Complete genome sequence of Marinomonas bacteriophage P12026.
ABSTRACT: Members of the genus Marinomonas in the Gammaproteobacteria are broadly distributed in marine environments where they could be infected by bacteriophages. Here we report the genome sequence of bacteriophage P12026 that can lytically infect bacterial strain IMCC12026, a member of the genus Marinomonas. To our knowledge, this is the first genome sequence of a lytic bacteriophage infecting the genus Marinomonas.
Project description:Croceibacter atlanticus HTCC2559(T), a marine bacterium isolated from the Sargasso Sea, is a phylogenetically unique member of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain HTCC2559(T) possesses genes related to interaction with primary producers, which makes studies on bacteriophages infecting the strain interesting. Here we report the genome sequence of bacteriophage P2559S, which was isolated off the coast of the Republic of Korea and lytically infects HTCC2559(T). Many genes predicted in the P2559S genome had their homologs in Bacteroides phages.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lytic bacteriophages that infect Campylobacter spp. have been utilized to develop therapeutic/decontamination techniques. However, the association of Campylobacter spp. and bacteriophages has been the focus of several strands of research aimed at understanding the complex relationships that have developed between predators and prey over evolutionary time. The activities of endogenous temperate bacteriophages have been used to evaluate genomic rearrangements and differential protein expression in host cells, and mechanisms of resistance to bacteriophage infection in campylobacters such as phase variation and CRISPR-mediated immunity. RESULTS:Temperate bacteriophage DA10 represents a novel excised and infective virus capable of replication in a restricted set of C. jejuni and C. coli hosts. Whole genome sequencing reveals that DA10 (35,379?bp) forms part of a novel group of temperate bacteriophages that have limited distribution among database host genome sequences. Analysis of potential host genomes reveals a robust response against DA10 and DA10-like bacteriophages is driven by CRISPR-mediated immunity with 75% of DA10 ORFs represented as ~?30?bp spacer sequences in numerous Campylobacter Type II-C CRISPR arrays. Several DA10-like homologues have been identified in a small sub-set of C. jejuni and C. coli genome sequences (ranging from near complete integrated prophage sequences to fragments recognisable in the sequence read archive). CONCLUSIONS:A complete intact DA10-like prophage in C. jejuni CJ677CC520 provides evidence that the associations between host and DA10-like bacteriophages are long-standing in evolutionary timescales. Extensive nucleotide substitution and loss can be observed in the integrated DA10-like prophage of CJ677CC520 compared to other relatives as observed through pairwise genome comparisons. Examining factors that have limited the population expansion of the prophage, while others appear to have thrived and prospered (Mu-like, CJIE-like, and lytic Campylobacter bacteriophages) will assist in identifying the underlying evolutionary processes in the natural environment.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated with nosocomial infections. Bacteriophages infecting A. baumannii can be used as effective agents to control these infections. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the lytic bacteriophage LZ35 infecting A. baumannii isolates.
Project description:The 936-type lytic bacteriophages are the most frequently encountered species infecting lactococcal dairy starters. Infection by members belonging to this species has a significant negative impact on the cheese production process. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the bacteriophage CaseusJM1, a 936-type phage isolated from an Irish dairy plant.
Project description:The broad-spectrum lytic capability of Salmonella bacteriophages against various Salmonella species was evaluated to determine their potential as an alternative for antibiotics, and the safety and preventive effects of the bacteriophages were assessed on mice and pigs. Four bacteriophage cocktails were prepared using 13 bacteriophages, and the lytic capability of the four bacteriophage cocktails was tested using Salmonella reference strains and field isolates. Bacteriophage cocktail C (SEP-1, SGP-1, STP-1, SS3eP-1, STP-2, SChP-1, SAP-1, SAP-2; ?109 pfu/ml) showed the best lytic activity against the Salmonella reference strains (100% of 34) and field isolates (92.5% of 107). Fifty mice were then orally inoculated with bacteriophage cocktail C to determine the distribution of bacteriophages in various organs, blood and feces. The effects of bacteriophages on Salmonella infection in weaned pigs (n=15) were also evaluated through an experimental challenge with Salmonella Typhimurium after treatment with bacteriophage cocktail C. All mice exhibited distribution of the bacteriophages in all organs, blood and feces until 15 days post infection (dpi). After 35 dpi, bacteriophages were not detected in any of these specimens. As demonstrated in a pig challenge study, treatment with bacteriophage cocktail C reduced the level of Salmonella shedding in feces. The metagenomic analyses of these pig feces also revealed that bacteriophage treatment decreased the number of species of the Enterobacteriaceae family without significant disturbance to the normal fecal flora. This study showed that bacteriophages effectively controlled Salmonella in a pig challenge model and could be a good alternative for antibiotics to control Salmonella infection.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can cause a wide range of infections from mild to life-threatening conditions. Its enhanced antibiotic resistance often leads to therapeutic failures and therefore alternative eradication methods must be considered. Potential candidates to control MRSA infections are bacteriophages and their lytic enzymes, lysins. In this study, we isolated a bacteriophage against a nosocomial MRSA strain belonging to the ST45 epidemiologic group. The phage belonging to Caudovirales, Siphoviridae, showed a narrow host range and stable lytic activity without the emergence of resistant MRSA clones. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the newly isolated Staphylococcus phage R4 belongs to the Triavirus genus in Siphoviridae family. Genetic analysis of the 45?kb sequence of R4 revealed 69 ORFs. No remnants of mobile genetic elements and traces of truncated genes were observed. We have localized the lysin (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) gene of the new phage that was amplified, cloned, expressed, and purified. Its activity was verified by zymogram analysis. Our findings could potentially be used to develop specific anti-MRSA bacteriophage- and phage lysin-based therapeutic strategies against major clonal lineages and serotypes.
Project description:A key event in the lifecycle of a temperate bacteriophage is the choice between lysis and lysogeny upon infection of a susceptible host cell. In a recent paper, we showed that a prolonged period exists after the decision to lysogenize, during which bacteriophage λ can abandon the initial decision, and instead develop lytically, as a response to the accumulation of the late lytic regulatory protein Q. Here, we present evidence that expression of Q does not induce replication of λ DNA, suggesting that the DNA to be packaged into the resulting phage progeny was already present at the time of the initial decision to lysogenize. We summarize our findings in a working model of the key determinants of the duration of the post-decision period during which it is possible for the infected cell to switch from the lysogeny decision to successful lytic development.
Project description:Phages infecting bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus play an important role in their host's ecology and evolution. On one hand, horizontal gene transfer from phage can encourage the rapid adaptation of pathogenic Staphylococcus enabling them to escape host immunity or access novel environments. On the other hand, lytic phages are promising agents for the treatment of bacterial infections, especially those resistant to antibiotics. As part of an ongoing effort to gain novel insights into bacteriophage diversity, we characterized the complete genome of the Staphylococcus bacteriophage Metroid, a cluster C phage with a genome size of 151kb, encompassing 254 predicted protein-coding genes as well as 4 tRNAs. A comparative genomic analysis highlights strong similarities - including a conservation of the lysis cassette - with other Staphylococcus cluster C bacteriophages, several of which were previously characterized for therapeutic applications.
Project description:Bacteriophage P26218 is a virus that thrives in freshwater and infects Rhodoferax sp. strain IMCC26218, both of which were isolated from Soyang Lake, Korea. The bacterial host, IMCC26218, belongs to the genus Rhodoferax and is closely related to R. saidenbachensis, with 98.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Bacteriophage P26218 has an icosahedral head structure with a diameter of ~52 nm and short tail of ~9 nm, which is a typical morphology of the Podoviridae family. Its complete dsDNA genome was 36,315 bp with 56.7 % G?+?C content. This is the first genome sequence reported for a lytic phage of the genus Rhodoferax.
Project description:Marinomonas posidonica IVIA-Po-181(T) Lucas-Elío et al. 2011 belongs to the family Oceanospirillaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. Different species of the genus Marinomonas can be readily isolated from the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. M. posidonica is among the most abundant species of the genus detected in the cultured microbiota of P. oceanica, suggesting a close relationship with this plant, which has a great ecological value in the Mediterranean Sea, covering an estimated surface of 38,000 Km(2). Here we describe the genomic features of M. posidonica. The 3,899,940 bp long genome harbors 3,544 protein-coding genes and 107 RNA genes and is a part of the GenomicEncyclopedia ofBacteriaandArchaea project.