High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (-13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. STUDY DESIGN:The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. METHODS:Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents' national origin to ascribe ethnicity. RESULTS:The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (-13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. CONCLUSION:The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Primary or adult type hypolactasia, the most common enzyme deficiency in the world, is due to reduced lactase activity in the intestinal cell after weaning. Lactase non-persistence is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A DNA variant, single nucleotide polymorphism C/T-13910 which is located on 13910 base pairs (bp) upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) at chromosome 2 has been show to associate with the lactase persistence/non-persistence. The prevalence of the C/T-13910 variant is different for hypolactasia in European, Asian, African-American and Northern African populations. In this study, we investigated, for the first time the allele frequent of the single nucleotide polymorphism C/T-13910 in the Iranian population in khorasan province with hypolactasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Peripheral blood was collected from 100 subjecs with primary hypolactasia and 100 healthy individuals as a control group. Genomic DNA was extracted. The genotype was analyzed with the PCR-RFLP method. A statistical analysis was performed by chi-square test using SPSS software. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:In case group allelic frequency for SNP T-13910C (C, T) was respectively 95%, 5% vs. control group 86% and 14%. Genotype frequency (CC, CT, TT) in patient group was 90%, 10%, 0% vs. control group 74%, 24% and 2%. So according to our findings, there were significant differences between allelic frequencies (P=0.03), and in genotype frequency between case and control groups (P=0.006). CONCLUSION:Based on our results, analysis of C\T-13910 polymorphism can be used as a simple genetic test for diagnosis of primary type hypolactasia in the Iranian population.
Project description:AIM:To define the frequency of the C/T-13910 variant associated with lactase persistence/non-persistence trait and to analyze the milk consumption of lactase non-persistent subjects in Estonia. METHODS:We genotyped 355 Estonians by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Milk consumption was analyzed by a questionnaire, specially developed to analyze milk consumption and abdominal complaints. RESULTS:The frequency of the genotype of the C/C-13910 (lactase non-persistence) was found to be 24.8% in native Estonians. No other single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the region of 400 bp adjacent to the C/T-13910 variant were found. Lactase non-persistence subjects were found to consume less milk than lactase persistence subjects. CONCLUSION:The frequency of lactase non-persistence defined by the C/C-13910 genotype confirms the results of the previous studies based on indirect methods of determining hypolactasia. Milk consumption of lactase non-persistence subjects is consistent with previously reported figures of adult-type hypolactasia in Estonia. However, lactase non-persistence does not prevent the intake of milk in many adults.
Project description:The lactase persistent (LP) or lactase non-persistent (LNP) state in European adults is genetically determined by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located 13.9 kb upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene, known as LCT C>T(-13910) (rs4988235). The LNP condition leads to an inability to digest the milk sugar lactose leading to gastrointestinal symptoms and can affect nutrient and calcium intake in certain populations.The authors studied a group of 51 Chilean patients to assess whether this SNP influences the LP/LNP state in this population, and determined the prevalence of LCT C>T(-13910) genotypes in a representative sample of 216 Hispanics and 43 Amerindians with correlation to digestive symptoms.Case-control study done in Chilean patients with clinical suspicion of LNP that were assessed using clinical survey, hydrogen breath test (HBT) and SNP genotyping. The population sample of Hispanics and Amerindians was assessed by clinical survey and SNP genotyping.Of the 51 patients with clinical suspicion of LNP, 29 were HBT-positive. The CC genotype (LNP) was present in 89.7% of the patients with positive HBT and in only 4.7% of those with negative HBT. The prevalence of the CC genotype was 56.9% in the Hispanic population and 88.3% in Amerindians, and was associated with a higher self-reported clinical intolerance to ingestion of dairy products.The LP/LNP state is determined by the LCT C>T(-13910) variant in Chileans. This variant predicts digestive symptoms associated with the ingestion of lactose and is a good tool for the diagnosis of primary adult hypolactasia. The LCT T(-13910) allele is rare in the Amerindian population and is suggestive of European ancestry in this contemporary population.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The mechanism of the developmental downregulation of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) gene underlying adult-type hypolactasia is unknown. We have determined the functional significance of the recently identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), C/T(-13910) and G/A(-22018), associated with adult-type hypolactasia by studying LPH mRNA levels in intestinal biopsy samples with different genotypes. METHODS:Intestinal biopsy samples were taken from 52 patients with abdominal complaints. Hypolactasia was diagnosed by determining lactase and sucrase activities and calculating their ratio (L/S ratio). The functional effect of the C/T(-13910) and G/A(-22018) genotype on expression of LPH mRNA was demonstrated in patients heterozygous for the C/T(-13910) and G/A(-22018) polymorphism and an informative expressed SNP located in the coding region of the LPH mRNA. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction followed by solid phase minisequencing was used for accessing the relative expression levels of the LPH alleles using informative SNPs located in exons 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, or 17 as markers. RESULTS:Statistically significant differences between the three different genotypes CC(-13910) GG(-22018), CT(-13910) GA(-22018), and TT(-13910) AA(-22018) and their respective L/S ratios were observed. Relative quantitation of the expressed LPH alleles showed that the persistent allele represented 92 (6)% (mean (SEM), range 78-99%; n=14) of the expressed LPH mRNA. The patient with the homozygous persistent TT(-13910) AA(-22018), as well as hypolactasic patients with CC(-13910) GG(-22018), showed equal expression of both alleles (47 (1)%; n=7). CONCLUSIONS:Expression of LPH mRNA in the intestinal mucosa in individuals with T(-13910) A(-22018) alleles is several times higher than that found in individuals with C(-13910), G(-22018) alleles. These findings suggest that the two SNPs, C/T(-13910) and G/A(-22018), associated with adult-type hypolactasia, are associated with the transcriptional regulation of the LPH gene. The presence of the T(-13910) A(-22018) allele also shows significant elevation of the L/S ratio.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The prevalence of lactase persistence is high in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: To identify a DNA variant for the lactase persistence/non-persistence trait in adult Arabs in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We sequenced DNA from 432 anonymous neonatal blood donors from five different regions of Saudi Arabia to cover the 400 bp region surrounding the previously identified lactase persistence/non-persistence variant C/T-13910 residing in intron 13 of the MCM6 gene. RESULTS: Two anonymous blood donors carried the C/T-13910 genotype. One variant, T/G -13915, residing 5 bp upstream of the C/T-13910 variant, was present in 332 of 432 (76.9%) of the neonatal samples, compatible with previous prevalence figures of lactase persistence in urban Saudi populations. Determination of disaccharidase activities in 25 intestinal biopsy samples showed a highly significant correlation between lactase activity and the T/G-13915 genotypes (p<0.001; Fisher exact test) as well as between the L:S ratio and the aforementioned genotypes (p<0.001; Fisher exact test). CONCLUSION: The T/G-13915 variant is the founder mutation of lactase persistence in an urban Saudi population. The results obtained here have implications for genetic testing of adult-type hypolactasia and to analysis of human evolution, the origin of cattle domestication and migrations of the populations in the Arabian peninsula.
Project description:Adult-type hypolactasia is a common phenotype caused by the lactase enzyme deficiency. The -13910 C>T polymorphism, located 14 Kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) in the MCM6 gene was associated with lactase persistence (LP) in Europeans. This polymorphism is rare in Africa but several other variants associated with lactase persistence were observed in Africans. The aims of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the MCM6 region associated with the lactase persistence phenotype and to determine the distribution of LCT gene haplotypes in 981 individuals from North, Northeast and South Brazil. These polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR based methods and sequencing. The -13779*C,-13910*T, -13937*A, -14010*C, -14011*T LP alleles previously described in the MCM6 gene region that acts as an enhancer for the LCT gene were identified in Brazilians. The most common LP allele was -13910*T. Its frequency was highly correlated with European ancestry in the Brazilian populations investigated. The -13910*T was higher (0.295) in southern Brazilians of European ancestry and lower (0.175) in the Northern admixed population. LCT haplotypes were derived from the 10 LCT SNPs genotyped. Overall twenty six haplotypes previously described were identified in the four Brazilian populations studied. The Multidimensional Scaling analysis showed that Belém, in the north, was closer to Amerindians. Northeastern and southern Afro-descendants were more related with Bantu-speaking South Africans whereas the Southern population with European ancestry grouped with Southern and Northern Europeans. This study shows a high variability considering the number of LCT haplotypes observed. Due to the highly admixed nature of the Brazilian populations, the diagnosis of hypolactasia in Brazil, based only in the investigation of the -13910*T allele is an oversimplification.
Project description:Adult-type hypolactasia (AtH or lactase non-persistence) is the physiological decline in lactase activity that manifests in majority of the world's population after weaning. Recently, various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream of lactase gene (LCT) have been suggested to be associated with AtH or the lactase persistent trait in different human populations. C/T -13910 SNP was found be completely associated with AtH in Finnish population, and G/A -22018 SNP was found to be strongly, but not completely, associated with AtH. The aim of this study was to correlate G/A -22018 SNP with intestinal lactase activity in North Indian children. These children were also genotyped for C/T -13910 SNP. We also examined the differences in milk consumption and milk-related clinical symptoms in children with different genotypes of G/A -22018 and C/T -13910 SNPs. Intestinal biopsies were obtained from 231 children aged 2-16 years undergoing routine endoscopy for various abdominal complaints. The biopsies were assayed for lactase, sucrase, and maltase activities and genotyped for G/A -22018 and C/T -13910 SNPs using restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing analysis. There was a significant correlation between lactase activity and different genotypes of G/A -22018 SNP. Children with G/G -22018 genotype had low lactase activity. With a reference value of <10 U/g protein (lactase activity) to be indicative of AtH, the sensitivity and specificity of genetic test based on G/A -22018 SNP was 94.4 and 94.1 %, respectively. Furthermore, the consumption of milk was lower in children with G/G -22018 genotype. Flatulence was the only symptom significantly more frequent among the children with G/G -22018 genotype compared to those with G/A and A/A -22018 genotypes. However, most of the children with G/G -22018 genotype seem to tolerate small amounts of milk without any significant difference in gastrointestinal symptoms from those with G/A and A/A -22018 genotypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Adult-type hypolactasia, the physiological decline of lactase some time after weaning, was previously associated with the LCT -13910C>T polymorphism worldwide except in Africa. Lactase non-persistence is the most common phenotype in humans, except in northwestern Europe with its long history of pastoralism and milking. We had previously shown association of LCT -13910C>T polymorphism with adult-type hypolactasia in Brazilians; thus, we assessed its frequency among different Brazilian ethnic groups. METHODS: We investigated the ethnicity-related frequency of this polymorphism in 567 Brazilians [mean age, 42.1 +/- 16.8 years; 157 (27.7%) men]; 399 (70.4%) White, 50 (8.8%) Black, 65 (11.5%) Brown, and 53 (9.3%) Japanese-Brazilian. DNA was extracted from leukocytes; LCT -13910C>T polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: Prevalence of the CC genotype associated with hypolactasia was similar (57%) among White and Brown groups; however, prevalence was higher among Blacks (80%) and those of Japanese descent (100%). Only 2 (4%) Blacks had TT genotype, and 8 (16%) had the CT genotype. Assuming an association between CC genotype and hypolactasia, and CT and TT genotypes with lactase persistence, 356 (62.8%) individuals had hypolactasia and 211 (37.2%) had lactase persistence. The White and Brown groups had the same hypolactasia prevalence (approximately 57%); nevertheless, was 80% among Black individuals and 100% among Japanese-Brazilians (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The lactase persistence allele, LCT -13910T, was found in about 43% of both White and Brown and 20% of the Black Brazilians, but was absent among all Japanese Brazilians studied.
Project description:Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary history of the European lactase persistence trait and its global cultural implications.
Project description:Background:Lactase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose into glucose and galactose in the small intestine, where they are absorbed. Hypolactasia is a common condition, primarily caused by genetic programming, that leads to lactose maldigestion and, in certain cases, lactose intolerance. Galactitol and galactonate are 2 products of hepatic galactose metabolism that are candidate markers for the intake of lactose-containing foods. Objectives:The primary objective of the study was to explore the changes in serum and urine metabolomes during postprandial dairy product tests through the association between lactase persistence genotype and the postprandial dynamics of lactose-derived metabolites. Methods:We characterized the 6-h postprandial serum kinetics and urinary excretion of lactose, galactose, galactitol, and galactonate in 14 healthy men who had consumed a single dose of acidified milk (800 g) which contained 38.8 g lactose. Genotyping of LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235) was performed to assess primary lactase persistence. Results:There were 2 distinct postprandial responses, classified as high and low metabolite responses, observed for galactose, and its metabolites galactitol and galactonate, in serum and urine. In all but 1 subject, there was a concordance between the high metabolite responses and genetic lactase persistence and between the low metabolite responses and genetic lactase nonpersistence (accuracy 0.92), galactitol and galactonate being more discriminative than galactose. Conclusions:Postprandial galactitol and galactonate after lactose overload appear to be good proxies for genetically determined lactase activity. The development of a noninvasive lactose digestion test based on the measurement of these metabolites in urine could be clinically useful. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02230345.