EMMPRIN is associated with S100A4 and predicts patient outcome in colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: Proteolytic enzymes and their regulators have important biological roles in colorectal cancer by stimulating invasion and metastasis, which makes these factors attractive as potential prognostic biomarkers.The expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was characterised using immunohistochemistry in primary tumours from a cohort of 277 prospectively recruited colorectal cancer patients, and associations with expression of S100A4, clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome were investigated.One hundred and ninety-eight samples (72%) displayed positive membrane staining of the tumour cells, whereas 10 cases (4%) were borderline positive. EMMPRIN expression was associated with shorter metastasis-free, disease-specific and overall survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The prognostic impact was largely confined to TNM stage III, and EMMPRIN-negative stage III patients had an excellent prognosis. Furthermore, EMMPRIN was significantly associated with expression of S100A4, and the combined expression of these biomarkers conferred an even poorer prognosis. However, there was no evidence of direct regulation between the two proteins in the colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW620 in siRNA knockdown experiments.EMMPRIN is a promising prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer, and our findings suggest that it could be used in the selection of stage III patients for adjuvant therapy.
Project description:Current clinical algorithms are unable to precisely predict which colorectal cancer patients would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, and there is a need for novel biomarkers to improve the selection of patients. The metastasis-promoting protein S100A4 predicts poor outcome in colorectal cancer, but whether it could be used to guide clinical decision making remains to be resolved. S100A4 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in primary colorectal carcinomas from a consecutively collected, population-representative cohort and a randomized phase III study on adjuvant 5-fluorouracil/levamisole. Sensitivity to treatment with 5-fluorouracil in S100A4 knockdown cells was investigated using 2D and 3D cell culture assays. Strong nuclear expression of S100A4 was detected in 19% and 23% of the tumors in the two study cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, nuclear immunoreactivity was associated with reduced relapse-free (P < 0.001 and P = 0.010) and overall survival (P = 0.046 and P = 0.006) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, nuclear S100A4 was a predictor of poor relapse-free survival in the consecutive series (P = 0.002; HR 1.9), but not in the randomized study. Sensitivity to treatment with 5-fluorouracil was not affected by S100A4 expression in in vitro cell culture assays, and there was no indication from subgroup analyses in the randomized study that S100A4 expression was associated with increased benefit of adjuvant treatment with 5-fluorouracil/levamisole. The present study confirms that nuclear S100A4 expression is a negative prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer, but the clinical utility in selection of patients for adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy is limited.
Project description:Survival of colorectal cancer patients is strongly dependent on development of distant metastases. S100A4 is a prognostic biomarker and inducer for colorectal cancer metastasis. Besides exerting intracellular functions, S100A4 is secreted extracellularly. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is one of its interaction partners. The impact of the S100A4-RAGE interaction for cell motility and metastasis formation in colorectal cancer has not been elucidated so far. Here we demonstrate the RAGE-dependent increase in migratory and invasive capabilities of colorectal cancer cells via binding to extracellular S100A4. We show the direct interaction of S100A4 and RAGE, leading to hyperactivated MAPK/ERK and hypoxia signaling. The S100A4-RAGE axis increased cell migration (P<0.005) and invasion (P<0.005), which was counteracted with recombinant soluble RAGE and RAGE-specific antibodies. In colorectal cancer patients, not distantly metastasized at surgery, high RAGE expression in primary tumors correlated with metachronous metastasis, reduced overall (P=0.022) and metastasis-free survival (P=0.021). In summary, interaction of S100A4-RAGE mediates S100A4-induced colorectal cancer cell motility. RAGE by itself represents a biomarker for prognosis of colorectal cancer. Thus, therapeutic approaches targeting RAGE or intervening in S100A4-RAGE-dependent signaling early in tumor progression might represent alternative strategies restricting S100A4-induced colorectal cancer metastasis.
Project description:The metastasis-inducing protein S100A4 was found to be a prognostic indicator for the development of metachronous metastases. S100A4 expression levels correlate with the formation of human colorectal cancer metastases and shorter patients' survival. Inhibition of S100A4 expression in patients might therefore result in decreased metastasis formation and prolonged survival. In the present study, we used shRNA expression plasmids to inhibit S100A4 expression in the colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116, SW620 and DLD-1. Cell lines with reduced S100A4 expression showed reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro. The knock-down of S100A4 expression also led to significantly diminished formation of liver metastases when intrasplenically transplanted in mice (P = 0.004). We then focused on the therapeutic potential of systemically applied shRNA expression plasmids acting on S100A4 via repeated hydrodynamics-based tail vein injection of plasmid DNA. Mice, intrasplenically transplanted with HCT116 cells and treated systemically with S100A4?shRNA plasmids, showed a decrease of S100A4 and MMP9 expression levels, resulting in significantly reduced liver metastases (P = 0.005). In summary, we show for the first time the intratumoral knock down of S100A4 via systemic application of S100A4?shRNA plasmid DNA, which restricts metastasis formation in a xenografted mouse model of colorectal cancer.
Project description:Object: The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors associated with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the clinicopathological findings and immunohistochemical expression of tumor prognostic markers at tumor budding sites to determine their predictive value for patient prognosis. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical examination was performed by tissue microarray (TMA) of specimens from 106 patients with CRC. On hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tumor tissue slides, a representative area of tumor budding at the invasive front was selected for the construction of a TMA. Immunostaining for matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7), the laminin-5 (ln-5) ?2 chain and S100A4 was performed to determine the association between patient survival and these markers. Results: Clinicopathological variables were also assessed. Tumor location, histological type, degree of lymphatic invasion and vascular invasion, tumor stage, epithelial expression of S100A4, stromal cell expression of S100A4 and expression of the ln-5?2 chain were associated with an increased risk of mortality. Five factors were retained in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Specifically, the tumor location, degree of lymphatic invasion and vascular invasion, tumor stage and stromal cell expression of S100A4 remained significant predictors of patient survival after controlling for the other variables. Conclusion: Vascular invasion and stromal expression of S100A4 in the tumor budding areas correlated with patient survival. Stromal immunostaining of S100A4 may be useful for identifying high-risk patients with advanced CRC.
Project description:Accumulated evidence has indicated a correlation between S100A4 expression and colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, its prognostic significance for patients with CRC remains inconclusive. To clarify their relationship, a meta-analysis of the relevant published studies was performed.PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were electronically searched. All studies evaluating the prognostic value of S100A4 expression in CRC patients regarding survival and a series of clinicopathological parameters were included. The effect of S100A4 expression on the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were measured by pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while the effect of S100A4 expression on the clinicopathological parameters were measured by the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% CIs.Eleven studies (2,824 patients in total) were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, S100A4 overexpression was significantly associated with worse OS (HR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.58-2.29, P <0.001), and worse DFS (HR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.53-3.05, P <0.001) in patients with CRC. Subgroup analyses showed that S100A4 overexpression was significantly correlated with poor OS in Asian, European, and Australian patients and patients treated with surgery or chemotherapy. Additionally, there were significant associations between S100A4 expression and several clinicopathological parameters (tumour location, lymph node metastasis, nodal status, TNM stage, and tumour depth).This meta-analysis indicates that S100A4 overexpression seems to correlate with tumour progression and poor prognosis of CRC patients. It may be a useful marker to predict progression and prognosis of CRC.The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8643820431072915.
Project description:Aberrant overexpression of high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is frequently found in cancers and HMGA2 has been considered an anticancer therapeutic target. In this study, a pan-cancer genomics survey based on Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data indicated that HMGA2 was mainly overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers including colorectal cancer. Intriguingly, HMGA2 overexpression had no prognostic impacts on cancer patients' overall and disease-free survivals. In addition, HMGA2-overexpressing colorectal cancer cell lines did not display higher susceptibility to a previously identified HMGA2 inhibitor (netroposin). By microarray profiling of HMGA2-driven gene signature and subsequent Connectivity Map (CMap) database mining, we identified that S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) may be a druggable vulnerability for HMGA2-overexpressing colorectal cancer. A repurposing S100A4 inhibitor, niclosamide, was found to reverse the HMGA2-driven gene signature both in colorectal cancer cell lines and patients' tissues. In vitro and in vivo experiments validated that HMGA2-overexpressing colorectal cancer cells were more sensitive to niclosamide. However, inhibition of S100A4 by siRNAs and other inhibitors was not sufficient to exert effects like niclosamide. Further RNA sequencing analysis identified that niclosamide inhibited more cell-cycle-related gene expression in HMGA2-overexpressing colorectal cancer cells, which may explain its selective anticancer effect. Together, our study repurposes an anthelminthic drug niclosamide for treating HMGA2-overexpression colorectal cancer.
Project description:Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) has been reported to be associated with tumor formation and invasion in many studies. However, the clinicopathological significance and prognosis of EMMPRIN in cancer patients remains inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the predictive potential of EMMPRIN in various cancers. By searching Pubmed, Cochrane library database and web of science comprehensively, 39studies with 5739 cases were included in our meta-analysis. The results indicated that EMMPRIN overexpression was significantly associated with poor outcome of cancers (HR=2.46, 95% CI: 2.21-2.75, P<0.0001). In addition, a significant relation was found between EMMPRIN overexpression and clinicopathological features, such as tumor stage (T3+T4/ T1+T2, OR=1.87, 95% CI:1.64-2.12, P<0.0001), tumor differentiation (poor/ well+ moderate, OR=1.09, 95% CI:1.60-2.23, P<0.0001), clinical stage (III+IV /I +II, OR=1.96, 95% CI:1.69-2.27, P<0.0001) and nodal metastasis (positive/negative, OR=2.37, 95% CI:1.93-2.90, P<0.0001). However, the expression of EMMRIN was not significantly associated with tumor stage in cervical cancer (OR=1.35, 95%CI: 0.73-2.48, P=0.33). In conclusion, EMMPRIN overxepression is significantly associated with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of cancers. Thus, EMMPRIN may be regarded as a promising bio-marker in predicting the clinical outcome of patients in cancers and could be used as the therapeutic target during clinical practices.
Project description:Due to difficulties in predicting recurrences in colorectal cancer stages II and III, reliable prognostic biomarkers could be a breakthrough for individualized treatment and follow-up.To find potential prognostic protein biomarkers in colorectal cancer, using the proximity extension assays.A panel of 92 oncology-related proteins was analyzed with proximity extension assays, in plasma from a cohort of 261 colorectal cancer patients with stage II-IV. The survival analyses were corrected for disease stage and age, and the recurrence analyses were corrected for disease stage. The significance threshold was adjusted for multiple comparisons.The plasma proteins expression levels had a greater prognostic relevance in disease stage III colorectal cancer than in disease stage II, and for overall survival than for time to recurrence. Osteoprotegerin was the only biomarker candidate in the protein panel that had a statistical significant association with overall survival (P = .00029). None of the proteins were statistically significantly associated with time to recurrence.Of the 92 analyzed plasma proteins, osteoprotegerin showed the strongest prognostic impact in patients with colorectal cancer, and therefore osteoprotegerin is a potential predictive marker, and it also could be a target for treatments.
Project description:PURPOSE:EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases family, is an important regulator of tumor initiation, neovascularization, and metastasis in a wide range of epithelial and mesenchymal cancers; however, its role in colorectal cancer recurrence and progression is unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:EphA2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in stage II/III colorectal tumors (N = 338), and findings correlated with clinical outcome. The correlation between EphA2 expression and stem cell markers CD44 and Lgr5 was examined. The role of EphA2 in migration/invasion was assessed using a panel of KRAS wild-type (WT) and mutant (MT) parental and invasive colorectal cancer cell line models. RESULTS:Colorectal tumors displayed significantly higher expression levels of EphA2 compared with matched normal tissue, which positively correlated with high CD44 and Lgr5 expression levels. Moreover, high EphA2 mRNA and protein expression were found to be associated with poor overall survival in stage II/III colorectal cancer tissues, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Preclinically, we found that EphA2 was highly expressed in KRASMT colorectal cancer cells and that EphA2 levels are regulated by the KRAS-driven MAPK and RalGDS-RalA pathways. Moreover, EphA2 levels were elevated in several invasive daughter cell lines, and downregulation of EphA2 using RNAi or recombinant EFNA1 suppressed migration and invasion of KRASMT colorectal cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS:These data show that EpHA2 is a poor prognostic marker in stage II/III colorectal cancer, which may be due to its ability to promote cell migration and invasion, providing support for the further investigation of EphA2 as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target.
Project description:To evaluate whether tumour-derived microvesicles (T-MV), originating from the plasma membrane, represent suitable cancer biomarkers, we isolated MV from peripheral blood samples of cancer patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic solid tumours (n = 330, including 79 head & neck cancers, 74 lung cancers, 41 breast cancers, 28 colorectal cancers and 108 with other cancer forms) and controls (n = 103). Whole MV preparations were characterised using flow cytometry. While MV carrying the tumour-associated proteins MUC1, EGFR and EpCAM were found to be enhanced in a tumour-subtype-specific way in patients' blood, expression of the matrix metalloproteinase inducer EMMPRIN was increased independent of tumour type. Higher levels of EMMPRIN+-MV correlated significantly with poor overall survival, whereas the other markers were prognostic only in specific tumour subgroups. By combining all four tumour-associated antigens, cancer patients were separated from healthy controls with an AUC of up to 0.85. Ex vivo, whole MV preparations from cancer patients, in contrast to those of controls, induced a tumour-supporting phenotype in macrophages and increased tumour cell invasion, which was dependent on the highly glycosylated isoform of EMMPRIN. In conclusion, the detection of T-MV in whole blood, even in minor amounts, is feasible with standard techniques, proves functionally relevant and correlates with clinical outcome.