Pore collapse underlies irreversible inactivation of TRPM2 cation channel currents.
ABSTRACT: The Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a key role in pathogen-evoked phagocyte activation, postischemic neuronal apoptosis, and glucose-evoked insulin secretion, by linking these cellular responses to oxidative stress. TRPM2 channels are coactivated by binding of intracellular ADP ribose and Ca(2+) to distinct cytosolically accessible sites on the channels. These ligands likely regulate the activation gate, conserved in the voltage-gated cation channel superfamily, that comprises a helix bundle formed by the intracellular ends of transmembrane helix six of each subunit. For several K(+) and TRPM family channels, activation gate opening requires the presence of phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) in the inner membrane leaflet. Most TRPM family channels inactivate upon prolonged stimulation in inside-out patches; this "rundown" is due to PIP(2) depletion. TRPM2 currents also run down within minutes, but the molecular mechanism of this process is unknown. Here we report that high-affinity PIP(2) binding regulates Ca(2+) sensitivity of TRPM2 activation. Nevertheless, TRPM2 inactivation is not due to PIP(2) depletion; rather, it is state dependent, sensitive to permeating ions, and can be completely prevented by mutations in the extracellular selectivity filter. Introduction of two negative charges plus a single-residue insertion, to mimic the filter sequence of TRPM5, results in TRPM2 channels that maintain unabated maximal activity for over 1 h, and display altered permeation properties but intact ADP ribose/Ca(2+)-dependent gating. Thus, upon prolonged stimulation, the TRPM2 selectivity filter undergoes a conformational change reminiscent of that accompanying C-type inactivation of voltage-gated K(+) channels. The noninactivating TRPM2 variant will be invaluable for gating studies.
Project description:Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+-permeable cation channel required for immune cell activation, insulin secretion, and body heat control. TRPM2 is activated by cytosolic Ca2+, phosphatidyl-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate and ADP ribose. Here, we present the ~3 Å resolution electron cryo-microscopic structure of TRPM2 from Nematostella vectensis, 63% similar in sequence to human TRPM2, in the Ca2+-bound closed state. Compared to other TRPM channels, TRPM2 exhibits unique structural features that correlate with its function. The pore is larger and more negatively charged, consistent with its high Ca2+ selectivity and larger conductance. The intracellular Ca2+ binding sites are connected to the pore and cytosol, explaining the unusual dependence of TRPM2 activity on intra- and extracellular Ca2+. In addition, the absence of a post-filter motif is likely the cause of the rapid inactivation of human TRPM2. Together, our cryo-EM and electrophysiology studies provide a molecular understanding of the unique gating mechanism of TRPM2.
Project description:Transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a cation channel associated with numerous diseases. It has a C-terminal NUDT9 homology (NUDT9H) domain responsible for binding adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (ADPR), and both ADPR and calcium (Ca2+) are required for TRPM2 activation. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human TRPM2 alone, with ADPR, and with ADPR and Ca2+ NUDT9H forms both intra- and intersubunit interactions with the N-terminal TRPM homology region (MHR1/2/3) in the apo state but undergoes conformational changes upon ADPR binding, resulting in rotation of MHR1/2 and disruption of the intersubunit interaction. The binding of Ca2+ further engages transmembrane helices and the conserved TRP helix to cause conformational changes at the MHR arm and the lower gating pore to potentiate channel opening. These findings explain the molecular mechanism of concerted TRPM2 gating by ADPR and Ca2+ and provide insights into the gating mechanism of other TRP channels.
Project description:The molecular basis for divalent cationic permeability in transient receptor potential melastatin subtype (TRPM) channels is not fully understood. Here we studied the roles of all eight acidic residues, glutamate or aspartate, and also the glutamine residue between pore helix and selectivity filter in the pore of TRPM2 channel. Mutants with alanine substitution in each of the acidic residues, except Glu-960 and Asp-987, formed functional channels. These channels exhibited similar Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) permeability to wild type channel, with the exception of the E1022A mutant, which displayed increased Mg(2+) permeability. More conservative E960Q, E960D, and D987N mutations also led to loss of function. The D987E mutant was functional and showed greater Ca(2+) permeability along with concentration-dependent inhibition of Na(+)-carrying currents by Ca(2+). Incorporation of negative charge in place of Gln-981 between the pore helix and selectivity filter by changing it to glutamate, which is present in the more Ca(2+)-permeable TRPM channels, substantially increased Ca(2+) permeability. Expression of concatemers linking wild type and E960D mutant subunits resulted in functional channels that exhibited reduced Ca(2+) permeability. These data taken together suggest that Glu-960, Gln-981, Asp-987, and Glu-1022 residues are engaged in determining divalent cationic permeation properties of the TRPM2 channel.
Project description:Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel expressed in immune cells of phagocytic lineage, pancreatic ? cells, and brain neurons and is activated under oxidative stress. TRPM2 activity is required for immune cell activation and insulin secretion and is responsible for postischemic neuronal cell death. TRPM2 is opened by binding of ADP ribose (ADPR) to its C-terminal cytosolic nudix-type motif 9 (NUDT9)-homology (NUDT9-H) domain, which, when expressed in isolation, cleaves ADPR into AMP and ribose-5-phosphate. A suggested coupling of this enzymatic activity to channel gating implied a potentially irreversible gating cycle, which is a unique feature of a small group of channel enzymes known to date. The significance of such a coupling lies in the conceptually distinct pharmacologic strategies for modulating the open probability of channels obeying equilibrium versus nonequilibrium gating mechanisms. Here we examine the potential coupling of TRPM2 enzymatic activity to pore gating. Mutation of several residues proposed to enhance or eliminate NUDT9-H catalytic activity all failed to affect channel gating kinetics. An ADPR analog, ?-?-methylene-ADPR (AMPCPR), was shown to be entirely resistant to hydrolysis by NUDT9, but nevertheless supported TRPM2 channel gating, albeit with reduced apparent affinity. The rate of channel deactivation was not slowed but, rather, accelerated in AMPCPR. These findings, as well as detailed analyses of steady-state gating kinetics of single channels recorded in the presence of a range of concentrations of ADPR or AMPCPR, identify TRPM2 as a simple ligand-gated channel that obeys an equilibrium gating mechanism uncoupled from its enzymatic activity.
Project description:The archetypal TRPM2-like channel of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is gated by ADPR like its human orthologue but additionally exhibits properties of other vertebrate TRPM channels. Thus it can help towards an understanding of gating and regulation of the whole subfamily. To elucidate further the role of Ca2+ as a co-factor of ADPR, we exploited 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB), previously shown to exert either inhibitory or stimulatory effects on diverse TRPM channels, or both in a concentration-dependent manner. 2-APB in high concentrations (1?mM) induced large, non-inactivating currents through nvTRPM2. In lower concentrations (?0.5?mM), it prevented the fast current inactivation typical for nvTRPM2 stimulated with ADPR. Both these effects were rapidly reversed after wash-out of 2-APB, in contrast to a considerable lag time of their onset. A detailed analysis of nvTRPM2 mutants with modified selectivity filter or reduced ADP-ribose sensitivity revealed that the actions of 2-APB depend on its access to the pore which is enhanced by channel opening. Moreover, access of Ca2+ to the pore is decisive which again depends on the open state of the channel. We conclude that separate regulatory processes by Ca2+ on the pore can be discriminated with the aid of 2-APB.
Project description:Melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channel that is involved in oxidative stress-induced cell death and inflammation processes. Although TRPM2 can be activated by ADP-ribose (ADPR) in vitro, it was unknown how TRPM2 is gated in vivo. Moreover, several alternative spliced isoforms of TRPM2 identified recently are insensitive to ADPR, and their gating mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) can activate TRPM2 as well as its spliced isoforms. We demonstrate that TRPM2 mutants with disrupted ADPR-binding sites can be activated readily by [Ca(2+)](i), indicating that [Ca(2+)](i) gating of TRPM2 is independent of ADPR. The mechanism by which [Ca(2+)](i) activates TRPM2 is via a calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain in the N terminus of TRPM2. Whereas Ca(2+)-mediated TRPM2 activation is independent of ADPR and ADPR-binding sites, both [Ca(2+)](i) and the CaM-binding motif are required for ADPR-mediated TRPM2 gating. Importantly, we demonstrate that intracellular Ca(2+) release activates both recombinant and endogenous TRPM2 in intact cells. Moreover, receptor activation-induced Ca(2+) release is capable of activating TRPM2. These results indicate that [Ca(2+)](i) is a key activator of TRPM2 and the only known activator of the spliced isoforms of TRPM2. Our findings suggest that [Ca(2+)](i)-mediated activation of TRPM2 and its alternative spliced isoforms may represent a major gating mechanism in vivo, therefore conferring important physiological and pathological functions of TRPM2 and its spliced isoforms in response to elevation of [Ca(2+)](i).
Project description:There are eight thermosensitive TRP (transient receptor potential) channels in mammals, and there might be other TRP channels sensitive to temperature stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that TRPM2 can be activated by exposure to warm temperatures (>35 degrees C) apparently via direct heat-evoked channel gating. beta-NAD(+)- or ADP-ribose-evoked TRPM2 activity is robustly potentiated at elevated temperatures. We also show that, even though cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) does not activate TRPM2 at 25 degrees C, co-application of heat and intracellular cADPR dramatically potentiates TRPM2 activity. Heat and cADPR evoke similar responses in rat insulinoma RIN-5F cells, which express TRPM2 endogenously. In pancreatic islets, TRPM2 is coexpressed with insulin, and mild heating of these cells evokes increases in both cytosolic Ca(2+) and insulin release, which is K(ATP) channel-independent and protein kinase A-mediated. Heat-evoked responses in both RIN-5F cells and pancreatic islets are significantly diminished by treatment with TRPM2-specific siRNA. These results identify TRPM2 as a potential molecular target for cADPR, and suggest that TRPM2 regulates Ca(2+) entry into pancreatic beta-cells at body temperature depending on the production of cADPR-related molecules, thereby regulating insulin secretion.
Project description:There are at least two different principles of how ADP-ribose (ADPR) induces activation of TRPM2 channels. In human TRPM2, gating requires the C-terminal NUDT9H domain as ADPR-binding module, whereas in sea anemone, NUDT9H is dispensable and binding of ADPR occurs N-terminally. Zebrafish TRPM2 needs both, the N-terminal ADPR-binding pocket and NUDT9H. Our aim was to pinpoint the relative functional contributions of NUDT9H and the N-terminal ADPR-binding pocket in zebrafish TRPM2, to identify fundamental mechanisms of ADPR-directed gating. We show that the NUDT9H domains of human and zebrafish TRPM2 are interchangeable since chimeras generate ADPR-sensitive channels. A point mutation at a highly conserved position within NUDT9H induces loss-of-function in both vertebrate channels. The substrate specificity of zebrafish TRPM2 corresponds to that of sea anemone TRPM2, indicating gating by the proposed N-terminal ADPR-binding pocket. However, a point mutation in this region abolishes ADPR activation also in human TRPM2. These findings provide functional evidence for an uniform N-terminal ADPR-binding pocket in TRPM2 of zebrafish and sea anemone with modified function in human TRPM2. The structural importance of NUDT9H in vertebrate TRPM2 can be associated with a single amino acid residue which is not directly involved in the binding of ADPR.
Project description:Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel implicated in postischemic neuronal cell death, leukocyte activation, and insulin secretion, is activated by intracellular ADP ribose (ADPR). In addition, the pyridine dinucleotides nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD), nicotinic acid-adenine-dinucleotide (NAAD), and NAAD-2'-phosphate (NAADP) have been shown to activate TRPM2, or to enhance its activation by ADPR, when dialyzed into cells. The precise subset of nucleotides that act directly on the TRPM2 protein, however, is unknown. Here, we use a heterologously expressed, affinity-purified-specific ADPR hydrolase to purify commercial preparations of pyridine dinucleotides from substantial contaminations by ADPR or ADPR-2'-phosphate (ADPRP). Direct application of purified NAD, NAAD, or NAADP to the cytosolic face of TRPM2 channels in inside-out patches demonstrated that none of them stimulates gating, or affects channel activation by ADPR, indicating that none of these dinucleotides directly binds to TRPM2. Instead, our experiments identify for the first time ADPRP as a true direct TRPM2 agonist of potential biological interest.
Project description:The closely related cation channels TRPM2 and TRPM8 show completely different requirements for stimulation and are regulated by Ca(2+) in an opposite manner. TRPM8 is basically gated in a voltage-dependent process enhanced by cold temperatures and cooling compounds such as menthol and icilin. The putative S4 voltage sensor of TRPM8 is closely similar to that of TRPM2, which, however, is mostly devoid of voltage sensitivity. To gain insight into principal interactions of critical channel domains during the gating process, we created chimeras in which the entire S5-pore-S6 domains were reciprocally exchanged. The chimera M2-M8P (i.e. TRPM2 with the pore of TRPM8) responded to ADP-ribose and hydrogen peroxide and was regulated by extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) as was wild-type TRPM2. Single-channel recordings revealed the characteristic pattern of TRPM2 with extremely long open times. Only at far-negative membrane potentials (-120 to -140 mV) did differences become apparent because currents were reduced by hyperpolarization in M2-M8P but not in TRPM2. The reciprocal chimera, M8-M2P, showed currents after stimulation with high concentrations of menthol and icilin, but these currents were only slightly larger than in controls. The transfer of the NUDT9 domain to the C terminus of TRPM8 produced a channel sensitive to cold, menthol, or icilin but insensitive to ADP-ribose or hydrogen peroxide. We conclude that the gating processes in TRPM2 and TRPM8 differ in their requirements for specific structures within the pore. Moreover, the regulation by extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) and the single-channel properties in TRPM2 are not determined by the S5-pore-S6 region.