Two tyrosyl radicals stabilize high oxidation states in cytochrome C oxidase for efficient energy conservation and proton translocation.
ABSTRACT: The reaction of oxidized bovine cytochrome c oxidase (bCcO) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the properties of radical intermediates. Two distinct radicals with widths of 12 and 46 G are directly observed by X-band EPR in the reaction of bCcO with H(2)O(2) at pH 6 and pH 8. High-frequency EPR (D-band) provides assignments to tyrosine for both radicals based on well-resolved g-tensors. The wide radical (46 G) exhibits g-values similar to a radical generated on L-Tyr by UV-irradiation and to tyrosyl radicals identified in many other enzyme systems. In contrast, the g-values of the narrow radical (12 G) deviate from L-Tyr in a trend akin to the radicals on tyrosines with substitutions at the ortho position. X-band EPR demonstrates that the two tyrosyl radicals differ in the orientation of their ?-methylene protons. The 12 G wide radical has minimal hyperfine structure and can be fit using parameters unique to the post-translationally modified Y244 in bCcO. The 46 G wide radical has extensive hyperfine structure and can be fit with parameters consistent with Y129. The results are supported by mixed quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations. In addition to providing spectroscopic evidence of a radical formed on the post-translationally modified tyrosine in CcO, this study resolves the much debated controversy of whether the wide radical seen at low pH in the bovine enzyme is a tyrosine or tryptophan. The possible role of radical formation and migration in proton translocation is discussed.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase catalysis by prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS)-1 and -2 involves reaction of a peroxide-induced Tyr385 radical with arachidonic acid (AA) to form an AA radical that reacts with O(2). The potential for isomeric AA radicals and formation of an alternate tyrosyl radical at Tyr504 complicate analysis of radical intermediates. We compared the EPR spectra of PGHS-1 and -2 reacted with peroxide and AA or specifically deuterated AA in anaerobic, single-turnover experiments. With peroxide-treated PGHS-2, the carbon-centered radical observed after AA addition was consistently a pentadienyl radical; a variable wide-singlet (WS) contribution from mixture of Tyr385 and Tyr504 radicals was also present. Analogous reactions with PGHS-1 produced EPR signals consistent with varying proportions of pentadienyl and tyrosyl radicals, and two additional EPR signals. One, insensitive to oxygen exposure, is the narrow singlet tyrosyl radical with clear hyperfine features found previously in inhibitor-pretreated PGHS-1. The second type of EPR signal is a narrow singlet lacking detailed hyperfine features that disappeared upon oxygen exposure. This signal was previously ascribed to an allyl radical, but high field EPR analysis indicated that ~90% of the signal originates from a novel tyrosyl radical, with a small contribution from a carbon-centered species. The radical kinetics could be resolved by global analysis of EPR spectra of samples trapped at various times during anaerobic reaction of PGHS-1 with a mixture of peroxide and AA. The improved understanding of the dynamics of AA and tyrosyl radicals in PGHS-1 and -2 will be useful for elucidating details of the cyclooxygenase mechanism, particularly the H-transfer between tyrosyl radical and AA.
Project description:Catalase-peroxidase (KatG) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a Class I peroxidase, exhibits high catalase activity and peroxidase activity with various substrates and is responsible for activation of the commonly used antitubercular drug, isoniazid (INH). KatG readily forms amino acid-based radicals during turnover with alkyl peroxides, and this work focuses on extending the identification and characterization of radicals forming on the millisecond to second time scale. Rapid freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (RFQ-EPR) reveals a change in the structure of the initially formed radical in the presence of INH. Heme pocket binding of the drug and knowledge that KatG[Y229F] lacks this signal provides evidence for radical formation on residue Tyr(229). High field RFQ-EPR spectroscopy confirmed a tryptophanyl radical signal, and new analyses of X-band RFQ-EPR spectra also established its presence. High field EPR spectroscopy also confirmed that the majority radical species is a tyrosyl radical. Site-directed mutagenesis, along with simulations of EPR spectra based on x-ray structural data for particular tyrosine and tryptophan residues, enabled assignments based on predicted hyperfine coupling parameters. KatG mutants W107F, Y229F, and the double mutant W107F/Y229F showed alteration in type and yield of radical species. Results are consistent with formation of a tyrosyl radical reasonably assigned to residue Tyr(229) within the first few milliseconds of turnover. This is followed by a mixture of tyrosyl and tryptophanyl radical species and finally to only a tyrosyl radical on residue Tyr(353), which lies more distant from the heme. The radical processing of enzyme lacking the Trp(107)-Tyr(229)-Met(255) adduct (found as a unique structural feature of catalase-peroxidases) is suggested to be a reasonable assignment of the phenomena.
Project description:The formation of radicals in bovine cytochrome c oxidase (bCcO), during the O(2) redox chemistry and proton translocation, is an unresolved controversial issue. To determine if radicals are formed in the catalytic reaction of bCcO under single turnover conditions, the reaction of O(2) with the enzyme, reduced by either ascorbate or dithionite, was initiated in a custom-built rapid freeze quenching (RFQ) device and the products were trapped at 77K at reaction times ranging from 50?s to 6ms. Additional samples were hand mixed to attain multiple turnover conditions and quenched with a reaction time of minutes. X-band (9GHz) continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) spectra of the reaction products revealed the formation of a narrow radical with both reductants. D-band (130GHz) pulsed EPR spectra allowed for the determination of the g-tensor principal values and revealed that when ascorbate was used as the reductant the dominant radical species was localized on the ascorbyl moiety, and when dithionite was used as the reductant the radical was the SO(2)(-) ion. When the contributions from the reductants are subtracted from the spectra, no evidence for a protein-based radical could be found in the reaction of O(2) with reduced bCcO. As a surrogate for radicals formed on reaction intermediates, the reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with oxidized bCcO was studied at pH 6 and pH 8