A novel 4EHP-GIGYF2 translational repressor complex is essential for mammalian development.
ABSTRACT: The binding of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) to the mRNA 5' cap structure is a rate-limiting step in mRNA translation initiation. eIF4E promotes ribosome recruitment to the mRNA. In Drosophila, the eIF4E homologous protein (d4EHP) forms a complex with binding partners to suppress the translation of distinct mRNAs by competing with eIF4E for binding the 5' cap structure. This repression mechanism is essential for the asymmetric distribution of proteins and normal embryonic development in Drosophila. In contrast, the physiological role of the mammalian 4EHP (m4EHP) was not known. In this study, we have identified the Grb10-interacting GYF protein 2 (GIGYF2) and the zinc finger protein 598 (ZNF598) as components of the m4EHP complex. GIGYF2 directly interacts with m4EHP, and this interaction is required for stabilization of both proteins. Disruption of the m4EHP-GIGYF2 complex leads to increased translation and perinatal lethality in mice. We propose a model by which the m4EHP-GIGYF2 complex represses translation of a subset of mRNAs during embryonic development, as was previously reported for d4EHP.
Project description:Initially identified as a factor involved in tyrosine kinase receptor signaling, Grb10-interacting GYF protein 2 (GIGYF2) has later been shown to interact with the 5' cap-binding protein 4EHP as part of a translation repression complex, and to mediate post-transcriptional repression of tethered reporter mRNAs. A current model proposes that GIGYF2 is indirectly recruited to mRNAs by specific RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) leading to translation repression through its association with 4EHP. Accordingly, we recently observed that GIGYF2 also interacts with the miRNA-induced silencing complex and probably modulates its translation repression activity. Here we have further investigated how GIGYF2 represses mRNA function. In a tethering reporter assay, we identify three independent domains of GIGYF2 with repressive activity. In this assay, GIGYF2-mediated repression is independent of 4EHP but largely dependent on the CCR4/NOT complex that GIGYF2 recruits through multiple interfaces. Importantly, we show that GIGYF2 is an RBP and identify for the first time endogenous mRNA targets that recapitulate 4EHP-independent repression. Altogether, we propose that GIGYF2 has two distinct mechanisms of repression: one depends on 4EHP binding and mainly affects translation; the other is 4EHP-independent and involves the CCR4/NOT complex and its deadenylation activity.
Project description:The eIF4E homologous protein (4EHP) is thought to repress translation by competing with eIF4E for binding to the 5' cap structure of specific mRNAs to which it is recruited through interactions with various proteins, including the GRB10-interacting GYF (glycine-tyrosine-phenylalanine domain) proteins 1 and 2 (GIGYF1/2). Despite its similarity to eIF4E, 4EHP does not interact with eIF4G and therefore fails to initiate translation. In contrast to eIF4G, GIGYF1/2 bind selectively to 4EHP but not eIF4E. Here, we present crystal structures of the 4EHP-binding regions of GIGYF1 and GIGYF2 in complex with 4EHP, which reveal the molecular basis for the selectivity of the GIGYF1/2 proteins for 4EHP. Complementation assays in a GIGYF1/2-null cell line using structure-based mutants indicate that 4EHP requires interactions with GIGYF1/2 to down-regulate target mRNA expression. Our studies provide structural insights into the assembly of 4EHP-GIGYF1/2 repressor complexes and reveal that rather than merely facilitating 4EHP recruitment to transcripts, GIGYF1/2 proteins are required for repressive activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The regulation of protein synthesis is a critical step in gene expression, and its dysfunction is implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The eIF4E homologous protein (4EHP, also termed eIF4E2) binds to the mRNA 5' cap to repress translation. The stability of 4EHP is maintained through physical interaction with GRB10 interacting GYF protein 2 (GIGYF2). Gene-disruptive mutations in GIGYF2 are linked to ASD, but causality is lacking. We hypothesized that GIGYF2 mutations cause ASD by disrupting 4EHP function. METHODS:Since homozygous deletion of either gene is lethal, we generated a cell-type-specific knockout model where Eif4e2 (the gene encoding 4EHP) is deleted in excitatory neurons of the forebrain (4EHP-eKO). In this model, we investigated ASD-associated synaptic plasticity dysfunction, ASD-like behaviors, and global translational control. We also utilized mice lacking one copy of Gigyf2, Eif4e2 or co-deletion of one copy of each gene to further investigate ASD-like behaviors. RESULTS:4EHP is expressed in excitatory neurons and synaptosomes, and its amount increases during development. 4EHP-eKO mice display exaggerated mGluR-LTD, a phenotype frequently observed in mouse models of ASD. Consistent with synaptic plasticity dysfunction, the mice displayed social behavior impairments without being confounded by deficits in olfaction, anxiety, locomotion, or motor ability. Repetitive behaviors and vocal communication were not affected by loss of 4EHP in excitatory neurons. Heterozygous deletion of either Gigyf2, Eif4e2, or both genes in mice did not result in ASD-like behaviors (i.e. decreases in social behavior or increases in marble burying). Interestingly, exaggerated mGluR-LTD and impaired social behaviors were not attributed to changes in hippocampal global protein synthesis, which suggests that 4EHP and GIGYF2 regulate the translation of specific mRNAs to mediate these effects. LIMITATIONS:This study did not identify which genes are translationally regulated by 4EHP and GIGYF2. Identification of mistranslated genes in 4EHP-eKO mice might provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed impairment in social behavior and exaggerated LTD. Future experiments employing affinity purification of translating ribosomes and mRNA sequencing in 4EHP-eKO mice will address this relevant issue. CONCLUSIONS:Together these results demonstrate an important role of 4EHP in regulating hippocampal plasticity and ASD-associated social behaviors, consistent with the link between mutations in GIGYF2 and ASD.
Project description:Ribosome recruitment to the majority of eukaryotic mRNAs is facilitated by the interaction of the cap binding protein, eIF4E, with the mRNA 5' cap structure. eIF4E stimulates translation through its interaction with a scaffolding protein, eIF4G, which helps to recruit the ribosome. Metazoans also contain a homolog of eIF4E, termed 4EHP, which binds the cap structure, but not eIF4G, and thus cannot stimulate translation, but it instead inhibits the translation of only one known, and possibly subset mRNAs. To understand why 4EHP does not inhibit general translation, we studied the binding affinity of 4EHP for cap analogs using two methods: fluorescence titration and stopped-flow measurements. We show that 4EHP binds cap analogs m(7)GpppG and m(7)GTP with 30 and 100 lower affinity than eIF4E. Thus, 4EHP cannot compete with eIF4E for binding to the cap structure of most mRNAs.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in a broad variety of biological processes by inhibiting translation initiation and by destabilizing target mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex effects miRNA-mediated silencing, at least in part through interactions with 4E-T (eIF4E transporter) protein, but the precise mechanism is unknown. Here we show that the cap-binding eIF4E-homologous protein 4EHP is an integral component of the miRNA-mediated silencing machinery. We demonstrate that the cap-binding activity of 4EHP contributes to the translational silencing by miRNAs through the CCR4-NOT complex. Our results show that 4EHP competes with eIF4E for binding to 4E-T, and this interaction increases the affinity of 4EHP for the cap. We propose a model wherein the 4E-T/4EHP interaction engenders a closed-loop mRNA conformation that blocks translational initiation of miRNA targets.
Project description:The expression of the ubiquitin-like molecule ISG15 and protein modification by ISG15 (ISGylation) are strongly activated by interferon, genotoxic stress, and pathogen infection, suggesting that ISG15 plays an important role in innate immune responses. 4EHP is an mRNA 5' cap structure-binding protein and acts as a translation suppressor by competing with eIF4E for binding to the cap structure. Here, we report that 4EHP is modified by ISG15 and ISGylated 4EHP has a much higher cap structure-binding activity. These data suggest that ISGylation of 4EHP may play an important role in cap structure-dependent translation control in immune responses.
Project description:Translation of aberrant mRNAs can cause ribosomes to stall, leading to collisions with trailing ribosomes. Collided ribosomes are specifically recognised by ZNF598 to initiate protein and mRNA quality control pathways. Here we found using quantitative proteomics of collided ribosomes that EDF1 is a ZNF598-independent sensor of ribosome collisions. EDF1 stabilises GIGYF2 at collisions to inhibit translation initiation in cis via 4EHP. The GIGYF2 axis acts independently of the ZNF598 axis, but each pathway's output is more pronounced without the other. We propose that the widely conserved and highly abundant EDF1 monitors the transcriptome for excessive ribosome density, then triggers a GIGYF2-mediated response to locally and temporarily reduce ribosome loading. Only when collisions persist is translation abandoned to initiate ZNF598-dependent quality control. This tiered response to ribosome collisions would allow cells to dynamically tune translation rates while ensuring fidelity of the resulting protein products.
Project description:The eIF4E-homologous protein (4EHP) is a translational repressor that competes with eIF4E for binding to the 5'-cap structure of specific mRNAs, to which it is recruited by protein factors such as the GRB10-interacting GYF (glycine-tyrosine-phenylalanine domain) proteins (GIGYF). Several experimental evidences suggest that GIGYF proteins are not merely facilitating 4EHP recruitment to transcripts but are actually required for the repressor activity of the complex. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the uncharacterized Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) GIGYF protein in post-transcriptional mRNA regulation. We show that, when in complex with 4EHP, Dm GIGYF not only elicits translational repression but also promotes target mRNA decay via the recruitment of additional effector proteins. We identified the RNA helicase Me31B/DDX6, the decapping activator HPat and the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex as binding partners of GIGYF proteins. Recruitment of Me31B and HPat via discrete binding motifs conserved among metazoan GIGYF proteins is required for downregulation of mRNA expression by the 4EHP-GIGYF complex. Our findings are consistent with a model in which GIGYF proteins additionally recruit decapping and deadenylation complexes to 4EHP-containing RNPs to induce translational repression and degradation of mRNA targets.
Project description:DNA damage response signaling is crucial for genome maintenance in all organisms and is corrupted in cancer. In an RNA interference (RNAi) screen for (de)ubiquitinases and sumoylases modulating the apoptotic response of embryonic stem (ES) cells to DNA damage, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase/ISGylase, ariadne homologue 1 (ARIH1). Silencing ARIH1 sensitized ES and cancer cells to genotoxic compounds and ionizing radiation, irrespective of their p53 or caspase-3 status. Expression of wild-type but not ubiquitinase-defective ARIH1 constructs prevented sensitization caused by ARIH1 knockdown. ARIH1 protein abundance increased after DNA damage through attenuation of proteasomal degradation that required ATM signaling. Accumulated ARIH1 associated with 4EHP, and in turn, this competitive inhibitor of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) underwent increased nondegradative ubiquitination upon DNA damage. Genotoxic stress led to an enrichment of ARIH1 in perinuclear, ribosome-containing regions and triggered 4EHP association with the mRNA 5' cap as well as mRNA translation arrest in an ARIH1-dependent manner. Finally, restoration of DNA damage-induced translation arrest in ARIH1-depleted cells by means of an eIF2 inhibitor was sufficient to reinstate resistance to genotoxic stress. These findings identify ARIH1 as a potent mediator of DNA damage-induced translation arrest that protects stem and cancer cells against genotoxic stress.
Project description:The zinc finger protein tristetraprolin (TTP) promotes translation repression and degradation of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs). Although much attention has been directed toward understanding the decay process and machinery involved, the translation repression role of TTP has remained poorly understood. Here we identify the cap-binding translation repression 4EHP-GYF2 complex as a cofactor of TTP. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro pull-down assays demonstrate that TTP associates with the 4EHP-GYF2 complex via direct interaction with GYF2, and mutational analyses show that this interaction occurs via conserved tetraproline motifs of TTP. Mutant TTP with diminished 4EHP-GYF2 binding is impaired in its ability to repress a luciferase reporter ARE-mRNA. 4EHP knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) display increased induction and slower turnover of TTP-target mRNAs as compared to wild-type MEFs. Our work highlights the function of the conserved tetraproline motifs of TTP and identifies 4EHP-GYF2 as a cofactor in translational repression and mRNA decay by TTP.