SERPINA1 PiZ and PiS heterozygotes and lung function decline in the SAPALDIA cohort.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a strong risk factor for COPD. But the impact of gene variants resulting in mild or intermediate AAT deficiency on the longitudinal course of respiratory health remains controversial. There is indication from experimental studies that pro-inflammatory agents like cigarette smoke can interact with these variants and thus increase the risk of adverse respiratory health effects. Therefore, we tested the effect of the presence of a protease inhibitor (Pi) S or Z allele (PiMS and PiMZ) on the change in lung function in different inflammation-exposed subgroups of a large, population-based cohort study. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The SAPALDIA population includes over 4600 subjects from whom SERPINA1 genotypes for S and Z alleles, spirometry and respiratory symptoms at baseline and after 11 years follow-up, as well as proxies for inflammatory conditions, such as detailed smoking history, obesity and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), were available. All analyses were performed by applying multivariate regression models. There was no overall unfavourable effect of PiMS or PiMZ genotype on lung function change. We found indication that PiZ heterozygosity interacted with inflammatory stimuli leading to an accelerated decline in measures in use as indices for assessing mild airway obstruction. Obese individuals with genotype PiMM had an average annual decline in the forced mid expiratory flow (?FEF25-75%) of 58.4 ml whereas in obese individuals with PiMZ it amounted to 92.2 ml (p = 0.03). Corresponding numbers for persistent smokers differed even more strongly (66.8 ml (PiMM) vs. 108.2 ml (PiMZ), p = 0.005). Equivalent, but less strong associations were observed for the change in the FEV1/FVC ratio. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that, in addition to the well established impact of the rare PiZZ genotype, one Z allele may be sufficient to accelerate lung function decline in population subgroups characterized by elevated levels of low grade inflammation.
Project description:Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that predisposes to emphysema. A cohort of severe (PiZZ) and moderate (PiSZ) AAT-deficient newborn infants was identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program in 1972-1974 and has been followed-up since birth. Our aim was to study whether the cohort has signs of emphysema in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and computed tomography (CT) densitometry at 38 years of age in comparison with an age-matched control group, randomly selected from the population registry. Forty-one PiZZ, 18 PiSZ, and 61 control subjects (PiMM) underwent complete PFTs, measurement of resistance and reactance in the respiratory system by impulse oscillometry (IOS)/forced oscillation technique (FOT), and CT densitometry. The results were related to self-reported smoking habits. The total lung capacity (TLC) % of the predicted value was significantly higher in the PiZZ ever-smokers than in the PiZZ never-smokers (P<0.05), PiSZ never-smokers (P=0.01) and the PiMM never-smokers (P=0.01). The residual volume (RV) % of the predicted value was significantly higher in the PiZZ ever-smokers compared to the PiMM never-smokers (P<0.01). The PiZZ ever-smokers had a significantly lower carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (Kco) than the PiSZ never-smokers (P<0.01) and PiMM never-smokers (P<0.01). Respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (P<0.01), at 20 Hz (P<0.01), and the area of low reactance (Alx; P<0.05) were significantly lower and respiratory system reactance at 5 Hz (P<0.05) was significantly higher in PiZZ subjects compared to the PiMM subjects. No statistically significant differences in the CT densitometry parameters were found between the Pi subgroups. The physiological parameters in the PiZZ ever-smokers showed evidence of hyperinflation and emphysema before the age of 40 years.
Project description:Excessive neutrophil degranulation is a common feature of many inflammatory disorders, including alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Our group has demonstrated that phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) prevents neutrophil degranulation but serine proteases, which AAT inhibits, cleave PLTP in diseased airways. We propose to identify if airway PLTP activity can be restored by AAT augmentation therapy and how PLTP subdues degranulation of neutrophils in AAT deficient subjects. Airway PLTP activity was lower in AAT deficient patients but elevated in the airways of patients on augmentation therapy. Functional AAT protein (from PiMM homozygotes) prevented PLTP cleavage unlike its mutated ZZ variant (PiZZ). PLTP lowered leukotriene B4 induced degranulation of primary, secondary and tertiary granules from neutrophils from both groups (n?=?14/group). Neutrophils isolated from Pltp knockout mice have enhance neutrophil degranulation. Both AAT and PLTP reduced neutrophil degranulation and superoxide production, possibly though their inhibition of the Src tyrosine kinase, Hck. Src kinase inhibitors saracatinib and dasatinib reduced neutrophil degranulation and superoxide production. Therefore, AAT protects PLTP from proteolytic cleavage and both AAT and PLTP mediate degranulation, possibly via Hck tyrosine kinase inhibition. Deficiency of AAT could contribute to reduced lung PLTP activity and elevated neutrophil signaling associated with lung disease.
Project description:On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse caused massive air pollution, producing variable amounts of lung function reduction in the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) rescue workforce. α₁-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a risk factor for obstructive airway disease.This prospective, longitudinal cohort study of the first 4 years post-September 11, 2001, investigated the influence of AAT deficiency on adjusted longitudinal spirometric change (FEV₁) in 90 FDNY rescue workers with WTC exposure. Workers with protease inhibitor (Pi) Z heterozygosity were considered moderately AAT deficient. PiS homozygosity or PiS heterozygosity without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity was considered mild deficiency, and PiM homozygosity was considered normal. Alternately, workers had low AAT levels if serum AAT was ≤ 20 μmol/L.In addition to normal aging-related decline (37 mL/y), significant FEV(1) decline accelerations developed with increasing AAT deficiency severity (110 mL/y for moderate and 32 mL/y for mild) or with low AAT serum levels (49 mL/y). Spirometric rates pre-September 11, 2001, did not show accelerations with AAT deficiency. Among workers with low AAT levels, cough persisted in a significant number of participants at 4 years post-September 11, 2001.FDNY rescue workers with AAT deficiency had significant spirometric decline accelerations and persistent airway symptoms during the first 4 years after WTC exposure, representing a novel gene-by-environment interaction. Clinically meaningful decline acceleration occurred even with the mild serum AAT level reductions associated with PiS heterozygosity (without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity).
Project description:Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is a hereditary condition characterized by low alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor (also known as alpha 1 antitrypsin [AAT]) serum levels. Reduced levels of AAT allow abnormal degradation of lung tissue, which may ultimately lead to the development of early-onset emphysema. Intravenous infusion of AAT is the only therapeutic option that can be used to maintain levels above the protective threshold. Based on its biochemical efficacy, AAT replacement therapy was approved by the US Food and Drug administration in 1987. However, there remained considerable interest in selecting appropriate outcome measures that could confirm clinical efficacy in a randomized controlled trial setting. Using computed tomography as the primary measure of decline in lung density, the capacity for intravenously administered AAT replacement therapy to slow and modify the course of disease progression was demonstrated for the first time in the Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Augmentation Therapy in Alpha-1 Proteinase Inhibitor Deficiency (RAPID) trial. Following these results, an expert review forum was held at the European Respiratory Society to discuss the findings of the RAPID trial program and how they may change the landscape of alpha 1 antitrypsin emphysema treatment. This review summarizes the results of the RAPID program and the implications for clinical considerations with respect to diagnosis, treatment and management of emphysema due to alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency.
Project description:?1-Antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), characterised by reduced levels or functionality of ?1-antitrypsin (AAT), is a significantly underdiagnosed genetic condition that predisposes individuals to lung and liver disease. Most of the available data on AATD are based on the most common, severe deficiency genotype (PI*ZZ); therefore, treatment and monitoring requirements for individuals with the PI*SZ genotype, which is associated with a less severe AATD, are not as clear. Recent genetic data suggest the PI*SZ genotype may be significantly more prevalent than currently thought, due in part to less frequent identification in the clinic and less frequent reporting in registries. Intravenous AAT therapy, the only specific treatment for patients with AATD, has been shown to slow disease progression in PI*ZZ individuals; however, there is no specific evidence for AAT therapy in PI*SZ individuals, and it remains unclear whether AAT therapy should be considered in these patients. This narrative review evaluates the available data on the PI*SZ genotype, including genetic prevalence, the age of diagnosis and development of respiratory symptoms compared with PI*ZZ individuals, and the impact of factors such as index versus non-index identification and smoking history. In addition, the relevance of the putative 11?µM "protective threshold" for AAT therapy and the risk of liver disease in PI*SZ individuals is explored. The purpose of this review is to identify open research questions in this area, with the aim of optimising the future identification and management of PI*SZ individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lung-function decline is one of the possible mechanisms leading to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). METHODS:We analyzed data obtained from two population-based surveys of adults (n = 2026) conducted in the same individuals 5-9 years (y) after their baseline examination in three Latin-American cities. Post BronchoDilator (postBD) FEV1 decline in mL/y, as %predicted/y (%P/y) and % of baseline/y (%B/y) was calculated and the influence of age, gender, BMI, baseline lung function, BD response, exacerbations rate evaluated using multivariate models. RESULTS:Expressed in ml/y, the mean annual postBD FEV1 decline was 27 mL (0.22%P, 1.32%B) in patients with baseline COPD and 36 (0.14%P, 1.36%B) in those without. Faster decline (in mL/y) was associated with higher baseline lung function, with significant response to bronchodilators, older age and smoking at baseline, also in women with chronic cough and phlegm, or ?2 respiratory exacerbations in the previous year, and in men with asthma. CONCLUSIONS:Lung function decline in a population-based cohort did not differ in obstructed and non-obstructed individuals, it was proportional to baseline FEV1, and was higher in smokers, elderly, and women with respiratory symptoms.
Project description:Abstract: High expression of SERPINA1 gene encoding acute phase protein, alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), is associated with various tumors. We sought to examine the significance of SERPINA1 and AAT protein in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and NSCLC cell lines. Tumor and adjacent non-tumor lung tissues and serum samples from 351 NSCLC patients were analyzed for SERPINA1 expression and AAT protein levels. We also studied the impact of SERPINA1 expression and AAT protein on H1975 and H661 cell behavior, in vitro. Lower SERPINA1 expression in tumor but higher in adjacent non-tumor lung tissues (n = 351, p = 0.016) as well as higher serum levels of AAT protein (n = 170, p = 0.033) were associated with worse survival rates. Specifically, in NSCLC stage III patients, higher blood AAT levels (>2.66 mg/mL) correlated with a poor survival (p = 0.002). Intriguingly, levels of serum AAT do not correlate with levels of C-reactive protein, neutrophils-to-leukocyte ratio, and do not correlate with SERPINA1 expression or AAT staining in the tumor tissue. Additional experiments in vitro revealed that external AAT and/or overexpressed SERPINA1 gene significantly improve cancer cell migration, colony formation and resistance to apoptosis. SERPINA1 gene and AAT protein play an active role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and not just reflect inflammatory reaction related to cancer development.
Project description:Both air pollution and genetic variation have been shown to affect lung function. Their interaction has not been studied on a genome-wide scale to date.We aimed to identify, in an agnostic fashion, genes that modify the association between long-term air pollution exposure and annual lung function decline in an adult population-based sample.A two-stage genome-wide interaction study was performed. The discovery (n = 763) and replication (n = 3,896) samples were derived from the multi-center SAPALDIA cohort (Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults). Annual rate of decline in the forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75%) was the main end point. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify potential multiplicative interactions between genotypes and 11-year cumulative PM10 exposure.We identified a cluster of variants intronic to the CDH13 gene as the only locus with genome-wide significant interactions. The strongest interaction was observed for rs2325934 (p = 8.8 × 10(-10)). Replication of the interaction between this CDH13 variant and cumulative PM10 exposure on annual decline in FEF25-75% was successful (p = 0.008). The interaction was not sensitive to adjustment for smoking or body weight.CDH13 is functionally linked to the adipokine adiponectin, an inflammatory regulator. Future studies need to confirm the interaction and assess how the result relates to previously observed interactions between air pollution and obesity on respiratory function.
Project description:Deep medicine is rapidly moving towards a high-definition approach for therapeutic management of the patient as an individual given the rapid progress of genome sequencing technologies and machine learning algorithms. While considered a monogenic disease, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) patients present with complex and variable phenotypes we refer to as the "hallmarks of AATD" that involve distinct molecular mechanisms in the liver, plasma and lung tissues, likely due to both coding and non-coding variation as well as genetic and environmental modifiers in different individuals. Herein, we briefly review the current therapeutic strategies for the management of AATD. To embrace genetic diversity in the management of AATD, we provide an overview of the disease phenotypes of AATD patients harboring different AAT variants. Linking genotypic diversity to phenotypic diversity illustrates the potential for sequence-specific regions of AAT protein fold design to play very different roles during nascent synthesis in the liver and/or function in post-liver plasma and lung environments. We illustrate how to manage diversity with recently developed machine learning (ML) approaches that bridge sequence-to-function-to-structure knowledge gaps based on the principle of spatial covariance (SCV). SCV relationships provide a deep understanding of the genotype to phenotype transformation initiated by AAT variation in the population to address the role of genetic and environmental modifiers in the individual. Embracing the complexity of AATD in the population is critical for risk management and therapeutic intervention to generate a high definition medicine approach for the patient.
Project description:Two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have investigated the efficacy of IV alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) augmentation therapy on emphysema progression using CT densitometry.Data from these similar trials, a 2-center Danish-Dutch study (n = 54) and the 3-center EXAcerbations and CT scan as Lung Endpoints (EXACTLE) study (n = 65), were pooled to increase the statistical power. The change in 15th percentile of lung density (PD15) measured by CT scan was obtained from both trials. All subjects had 1 CT scan at baseline and at least 1 CT scan after treatment. Densitometric data from 119 patients (AAT [Alfalastin® or Prolastin®], n = 60; placebo, n = 59) were analysed by a statistical/endpoint analysis method. To adjust for lung volume, volume correction was made by including the change in log-transformed total lung volume as a covariate in the statistical model.Mean follow-up was approximately 2.5 years. The mean change in lung density from baseline to last CT scan was -4.082 g/L for AAT and -6.379 g/L for placebo with a treatment difference of 2.297 (95% CI, 0.669 to 3.926; p = 0.006). The corresponding annual declines were -1.73 and -2.74 g/L/yr, respectively.The overall results of the combined analysis of 2 separate trials of comparable design, and the only 2 controlled clinical trials completed to date, has confirmed that IV AAT augmentation therapy significantly reduces the decline in lung density and may therefore reduce the future risk of mortality in patients with AAT deficiency-related emphysema.The EXACTLE study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as 'Antitrypsin (AAT) to Treat Emphysema in AAT-Deficient Patients'; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00263887.