane and intracellular receptors, enzymes and lipid transporters have been identified that contribute to the effect of endocannabinoids when defined in the broad sense as "extended endocannabinoid system." Among these additional components, the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase, lipid transport proteins of the fatty acid-binding protein family, additional cannabinoid-activated G protein-coupled receptors such as GPR55, members of the transient receptor family, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors were identified as targets for possible strategies to combat cancer progression. Other endocannabinoid-related fatty acids such as 2-arachidonoyl glyceryl ether, O-arachidonoylethanolamine, N-arachidonoyldopamine and oleic acid amide showed an effect via cannabinoid receptors, while other compounds such as endocannabinoid-like substances exert a permissive action on endocannabinoid effects and act via alternative intracellular target structures. This review gives an overview of the modulation of the extended endocannabinoid system using the example of anticancer cannabinoid effects, which have been described in detail in preclinical studies.
Project description:Cannabidiol (CBD) and ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interact with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system.The effects of 11 pure cannabinoids and botanical extracts [botanical drug substance (BDS)] from Cannabis varieties selected to contain a more abundant cannabinoid, on TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1, human recombinant diacylglycerol lipase ? (DAGL?), rat brain fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), COS cell monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), human recombinant N-acylethanolamine acid amide hydrolase (NAAA) and anandamide cellular uptake (ACU) by RBL-2H3 cells, were studied using fluorescence-based calcium assays in transfected cells and radiolabelled substrate-based enzymatic assays. Cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), the acids (CBDA, CBGA, THCA) and propyl homologues (CBDV, CBGV, THCV) of CBD, cannabigerol (CBG) and THC, and tetrahydrocannabivarin acid (THCVA) were also tested.CBD, CBG, CBGV and THCV stimulated and desensitized human TRPV1. CBC, CBD and CBN were potent rat TRPA1 agonists and desensitizers, but THCV-BDS was the most potent compound at this target. CBG-BDS and THCV-BDS were the most potent rat TRPM8 antagonists. All non-acid cannabinoids, except CBC and CBN, potently activated and desensitized rat TRPV2. CBDV and all the acids inhibited DAGL?. Some BDS, but not the pure compounds, inhibited MAGL. CBD was the only compound to inhibit FAAH, whereas the BDS of CBC > CBG > CBGV inhibited NAAA. CBC = CBG > CBD inhibited ACU, as did the BDS of THCVA, CBGV, CBDA and THCA, but the latter extracts were more potent inhibitors.These results are relevant to the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids and Cannabis extracts.
Project description:Embryos and larvae of sea urchins (Lytechinus variegatus, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Dendraster excentricus), and starfish (Pisaster ochraceus) were investigated for the presence of a functional endocannabinoid system. Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide, AEA), was measured in early L. variegatus embryos by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. AEA showed a strong developmental dynamic, increasing more than 5-fold between the 8-16 cell and mid-blastula 2 stage. 'Perturb-and-rescue' experiments in different sea urchin species and starfish showed that AEA blocked transition of embryos from the blastula to the gastrula stage, but had no effect on cleavage divisions, even at high doses. The non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist, CP55940, had similar effects, but unlike AEA, also blocked cleavage divisions. CB1 antagonists, AEA transport inhibitors, and the cation channel transient membrane potential receptor V1 (TrpV1) agonist, arachidonoyl vanillic acid (arvanil), as well as arachidonoyl serotonin and dopamine (AA-5-HT, AA-DA) acted as rescue substances, partially or totally preventing abnormal embryonic phenotypes elicited by AEA or CP55940. Radioligand binding of [(3)H]CP55940 to membrane preparations from embryos/larvae failed to show significant binding, consistent with the lack of CB receptor orthologs in the sea urchin genome. However, when binding was conducted on whole cell lysates, a small amount of [(3)H]CP55940 binding was observed at the pluteus stage that was displaced by the CB2 antagonist, SR144528. Since AEA is known to bind with high affinity to TrpV1 and to certain G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the ability of arvanil, AA-5-HT and AA-DA to rescue embryos from AEA teratogenesis suggests that in sea urchins AEA and other endocannabinoids may utilize both Trp and GPCR orthologs. This possibility was explored using bioinformatic and phylogenetic tools to identify candidate orthologs in the S. purpuratus sea urchin genome. Candidate TrpA1 and TrpV1 orthologs were identified. The TrpA1 ortholog fell within a monophyletic clade, including both vertebrate and invertebrate orthologs, whereas the TrpV1 orthologs fell within two distinct TrpV-like invertebrate clades. One of the sea urchin TrpV orthologs was more closely related to the vertebrate epithelial calcium channels (TrpV5-6 family) than to the vertebrate TrpV1-4 family, as determined using profile-hidden Markov model (HMM) searches. Candidate dopamine and adrenergic GPCR orthologs were identified in the sea urchin genome, but no cannabinoid GPCRs were found, consistent with earlier studies. Candidate dopamine D(1), D(2) or alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor orthologs were identified as potential progenitors to the vertebrate cannabinoid receptors using HMM searches, depending on whether the multiple sequence alignment of CB receptor sequences consisted only of urochordate and cephalochordate sequences or also included vertebrate sequences.
Project description:Retrograde messengers adjust the precise timing of neurotransmitter release from the presynapse, thus modulating synaptic efficacy and neuronal activity. 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol, an endocannabinoid, is one such messenger produced in the postsynapse that inhibits neurotransmitter release upon activating presynaptic CB(1) cannabinoid receptors. Cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease is due to synaptic failure in hippocampal neuronal networks. We hypothesized that errant retrograde 2-arachidonoyl glycerol signalling impairs synaptic neurotransmission in Alzheimer's disease. Comparative protein profiling and quantitative morphometry showed that overall CB(1) cannabinoid receptor protein levels in the hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer's disease remain unchanged relative to age-matched controls, and CB(1) cannabinoid receptor-positive presynapses engulf amyloid-?-containing senile plaques. Hippocampal protein concentrations for the sn-1-diacylglycerol lipase ? and ? isoforms, synthesizing 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, significantly increased in definite Alzheimer's (Braak stage VI), with ectopic sn-1-diacylglycerol lipase ? expression found in microglia accumulating near senile plaques and apposing CB(1) cannabinoid receptor-positive presynapses. We found that microglia, expressing two 2-arachidonoyl glycerol-degrading enzymes, serine hydrolase ?/?-hydrolase domain-containing 6 and monoacylglycerol lipase, begin to surround senile plaques in probable Alzheimer's disease (Braak stage III). However, Alzheimer's pathology differentially impacts serine hydrolase ?/?-hydrolase domain-containing 6 and monoacylglycerol lipase in hippocampal neurons: serine hydrolase ?/?-hydrolase domain-containing 6 expression ceases in neurofibrillary tangle-bearing pyramidal cells. In contrast, pyramidal cells containing hyperphosphorylated tau retain monoacylglycerol lipase expression, although at levels significantly lower than in neurons lacking neurofibrillary pathology. Here, monoacylglycerol lipase accumulates in CB(1) cannabinoid receptor-positive presynapses. Subcellular fractionation revealed impaired monoacylglycerol lipase recruitment to biological membranes in post-mortem Alzheimer's tissues, suggesting that disease progression slows the termination of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol signalling. We have experimentally confirmed that altered 2-arachidonoyl glycerol signalling could contribute to synapse silencing in Alzheimer's disease by demonstrating significantly prolonged depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition when superfusing mouse hippocampi with amyloid-?. We propose that the temporal dynamics and cellular specificity of molecular rearrangements impairing 2-arachidonoyl glycerol availability and actions may differ from those of anandamide. Thus, enhanced endocannabinoid signalling, particularly around senile plaques, can exacerbate synaptic failure in Alzheimer's disease.