GFAP isoforms in adult mouse brain with a focus on neurogenic astrocytes and reactive astrogliosis in mouse models of Alzheimer disease.
ABSTRACT: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main astrocytic intermediate filament (IF). GFAP splice isoforms show differential expression patterns in the human brain. GFAP? is preferentially expressed by neurogenic astrocytes in the subventricular zone (SVZ), whereas GFAP(+1) is found in a subset of astrocytes throughout the brain. In addition, the expression of these isoforms in human brain material of epilepsy, Alzheimer and glioma patients has been reported. Here, for the first time, we present a comprehensive study of GFAP isoform expression in both wild-type and Alzheimer Disease (AD) mouse models. In cortex, cerebellum, and striatum of wild-type mice, transcripts for Gfap-?, Gfap-?, Gfap-?, Gfap-?, Gfap-?, and a newly identified isoform Gfap-?, were detected. Their relative expression levels were similar in all regions studied. GFAP? showed a widespread expression whilst GFAP? distribution was prominent in the SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS), neurogenic astrocytes of the subgranular zone (SGZ), and subpial astrocytes. In contrast to the human SVZ, we could not establish an unambiguous GFAP? localization in proliferating cells of the mouse SVZ. In APPswePS1dE9 and 3xTgAD mice, plaque-associated reactive astrocytes had increased transcript levels of all detectable GFAP isoforms and low levels of a new GFAP isoform, Gfap-?Ex7. Reactive astrocytes in AD mice showed enhanced GFAP? and GFAP? immunolabeling, less frequently increased vimentin and nestin, but no GFAP? or GFAP(+1) staining. In conclusion, GFAP? protein is present in SVZ, RMS, and neurogenic astrocytes of the SGZ, but also outside neurogenic niches. Furthermore, differential GFAP isoform expression is not linked with aging or reactive gliosis. This evidence points to the conclusion that differential regulation of GFAP isoforms is not involved in the reorganization of the IF network in reactive gliosis or in neurogenesis in the mouse brain.
Project description:Mammalian netrin family proteins are involved in targeting of axons, neuronal migration, and angiogenesis and act as repulsive and attractive guidance molecules. Netrin-5 is a new member of the netrin family with homology to the C345C domain of netrin-1. Unlike other netrin proteins, murine netrin-5 consists of two EGF motifs of the laminin V domain (LE) and the C345C domain, but lacks the N-terminal laminin VI domain and one of the three LE motifs. We generated a specific antibody against netrin-5 to investigate its expression pattern in the rodent adult brain. Strong netrin-5 expression was observed in the olfactory bulb (OB), rostral migrate stream (RMS), the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, where neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain. In the SVZ and RMS, netrin-5 expression was observed in Mash1-positive transit-amplifying cells and in Doublecortin (DCX)-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes. In the OB, netrin-5 expression was maintained in neuroblasts, but its level was decreased in NeuN-positive mature neurons. In the hippocampal SGZ, netrin-5 was observed in Mash1-positive cells and in DCX-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes, suggesting that netrin-5 expression occurs from type 2a to type 3 cells. These data suggest that netrin-5 is produced by both transit-amplifying cells and neuroblasts to control neurogenesis in the adult brain.
Project description:The central nervous system (CNS) of adult mammals regenerates poorly; in vivo, neurogenesis occurs only in two restricted areas, the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Neurogenic potential depends on both the intrinsic properties of neural progenitors and the environment, or niche, in which progenitor cells reside. Isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from broad CNS regions suggests that the neurogenic potential of the adult CNS is dictated by local environmental cues. Here, we report that astrocytes in the neurogenic brain regions, the SGZ and SVZ, of adult mice release molecular signals, such as sonic hedgehog (Shh), that stimulate adult neural progenitors to reenter the cell cycle and generate new neurons in vitro and in vivo. Transplantation of SGZ astrocytes or application of Shh caused de novo neurogenesis from the non-neurogenic neocortex of adult mice. These findings identify a molecular target that can activate the dormant neurogenic potential from nonconventional neurogenic regions of the adult CNS and suggest a novel mechanism of neural replacement therapy for treating neurodegenerative disease and injury without transplanting exogenous cells.
Project description:Adult neurogenesis is important for the development of regenerative therapies for human diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) through the recruitment of adult neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are characterized by the capacity to generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. To identify key factors involved in manipulating the adult NSC neurogenic fate thus has crucial implications for the clinical application. Here, we report that BAF45D is expressed in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, and the central canal (CC) of the adult spinal cord. Coexpression of BAF45D with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a radial glial like cell marker protein, was identified in the SGZ, the SVZ and the adult spinal cord CC. Quantitative analysis data indicate that BAF45D is preferentially expressed in the neurogenic zone of the LV and the neurons of the adult CNS. Furthermore, during the neuroectoderm differentiation of H9 cells, BAF45D is required for the expression of PAX6, a neuroectoderm determinant that is also known to regulate the self-renewal and neuronal fate specification of adult neural stem/progenitor cells. Together, our results may shed new light on the expression of BAF45D in the adult neurogenic zones and the contribution of BAF45D to early neural development.
Project description:Stroke in the developing brain is an important cause of neurological morbidity. We determined the impact of human cord blood-derived CD34(+)-enriched mononuclear cells (CBSC) intraperitoneally injected 48?h after an ischemic stroke at postnatal day 12 by evaluating poststroke neurogenic niche proliferation, glial response, and recovery in CD1 mice. Percent brain atrophy was quantified from Nissl-stained sections. Density of BrdU, Iba-1, and GFAP staining were quantified in the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Immunohistochemistry for human nuclear antibody, human mitochondrial antibody, and human CD34(+) cells was done on injured and uninjured brains from CBSC- and vehicle-treated mice. Developmental neurobehavioral milestones were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. No significant differences in stroke severity were noted between CBSC and vehicle-treated injured animals. With a 1×10(5) CBSC dose, there was a significant increase in subgranular zone (SGZ) proliferation in the CBSC-versus vehicle-treated stroke-injured male mice. SVZ glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was increased contralaterally in injured females treated with CBSC but suppressed in injured males. Significant negative correlations between severity of the stroke-injury and spleen weights, and between spleen weights and SGZ proliferation, and a positive correlation between GFAP expression and severity of brain injury were noted in the vehicle-treated injured mice but not in the CBSC-treated mice. GFAP expression and SVZ proliferation were positively correlated. In conclusion, neurogenic niche proliferation and glial brain responses to CBSC after neonatal stroke may involve interactions with the spleen and are sex dependent.
Project description:The primary sources of cortical gliogenesis, either during development or after adult brain injury, remain uncertain. We previously generated Nestin-CreER mice to fate-map the progeny of radial glial cells (RG), a source of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the nervous system. Here, we show that Nestin-CreER mice label another population of glial progenitors, namely the perinatal subventricular zone (SVZ) glioblasts, if they are crossed with stop-floxed EGFP mice and receive tamoxifen in late embryogenesis (E16-E18). Quantification showed E18 tamoxifen-induction labeled more perinatal SVZ glioblasts than RG and transitional RG combined in the newborn brain (54% vs. 22%). Time-lapse microscopy showed SVZ-glioblasts underwent complex metamorphosis and often-reciprocal transformation into transitional RG. Surprisingly, the E10-dosed RG progenitors produced astrocytes, but no oligodendrocytes, whereas E18-induction fate-mapped both astrocytes and NG2+ oligodendrocyte precursors in the postnatal brain. These results suggest that cortical oligodendrocytes mostly derive from perinatal SVZ glioblast progenitors. Further, by combining genetic fate-mapping and BrdU-labeling, we showed that cortical astrocytes cease proliferation soon after birth (<P10) and only undergo nonproliferative gliosis (i.e., increased GFAP expression without cell-division) after stab-wound injury in adult brains. By contrast, 9.7% of cortical NG2+ progenitors remained mitotic at P29, and the ratio rose to 13.8% after stab-wound injury. Together, these results suggest NG2+ progenitors, rather than GFAP+ astrocytes, are the primary source of proliferative gliosis after adult brain injury.
Project description:In the central nervous system (CNS) of adult mammals, neurogenesis occurs in only two restricted areas, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from other CNS regions suggests that their neurogenic potential is dictated by local environmental cues. Here, we report that astrocytes in areas outside of the SGZ and SVZ of adult mice express high levels of ephrin-A2 and -A3, which present an inhibitory niche, negatively regulating neural progenitor cell growth. Adult mice lacking both ephrin-A2 and -A3 display active ongoing neurogenesis throughout the CNS. These findings suggest that neural cell replacement therapies for neurodegeneration or injury in the adult CNS may be achieved by manipulating ephrin signaling pathways.
Project description:AIM:cAMP signal transduction cascade activation is important in regulating neurogenesis in adult rodents by increasing the proliferation of newborn cells. Although the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) both contain large populations of neural stem/precursor cells; it remains unclear whether an alternative target of cAMP, the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac2), is involved in adult neurogenesis in the V-SVZ and SGZ. Here, we investigated the cell-specific expression of Epac2 protein in the V-SVZ and SGZ of the adult mouse brain. METHODS:Immunohistochemical analyses were performed using antibodies against Epac2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), doublecortin (DCX), and beta-catenin, to examine the co-localization of Epac2 protein and neural stem/precursor cells in the V-SVZ and SGZ in three 8-week-old male mice. RESULTS:In the V-SVZ of the lateral ventricle, most GFAP-positive adult neural stem cells (NSC, defined as type B cells) and 75% of DCX-positive migrating neuroblasts (type A cells) expressed Epac2 proteins. Ninety-three percent of beta-catenin-positive ependymal cells (type E cells), which are in direct contact with NSCs and the ventricles, also expressed Epac2 protein. Similarly, in the SGZ of the hippocampus, Epac2-immunopositive signals were shown by 83% of GFAP-positive radial-glia-like NSCs (type 1 cells), 86% of DCX-positive transiently amplifying cells (type 2 and type 3 cells), and 71% of DCX-positive immature neurons. The present data suggest that a PKA-independent cAMP signaling pathway via Epac2 may be party to adult neurogenesis in the V-SVZ and the SGZ.
Project description:The intermediate filament network of astrocytes includes Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) as a major component. Gfap mRNA is alternatively spliced resulting in generation of different protein isoforms where Gfap? is the most predominant isoform. The Gfap? isoform is expressed in proliferating neurogenic astrocytes of the developing human brain and in the adult human and mouse brain. Here we provide a characterization of mouse Gfap? mRNA and Gfap? protein. RT-qPCR analysis showed that Gfap? mRNA and Gfap? mRNA expression is coordinately increased in the post-natal period. Immunohistochemical staining of developing mouse brain samples showed that Gfap? is expressed in the sub-ventricular zones in accordance with the described localization in the developing and adult human brain. Immunofluorescence analysis verified incorporation of Gfap? into the Gfap intermediate filament network and overlap in Gfap? and Gfap? subcellular localization. Subcellular mRNA localization studies identified different localization patterns of Gfap? and Gfap? mRNA in mouse primary astrocytes. A larger fraction of Gfap? mRNA showed mRNA localization to astrocyte protrusions compared to Gfap? mRNA. The differential mRNA localization patterns were dependent on the different 3'-exon sequences included in Gfap? and Gfap? mRNA. The presented results show that alternative Gfap mRNA splicing results in isoform-specific mRNA localization patterns with resulting different local mRNA concentration ratios which have potential to participate in subcellular region-specific intermediate filament dynamics during brain development, maintenance and in disease.
Project description:D-Cyclins control progression through the G1 phase and the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. In the adult brain, they regulate neurogenesis which is limited to the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) and to the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. Yet, D-cyclins have also been detected in other parts of the adult brain in differentiated neurons that do not proliferate and rather die by apoptosis in response to cell cycle reactivation. Expression of D-cyclins in astrocytes has also been reported but published results, such as those concerning neurons, appear conflictual. We carried out this study in order to clarify the general pattern of D-cyclin expression in the mouse brain. By performing GFAP/cyclin-D1 double labeling experiments, we detected hypertrophic astrocytes expressing cyclin-D1 in their cytoplasmic processes. Their number increased with age in the hippocampus area but decreased with age in the SVZ. Clusters of astrocytes expressing cyclin-D1 were also detected in the cortical areas of old mice and around blood vessels of neurogenic areas. Other non-asteroidal small cells, probably stem cells, expressed both GFAP and nuclear cyclin-D1 in the neurogenic area of the DG and in the SVZ at a higher density in young mice than in old mice. Finally, cells expressing cyclin-D1 but not GFAP were also found scattered in the striatum and the CA1 region of the hippocampus, and at a high percentage in cortical layers of young and old mice. Our results suggest that astrocytes may control neuronal functions and proliferation by modulating, in normal or altered conditions such as aging or degenerative diseases, cyclin-D1 expression.
Project description:Stroke in the neonatal brain is an understudied cause of neurologic morbidity. Recently we have characterized a new immature mouse model of stroke utilizing unilateral carotid ligation alone to produce infarcts and acute seizures in postnatal day 12 (P12) CD-1 mice. In this study, the amount of poststroke neural progenitor proliferation was examined in the subgranular (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) 7, 14, and 21days after ischemia (DAI). A single IP injection (50 mg/kg) of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) given 2 hr before perfusion fixation labeled newborn cells. Early cell phenotypes were quantified by colabeling with GFAP, nestin, and DCX. Control mice revealed an age-dependent decrease in neural proliferation, with an approximately 50% drop in BrdU-labeled cell counts at P33 compared with P19 both in the SGZ and in the SVZ. Significant reduction in the amount of neural proliferation in the ipsilateral injured SGZ of ligated mice correlated with both the severity of the stroke-injury and the acute seizure scores. Similar correlations were not detected contralaterally. Contralateral SGZ neural proliferation was initially lowered at 7 DAI but normalized by 21 DAI. In both injured and control brains, approximately 90% of newborn SGZ cells colabeled with nestin, approximately 30% colabeled with GFAP, and a few colabeled with DCX. In contrast, poststroke SVZ cell proliferation was enhanced ipsi- more than contralaterally at 7 DAI. In the SVZ, the enhanced neural proliferation normalized to control levels by P33. In conclusion, the neural cell proliferation was differentially altered in the SGZ vs. SVZ after neonatal stroke.