Tonic inhibition of TRPV3 by Mg2+ in mouse epidermal keratinocytes.
ABSTRACT: The transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channel (TRPV3) is abundantly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and has important roles in sensory biology and skin health. Mg(2+) deficiency causes skin disorders under certain pathological conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the effect of Mg(2+) on TRPV3 in primary epidermal keratinocytes. Extracellular Mg(2+) ([Mg(2+)](o)) inhibited TRPV3-mediated membrane current and calcium influx. TRPV3 activation induced a calcium signaling pathway culminating in activation of the cAMP response element binding. TRPV3 inhibition by [Mg(2+)](o), the TRPV3 blocker ruthenium red, or TRPV3 siRNA suppressed this response. In TRPV3-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, both extracellular and intracellular Mg(2+) inhibited TRPV3 single-channel conductance, but not open probability. Neutralization of an aspartic acid residue (D641) in the extracellular pore loop or two acidic residues (E679, E682) in the inner pore region significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of extracellular or intracellular Mg(2+) on TRPV3-mediated signaling, respectively. Our findings suggest that epidermal TRPV3 is tonically inhibited by both extracellular and intracellular Mg(2+), which act on both sides of the channel pore loop. Mg(2+) deficiency may promote the function of TRPV3 and contribute to the pathogenesis of skin diseases.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 3 (TRPV3) channel plays a crucial role in skin physiology and pathophysiology. Mutations in TRPV3 are associated with various skin diseases, including Olmsted syndrome, atopic dermatitis, and rosacea. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structures of full-length mouse TRPV3 in the closed apo and agonist-bound open states. The agonist binds three allosteric sites distal to the pore. Channel opening is accompanied by conformational changes in both the outer pore and the intracellular gate. The gate is formed by the pore-lining S6 helices that undergo local ?-to-? helical transitions, elongate, rotate, and splay apart in the open state. In the closed state, the shorter S6 segments are entirely ?-helical, expose their nonpolar surfaces to the pore, and hydrophobically seal the ion permeation pathway. These findings further illuminate TRP channel activation and can aid in the design of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions, itch, and pain.
Project description:The transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) channel is a Ca2+-permeable thermosensitive ion channel widely expressed in keratinocytes, where together with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) forms a signaling complex regulating epidermal homeostasis. Proper signaling through this complex is achieved and maintained via several pathways in which TRPV3 activation is absolutely required. Results of recent studies have suggested that low-level constitutive activity of TRPV3 induces EGFR-dependent signaling that, in turn, amplifies TRPV3 via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK in a positive feedback loop. Here, we explored the molecular mechanism that increases TRPV3 activity through EGFR activation. We used mutagenesis and whole-cell patch clamp experiments on TRPV3 channels endogenously expressed in an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and in transiently transfected HEK293T cells and found that the sensitizing effect of EGFR on TRPV3 is mediated by ERK. We observed that ERK-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV3 alters its responsiveness to repeated chemical stimuli. Among several putative ERK phosphorylation sites, we identified threonine 264 in the N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain as the most critical site for the ERK-dependent modulation of TRPV3 channel activity. Of note, Thr264 is in close vicinity to a structurally and functionally important TRPV3 region comprising an atypical finger 3 and oxygen-dependent hydroxylation site. In summary, our findings indicate that Thr264 in TRPV3 is a key ERK phosphorylation site mediating EGFR-induced sensitization of the channel to stimulate signaling pathways involved in regulating skin homeostasis.
Project description:TRPV3 is a thermosensitive channel that is robustly expressed in skin keratinocytes and activated by innocuous thermal heating, membrane depolarization, and chemical agonists such as 2-aminoethyoxy diphenylborinate, carvacrol, and camphor. TRPV3 modulates sensory thermotransduction, hair growth, and susceptibility to dermatitis in rodents, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for controlling TRPV3 channel activity in keratinocytes remain elusive. We show here that receptor-mediated breakdown of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) regulates the activity of both native TRPV3 channels in primary human skin keratinocytes and expressed TRPV3 in a HEK-293-derived cell line stably expressing muscarinic M(1)-type acetylcholine receptors. Stimulation of PI(4,5)P(2) hydrolysis or pharmacological inhibition of PI 4 kinase to block PI(4,5)P(2) synthesis potentiates TRPV3 currents by causing a negative shift in the voltage dependence of channel opening, increasing the proportion of voltage-independent current and causing thermal activation to occur at cooler temperatures. The activity of single TRPV3 channels in excised patches is potentiated by PI(4,5)P(2) depletion and selectively decreased by PI(4,5)P(2) compared with related phosphatidylinositol phosphates. Neutralizing mutations of basic residues in the TRP domain abrogate the effect of PI(4,5)P(2) on channel function, suggesting that PI(4,5)P(2) directly interacts with a specific protein motif to reduce TRPV3 channel open probability. PI(4,5)P(2)-dependent modulation of TRPV3 activity represents an attractive mechanism for acute regulation of keratinocyte signaling cascades that control cell proliferation and the release of autocrine and paracrine factors.
Project description:Skin keratinocytes fulfil important signalling and protective functions. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed the unexpected presence of immunoreactivity for the M-type potassium channel subunit Kv7.2 in the keratinocyte layer of intact rat paw skin and in keratinocytes isolated from the skin of 1-day-old rats and cultured in vitro for 3-10 days. Application of the M-channel enhancer retigabine (3-10 ?M) to isolated cultured rat keratinocytes: (a) increased outward membrane currents recorded under voltage clamp, (b) produced ~3 mV hyperpolarization at rest, (c) enhanced ~3-fold the release of ATP induced by the TRPV3 agonist carvacrol (1 mM) and (d) increased the amplitude of the carvacrol-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transient measured with Fura-2. The effect of retigabine on ATP release was prevented by the M-channel blocking agent XE991. We conclude that rat skin keratinocytes possess M-channels that, when activated, can modify their physiological properties, with potential significance for their sensory and other biological functions.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) is an unstable signalling molecule synthesized de novo mainly from L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS) enzymes. Nitrite reduction can also produce NO, predominantly within body fluids (for example, saliva, sweat and blood plasma) and under extreme hypoxic and acidic conditions. It remains unknown if intracellular canonical signalling pathways regulate nitrite-dependent NO production. Here we examine NO production in the skin, a hypoxic tissue enriched in nitrites wherein NO has important roles in wound healing and other biological processes. We show that activation of TRPV3, a heat-activated transient receptor potential ion channel expressed in keratinocytes, induces NO production via a nitrite-dependent pathway. TRPV3 and nitrite are involved in keratinocyte migration in vitro and in wound healing and thermosensory behaviours in vivo. Our study demonstrates that activation of an ion channel can induce NOS-independent NO production in keratinocytes.
Project description:Olmsted syndrome (OS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by palmoplantar and periorificial keratoderma, alopecia in most cases, and severe itching. The genetic basis for OS remained unidentified. Using whole-exome sequencing of case-parents trios, we have identified a de novo missense mutation in TRPV3 that produces p.Gly573Ser in an individual with OS. Nucleotide sequencing of five additional affected individuals also revealed missense mutations in TRPV3 (which produced p.Gly573Ser in three cases and p.Gly573Cys and p.Trp692Gly in one case each). Encoding a transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 cation channel, TRPV3 is primarily expressed in the skin, hair follicles, brain, and spinal cord. In transfected HEK293 cells expressing TRPV3 mutants, much larger inward currents were recorded, probably because of the constitutive opening of the mutants. These gain-of-function mutations might lead to elevated apoptosis of keratinocytes and consequent skin hyperkeratosis in the affected individuals. Our findings suggest that TRPV3 plays essential roles in skin keratinization, hair growth, and possibly itching sensation in humans and selectively targeting TRPV3 could provide therapeutic potential for keratinization or itching-related skin disorders.
Project description:The ability to sense changes in the environment is essential for survival because it permits responses such as withdrawal from noxious stimuli and regulation of body temperature. Keratinocytes, which occupy much of the skin epidermis, are situated at the interface between the external environment and the body's internal milieu, and have long been appreciated for their barrier function against external insults. The recent discovery of temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels in keratinocytes has raised the possibility that these cells also actively participate in acute temperature and pain sensation. To address this notion, we generated and characterized transgenic mice that overexpress TRPV3 in epidermal keratinocytes under the control of the keratin 14 promoter. Compared with wild-type controls, keratinocytes overexpressing TRPV3 exhibited larger currents as well as augmented prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release in response to two TRPV3 agonists, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) and heat. Thermal selection behavior and heat-evoked withdrawal behavior of naive mice overexpressing TRPV3 were not consistently altered. Upon selective pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 with JNJ-17203212 [corrected], however, the keratinocyte-specific TRPV3 transgenic mice showed increased escape responses to noxious heat relative to their wild-type littermates. Coadministration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, with the TRPV1 antagonist decreased inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia in transgenic but not wild-type animals. Our results reveal a previously undescribed mechanism for keratinocyte participation in thermal pain transduction through keratinocyte TRPV3 ion channels and the intercellular messenger PGE(2).
Project description:Burning of Boswellia resin as incense has been part of religious and cultural ceremonies for millennia and is believed to contribute to the spiritual exaltation associated with such events. Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 3 is an ion channel implicated in the perception of warmth in the skin. TRPV3 mRNA has also been found in neurons throughout the brain; however, the role of TRPV3 channels there remains unknown. Here we show that incensole acetate (IA), a Boswellia resin constituent, is a potent TRPV3 agonist that causes anxiolytic-like and antidepressive-like behavioral effects in wild-type (WT) mice with concomitant changes in c-Fos activation in the brain. These behavioral effects were not noted in TRPV3(-/-) mice, suggesting that they are mediated via TRPV3 channels. IA activated TRPV3 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells and in keratinocytes from TRPV3(+/+) mice. It had no effect on keratinocytes from TRPV3(-/-) mice and showed modest or no effect on TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4, as well as on 24 other receptors, ion channels, and transport proteins. Our results imply that TRPV3 channels in the brain may play a role in emotional regulation. Furthermore, the biochemical and pharmacological effects of IA may provide a biological basis for deeply rooted cultural and religious traditions.
Project description:Transient receptor potential V3 (TRPV3) and TRPV4 are heat-activated cation channels expressed in keratinocytes. It has been proposed that heat-activation of TRPV3 and/or TRPV4 in the skin may release diffusible molecules which would then activate termini of neighboring dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here we show that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is such a candidate molecule released from keratinocytes upon heating in the co-culture systems. Using TRPV1-deficient DRG neurons, we found that increase in cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration in DRG neurons upon heating was observed only when neurons were co-cultured with keratinocytes, and this increase was blocked by P2 purinoreceptor antagonists, PPADS and suramin. In a co-culture of keratinocytes with HEK293 cells (transfected with P2X(2) cDNA to serve as a bio-sensor), we observed that heat-activated keratinocytes secretes ATP, and that ATP release is compromised in keratinocytes from TRPV3-deficient mice. This study provides evidence that ATP is a messenger molecule for mainly TRPV3-mediated thermotransduction in skin.
Project description:Ion channels can be activated (gated) by a variety of stimuli, including chemicals, voltage, mechanical force or temperature. Although molecular mechanisms of ion channel gating by chemical and voltage stimuli are understood in principal, the mechanisms of temperature activation remain unknown. The transient receptor potential channel TRPV3 is a nonselective cation channel that is activated by warm temperatures and sensory chemicals such as camphor. Here we screened approcimately 14,000 random mutant clones of mouse TRPV3 and identified five single point mutations that specifically abolish heat activation but do not perturb chemical activation or voltage modulation. Notably, all five mutations are located in the putative sixth transmembrane helix and the adjacent extracellular loop in the pore region of mouse TRPV3. Although distinct in sequence, we found that the corresponding loop of frog TRPV3 is also specifically required for heat activation. These findings demonstrate that the temperature sensitivity of TRPV3 is separable from all other known activation mechanisms and implicate a specific region in temperature sensing.