Glutathione peroxidase 7 protects against oxidative DNA damage in oesophageal cells.
ABSTRACT: Exposure of the oesophageal mucosa to gastric acid and bile acids leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a known risk factor for Barrett's oesophagus and progression to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). This study investigated the functions of glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7), frequently silenced in OAC, and its capacity in regulating ROS and its associated oxidative DNA damage.Using in-vitro cell models, experiments were performed that included glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, Amplex UltraRed, CM-H(2)DCFDA, Annexin V, 8-oxoguanine, phospho-H2A.X, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot assays.Enzymatic assays demonstrated limited GPX activity of the recombinant GPX7 protein. GPX7 exhibited a strong capacity to neutralise hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) independent of glutathione. Reconstitution of GPX7 expression in immortalised Barrett's oesophagus cells, BAR-T and CP-A led to resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. Following exposure to acidic bile acids cocktail (pH4), these GPX7-expressing cells demonstrated lower levels of H(2)O(2), intracellular ROS, oxidative DNA damage and double-strand breaks, compared with controls (p<0.01). In addition, these cells demonstrated lower levels of ROS signalling, indicated by reduced phospho-JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) and phospho-p38 (Thr180/Tyr182), and demonstrated lower levels of apoptosis following the exposure to acidic bile acids or H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. The knockdown of endogenous GPX7 in immortalised oesophageal squamous epithelial cells (HET1A) confirmed the protective functions of GPX7 against pH4 bile acids by showing an increase in the levels of H(2)O(2), intracellular ROS, oxidative DNA damage, double-strand breaks, apoptosis, and ROS-dependent signalling (p<0.01).The dysfunction of GPX7 in oesophageal cells increases the levels of ROS and oxidative DNA damage, which are common risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus and OAC.
Project description:Bile reflux contributes to oesophageal injury and neoplasia. COX-2 is involved in both inflammation and carcinogenesis; however, the precise mechanisms by which bile acids promote COX-2 expression in the oesophagus are largely unknown. We analysed the molecular mechanisms that govern bile acid-mediated expression of COX-2 in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA).The effects of bile acids on COX-2 expression were analysed in immortalised Barrett's oesophagus and OA cells using immunoblotting and transient transfections. Pharmacological inhibitors, phospho-specific antibodies, dominant-negative mutants and siRNA techniques were used to identify relevant signalling pathways. Flow cytometry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers were used to examine ROS involvement. Immunohistochemistry was performed on oesophageal mucosa obtained from an established rat model of bile reflux.Unconjugated bile acids potently stimulated COX-2 expression and induced AKT and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in concert with COX-2 induction. These findings were mimicked in the in vivo rat model. Dominant-negative (DN) AKT and LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) or U0126 (MEK-1/2 inhibitor) blocked chenodeoxycholic acid (CD) and deoxycholic acid (DC) mediated COX-2 induction. CD and DC also induced CREB phosphorylation and AP-1 activity. CREB-specific siRNA and DN AP-1 blocked CD and DC-induced COX-2 induction. Finally, CD and DC increased intracellular ROS, while ROS scavengers blocked COX-2 induction and the signalling pathways involved.Unconjugated bile acids induce CREB and AP-1-dependent COX-2 expression in Barrett's oesophagus and OA through ROS-mediated activation of PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2. This study enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which bile acids promote the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most frequent malignancy in the esophagus in the US and its incidence has been rising rapidly in the past few decades. Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), where the esophageal epithelium is abnormally exposed to acid and bile salts, is a pro-inflammatory condition that is the main risk factor for the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and its progression to EAC. Glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7) is frequently silenced through DNA hypermethylation during Barrett's tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of GPX7 in regulating the bile salts-induced inflammatory signaling in Barrett's carcinogenesis. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we demonstrated a significant induction in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8) and chemokines (CXCL-1 and CXCL-2) in esophageal cells after exposure to acidic (pH4) or neutral (pH7) bile salts. Western blot analysis showed that exposure to acidic and neutral bile salts increased p-NF-?B-p65 (S536) protein levels independent of ROS. Reconstitution of GPX7 expression in EAC cells abolished the increase of p-p65 (S536) protein levels and mRNA expression of cytokines and chemokines upon treatment with acidic and neutral bile salts. Examination of human primary EAC tissues by qRT-PCR demonstrated significant overexpression of cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-8) in EAC samples, as compared to normal samples, with significant inverse correlation with GPX7 expression level. Taken together, the loss of GPX7 expression promotes bile salt-induced activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; important contributors to GERD-associated Barrett's carcinogenesis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Neuroepithelial Transforming Gene 1 (NET1) is a well characterised oncoprotein and a proven marker of an aggressive phenotype in a number of cancers, including gastric adenocarcinoma. We aimed to investigate whether NET1 plays a functional role in oesophageal cancer (OAC) and its pre-malignant phenotype Barrett's oesophagus. METHODS: Baseline NET1 mRNA levels were determined by qPCR across a panel of six cell lines, including normal oesophageal, Barrett's and OAC derived cells. Quantification of NET1 protein in OAC cells was performed using Western blot and immunofluorescence. NET1 expression was modulated by treating with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and NET1-specific siRNA. The functional effects of NET1 knockdown were assessed in vitro using proliferation, migration and invasion assays. RESULTS: NET1 expression was increased in Barrett's and in OAC-derived cells in comparison to normal oesophageal cells. The highest expression was observed in OE33 a Barrett's-related OAC cell line. NET1 protein and mRNA expression was enhanced by LPA treatment in OAC and furthermore LPA treatment caused increased proliferation, migration and invasion in a NET1-dependent manner. NET1 knockdown resulted in reduced OAC cell proliferation and invasion. CONCLUSIONS: As found in other malignancies, NET1 expression is elevated in OAC and its pre-malignant phenotype, Barrett's oesophagus. NET1 promotes OAC cell invasion and proliferation and it mediates LPA-induced OAC cell migration.
Project description:The accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage underlie the development of Barrett's oesophagus (BO) and its progression to Barrett's dysplasia (BD) and adenocarcinoma (BAC).The promoter regions of 23 genes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) families were systematically analysed. Quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing, real-time RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis methods were utilised in this study.14 genes were identified that have CpG islands around their transcription start sites: GSTs (GSTM2-M5, GSTA4, GSTP1, GSTZ1, GSTT2, GSTO1 and GSTO2) and GPXs (GPX1, GPX3, GPX4 and GPX7). Analysis of an initial set of 20 primary samples demonstrated promoter DNA hypermethylation and mRNA downregulation of GPX3, GPX7, GSTM2, GSTM3 and GSTM5 in more than half of the BAC samples. Further analysis of 159 primary human samples (37 normal, 11 BO, 11 BD and 100 BACs) indicated frequent hypermethylation (>or=10% methylation) of GPX3 (62%), GPX7 (67%), GSTM2 (69.1%) and GSTM3 (15%) in BACs. A significant inverse correlation between DNA methylation and mRNA expression level was shown for GPX3 (p<0.001), GPX7 (p = 0.002), GSTM2 (p<0.001) and GSTM5 (p = 0.01). Treatment of oesophageal cancer cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin-A led to reversal of the methylation pattern and re-expression of these genes at the mRNA and protein levels. The IHC analysis of GPX3, GPX7 and GSTM2 on a tissue microarray that contained 75 BACs with normal squamous oesophageal samples demonstrated an absent to weak staining in tumours (52% for GPX3, 57% for GPX7 and 45% for GSTM2) and a moderate to strong immunostaining in normal samples.Epigenetic inactivation of members of the glutathione pathway can be an important mechanism in Barrett's tumourigenesis.
Project description:Raman spectroscopy is a fast and sensitive technique able to identify molecular changes in biological specimens. Herein, we report on three cases where Raman microspectroscopy was used to distinguish normal vs. oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) (case 1) and Barrett's oesophagus vs. OAC (cases 2 and 3) in a non-destructive and highly accurate fashion. Normal and OAC tissues were discriminated using principal component analysis plus linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) with 97% accuracy (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity) (case 1); Barrett's oesophagus vs. OAC tissues were discriminated with accuracies ranging from 98 to 100% (97-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Spectral markers responsible for class differentiation were obtained through the difference-between-mean spectrum for each group and the PCA loadings, where C-O-C skeletal mode in ?-glucose (900 cm-1), lipids (967 cm-1), phosphodioxy (1296 cm-1), deoxyribose (1456 cm-1) and collagen (1445, 1665 cm-1) were associated with normal and OAC tissue differences. Phenylalanine (1003 cm-1), proline/collagen (1066, 1445 cm-1), phospholipids (1130 cm-1), CH2 angular deformation (1295 cm-1), disaccharides (1462 cm-1) and proteins (amide I, 1672/5 cm-1) were associated with Barrett's oesophagus and OAC tissue differences. These findings show the potential of using Raman microspectroscopy imaging for fast and accurate diagnoses of oesophageal pathologies and establishing subtle molecular changes predisposing to adenocarcinoma in a clinical setting. Graphical abstract Graphical abstract demonstrating how oesophageal tissue is processed through Raman mapping analysis in order to detect spectral differences between stages of oesophageal transformation to adenocarcinoma.
Project description:The mechanism of transformation to intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's oesophagus has not been clarified. We investigated the effects of various bile acids on expression of the caudal related homeobox gene Cdx2 in cultured oesophageal squamous epithelial cells. In addition, morphological and histochemical changes in squamous cells to intestinal epithelial cells were studied in response to bile acid induced expression of Cdx2.A rat model of Barrett's oesophagus was created by anastomosing the oesophagus and jejunum, and Cdx2 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Also, the response of various bile acids on Cdx2 gene expression was studied in the human colon epithelial cell lines Caco-2 and HT-29, as well as in cultured rat oesophageal squamous epithelial cells using a Cdx2 promoter luciferase assay. In addition, primary cultured oesophageal squamous epithelial cells were transfected with Cdx2 expression vectors and their possible transformation to intestinal-type epithelial cells was investigated.Oesophagojejunal anastomoses formed intestinal goblet cell metaplasia in rat oesophagus specimens and metaplastic epithelia strongly expressed Cdx2. When the effects of 11 types of bile acids on Cdx2 gene expression were examined, only cholic acid (CA) and dehydrocholic acid dose dependently increased Cdx2 promoter activity and Cdx2 protein production in Caco-2 and HT-29 cells, and cultured rat oesophageal keratinocytes. Results from mutation analysis of Cdx2 promoter suggested that two nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) binding sites were responsible for the bile acid induced activation of the Cdx2 promoter. When bile acids were measured in oesophageal refluxate of rats with experimental Barrett's oesophagus, the concentration of CA was found to be consistent with the experimental dose that augmented Cdx2 expression in vitro. Furthermore, transfection of the Cdx2 expression vector in cultured rat oesophageal keratinocytes induced production of intestinal-type mucin, MUC2, in cells that expressed Cdx2.We found that CA activates Cdx2 promoter via NFkappaB and stimulates production of Cdx2 protein in oesophageal keratinocytes with production of intestinal-type mucin. This may be one of the mechanisms of metaplasia in Barrett's oesophagus.
Project description:Bile acids (BAs) have been implicated in the development of oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). However, whether BAs promote cancer invasiveness has not been elucidated. We evaluated the role of BAs, in particular deoxycholic acid (DCA), in OAC invasion. Migration and invasiveness in untreated and BA-treated oesophageal SKGT-4 cancer cells were evaluated. Activity and expression of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were determined by zymography, ELISA, PCR and Western blot. Finally, human OAC tissues were stained for MMP-10 by immunohistochemistry. It was found that SKGT-4 cells incubated with low concentrations of DCA had a significant increase in invasion. In addition, MMP-10 mRNA and protein expression were also increased in the presence of DCA. MMP-10 was found to be highly expressed both in-vitro and in-vivo in neoplastic OAC cells relative to non-neoplastic squamous epithelial cells. Our results show that DCA promotes OAC invasion and MMP-10 overexpression. This study will advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in human OAC and shows promise for the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Barrett's metaplasia might develop if GORD causes oesophageal squamous cells to convert into columnar cells. Acid and bile exposures upregulate columnar differentiation genes like CDX2 in oesophageal squamous cells, but it is not known if such exposures downregulate squamous differentiation genes like SOX2. In addition to acid and bile, patients with GORD also have high oesophageal concentrations of nitric oxide (NO). This study aims to determine how acid, bile salts and NO affect genes that influence oesophageal cell phenotype.Oesophageal squamous cells from patients with Barrett's oesophagus were exposed to acidic bile salts or NOC-9 (an NO donor). SOX2, p63 (squamous transcription factor) and CDX2 mRNAs were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. SOX2 and its regulatory Akt pathway proteins were evaluated by western blotting. S-nitrosylation by NO was blocked by dithiothreitol. Immunohistochemistry for SOX2 was performed on the oesophagus of rats with surgically induced GORD which were fed diets with and without nitrite supplementation.In oesophageal squamous cells, NO profoundly decreased SOX2 protein and caused a significantly greater decrease in SOX2 mRNA than did acidic bile salts. NO also decreased p63 and increased CDX2 expression. NO caused S-nitrosylation of Akt, blocking its phosphorylation. Akt pathway inhibition by LY294002 or Akt siRNA reduced SOX2 mRNA. Rats fed with nitrite-supplemented diets exhibited weaker SOX2 oesophageal staining than rats fed with normal diets.In oesophageal squamous cells, NO blocks SOX2 expression through Akt S-nitrosylation. NO also increases CDX2 and decreases p63 expression. By triggering molecular events preventing squamous differentiation while promoting intestinal differentiation, NO might contribute to Barrett's pathogenesis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In previous studies using oesophageal squamous cells from patients with Barrett's oesophagus (normal oesophageal squamous (NES)-B cells) and from patients without Barrett's oesophagus (NES-G cells), we showed that acid and bile salts induced caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) expression only in NES-B cells. CDX2, a transcription factor required to form intestinal epithelium, is a target of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) signalling, which can be inhibited by aspirin. We explored mechanisms underlying differences between NES-B and NES-G cells in CDX2 expression and effects of aspirin on that CDX2 expression. DESIGN:We exposed NES-B and NES-G cells to acid and bile salts, with and without aspirin, and evaluated effects on I?B-NF-?B-PKAc complex activation, p65 NF-?B subunit function, and CDX2 expression. RESULTS:In both NES-B and NES-G cells, acid and bile salts activated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase to generate H2O2, which activated the I?B-NF-?B-PKAc complex. NES-B cells exhibited higher levels of phosphorylated I?B and p65 and greater NF-?B transcriptional activity than NES-G cells, indicating greater I?B-NF-?B-PKAc complex activation by acid and bile salts in NES-B cells, and p65 siRNA prevented their increased expression of CDX2. Aspirin blocked I?B phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, CDX2 promoter activation and CDX2 expression induced by acid and bile salts in NES-B cells. CONCLUSIONS:Differences between NES-B and NES-G cells in NF-?B activation by acid and bile salts can account for their differences in CDX2 expression, and their CDX2 expression can be blocked by aspirin. These findings might explain why some patients with GORD develop Barrett's oesophagus while others do not, and why aspirin might protect against development of Barrett's oesophagus.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are needed to improve current diagnosis and surveillance strategies for patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1/growth differentiation factor 15 (MIC-1/GDF15) tissue and plasma levels have been shown to predict disease progression in other cancer types and was therefore evaluated in BO/OAC. METHODS: One hundred thirty-eight patients were studied: 45 normal oesophagus (NE), 37 BO, 16 BO with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and 40 OAC. RESULTS: Median tissue expression of MIC-1/GDF15 mRNA was ⩾25-fold higher in BO and LGD compared to NE (P<0.001); two-fold higher in OAC vs BO (P=0.039); and 47-fold higher in OAC vs NE (P<0.001). Relative MIC-1/GDF15 tissue expression >720 discriminated between the presence of either OAC or LGD vs NE with 94% sensitivity and 71% specificity (ROC AUC 0.86, 95% CI 0.73-0.96; P<0.001). Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1/growth differentiation factor 15 plasma values were also elevated in patients with OAC vs NE (P<0.001) or BO (P=0.015).High MIC-1/GDF15 plasma levels (⩾1140 pg ml(-1)) were an independent predictor of poor survival for patients with OAC (HR 3.87, 95% CI 1.01-14.75; P=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma and tissue levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are significantly elevated in patients with BO, LGD and OAC. Plasma MIC-1/GDF15 may have value in diagnosis and monitoring of Barrett's disease.