High external pH enables more efficient secretion of alkaline α-amylase AmyK38 by Bacillus subtilis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bacillus subtilis genome-reduced strain MGB874 exhibits enhanced production of exogenous extracellular alkaline cellulase Egl-237 and subtilisin-like alkaline protease M-protease. Here, we investigated the suitability of strain MGB874 for the production of α-amylase, which was anticipated to provoke secretion stress responses involving the CssRS (Control secretion stress Regulator and Sensor) system. RESULTS: Compared to wild-type strain 168, the production of a novel alkaline α-amylase, AmyK38, was severely decreased in strain MGB874 and higher secretion stress responses were also induced. Genetic analyses revealed that these phenomena were attributable to the decreased pH of growth medium as a result of the lowered expression of rocG, encoding glutamate dehydrogenase, whose activity leads to NH3 production. Notably, in both the genome-reduced and wild-type strains, an up-shift of the external pH by the addition of an alkaline solution improved AmyK38 production, which was associated with alleviation of the secretion stress response. These results suggest that the optimal external pH for the secretion of AmyK38 is higher than the typical external pH of growth medium used to culture B. subtilis. Under controlled pH conditions, the highest production level (1.08 g l(-1)) of AmyK38 was obtained using strain MGB874. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated for the first time that RocG is an important factor for secretory enzyme production in B. subtilis through its role in preventing acidification of the growth medium. As expected, a higher external pH enabled a more efficient secretion of the alkaline α-amylase AmyK38 in B. subtilis. Under controlled pH conditions, the reduced-genome strain MGB874 was demonstrated to be a beneficial host for the production of AmyK38.
Project description:The Bacillus subtilis genome-reduced strain MGB874 exhibits enhanced production of exogenous extracellular enzymes under batch fermentation conditions. We predicted that deletion of the gene for RocG, a bi-functional protein that acts as a glutamate dehydrogenase and an indirect repressor of glutamate synthesis, would improve glutamate metabolism, leading to further increased enzyme production. However, deletion of rocG dramatically decreased production of the alkaline cellulase Egl-237 in strain MGB874 (strain 874?rocG).Transcriptome analysis and cultivation profiles suggest that this phenomenon is attributable to impaired secretion of alkaline cellulase Egl-237 and nitrogen starvation, caused by decreased external pH and ammonium depletion, respectively. With NH3-pH auxostat fermentation, production of alkaline cellulase Egl-237 in strain 874?rocG was increased, exceeding that in the wild-type-background strain 168?rocG. Notably, in strain 874?rocG, high enzyme productivity was observed throughout cultivation, possibly due to enhancement of metabolic flux from 2-oxoglutarate to glutamate and generation of metabolic energy through activation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The level of alkaline cellulase Egl-237 obtained corresponded to about 5.5 g l-1, the highest level reported so far.We found the highest levels of production of alkaline cellulase Egl-237 with the reduced-genome strain 874?rocG and using the NH3-pH auxostat. Deletion of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene rocG enhanced enzyme production via a prolonged auxostat fermentation, possibly due to improved glutamate synthesis and enhanced generation of metabolism energy.
Project description:Starch-degrading amylase enzyme is important in biotechnological applications as food, fermentation, textile, paper and pharmaceutical purposes. The aim of current study to isolate alkaline thermostable ?-amylase bacteria and then study the composition of medium and culture conditions to optimize cells growth and a-amylase production.Thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot water-springs in Gazan city Saudi Arabia.Phylogenetic analysis of 16 S rRNA sequence for the strain revealed that the strain have the same sequence of Bacillus subtilis. Maximum amylase production was observed, when B. subtilis cultured in medium containing starch at concentration 0.5%, and 10 g/L peptones as nitrogen source at pH 8.5 in when it was incubated for 48 h at 45°C.An amylase-producing bacterium were isolated from hot-spring water and was identified as B. subtilis. Amylase produced from B.subtilis had optimum temperature 45°C and pH 8.5 in shaking media.
Project description:Genome reduction strategies to create genetically improved cellular biosynthesis machineries for proteins and other products have been pursued by use of a wide range of bacteria. We reported previously that the novel Bacillus subtilis strain MGB874, which was derived from strain 168 and has a total genomic deletion of 874 kb (20.7%), exhibits enhanced production of recombinant enzymes. However, it was not clear how the genomic reduction resulted in elevated enzyme production. Here we report that deletion of the rocDEF-rocR region, which is involved in arginine degradation, contributes to enhanced enzyme production in strain MGB874. Deletion of the rocDEF-rocR region caused drastic changes in glutamate metabolism, leading to improved cell yields with maintenance of enzyme productivity. Notably, the specific enzyme productivity was higher in the reduced-genome strain, with or without the rocDEF-rocR region, than in wild-type strain 168. The high specific productivity in strain MGB874 is likely attributable to the higher expression levels of the target gene resulting from an increased promoter activity and plasmid copy number. Thus, the combined effects of the improved cell yield by deletion of the rocDEF-rocR region and the increased specific productivity by deletion of another gene(s) or the genomic reduction itself enhanced the production of recombinant enzymes in MGB874. Our findings represent a good starting point for the further improvement of B. subtilis reduced-genome strains as cell factories for the production of heterologous enzymes.
Project description:A study was carried out with a newly isolated bacterial strain yielding extracellular amylase. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences revealed this strain as clustered with the closest members of Bacillus sp. and identified as Bacillus subtilis BI19. The effect of various fermentation conditions on amylase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Rice flour (1.25%) as a cheap natural carbon source was found to induce amylase production mostly. A combination of peptone and tryptone as organic and ammonium sulfate as inorganic nitrogen sources gave highest yield. Maximum production was obtained after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C with an initial medium pH 8.0. Addition of surfactants like Tween 80 (0.25 g/L) and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.2 g/L) resulted in 28% and 15% increase in enzyme production, respectively. Amylase production was 3.06 times higher when optimized production conditions were used. Optimum reaction temperature and pH for crude amylase activity were 50 °C and 6.0, respectively. The crude enzyme showed activity and stability over a fair range of temperature and pH. These results suggest that B. subtilis BI19 could be exploited for production of amylase at relatively low cost and time.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Our laboratory has constructed a Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase (AmyS) derivative with excellent enzymatic properties. Bacillus subtilis is generally regarded as safe and has excellent protein secretory capability, but heterologous extracellular production level of B. stearothermophilus α-amylase in B. subtilis is very low. RESULTS:In this study, the extracellular production level of B. stearothermophilus α-amylase in B. subtilis was enhanced by signal peptide optimization, chaperone overexpression and α-amylase mutant selection. The α-amylase optimal signal peptide (SPYojL) was obtained by screening 173 B. subtilis signal peptides. Although the extracellular α-amylase activity that was produced by the resulting recombinant strain was 3.5-fold greater than that of the control, significant quantities of inclusion bodies were detected. Overexpressing intracellular molecular chaperones significantly reduced inclusion body formation and further increased α-amylase activity. Error-prone PCR produced an amylase mutant K82E/S405R (AmySA) with enzymatic activity superior to that of AmyS. Expression of the amySA gene with the SPYojL while overexpressing molecular chaperones resulted in a 7.1-fold improvement in α-amylase activity. When the final expression strain (WHS11YSA) was cultivated in a 3-L fermenter for 92 h, the α-amylase activity of the culture supernatant was 9201.1 U mL-1, which is the highest level that has been reported to date. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report that describes an improvement of B. stearothermophilus α-amylase extracellular production levels in B. subtilis using these strategies, and this represents the highest extracellular production level ever reported for α-amylase from B. stearothermophilus in B. subtilis. This high-level production provides a basis for enhanced industrial production of α-amylase. These extracellular production level improvement approaches are also expected to be valuable in the expression of other enzymes in B. subtilis.
Project description:Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause secretory diarrhea in children and travelers to endemic areas. ETEC spreads through the fecal-oral route. After ingestion, ETEC passes through the stomach and duodenum before it colonizes the lower part of the small intestine, exposing bacteria to a wide range of pH and environmental conditions. This study aimed to determine the impact of external pH and activity of the Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) on the regulation of production and secretion of heat labile (LT) enterotoxin. ETEC strain E2863wt and its isogenic mutant E2863?CRP were grown in LBK media buffered to pH 5, 7 and 9. GM1 ELISA, cDNA and cAMP analyses were carried out on bacterial pellet and supernatant samples derived from 3 and 5 hours growth and from overnight cultures. We confirm that CRP is a repressor of LT transcription and production as has been shown before but we show for the first time that CRP is a positive regulator of LT secretion both in vitro and in vivo. LT secretion increased at neutral to alkaline pH compared to acidic pH 5 where secretion was completely inhibited. At pH 9 secretion of LT was optimal resulting in 600 percent increase of secreted LT compared to unbuffered LBK media. This effect was not due to membrane leakage since the bacteria were viable at pH 9. The results indicate that the transition to the alkaline duodenum and/or exposure to high pH close to the epithelium as well as activation of the global transcription factor CRP are signals that induce secretion of the LT toxin in ETEC.
Project description:Amylase plays an important role in biotechnology industries, and Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a major host to produce heterogeneous α-amylases. However, the secretion stress limits the high yield of α-amylase in B. subtilis although huge efforts have been made to address this secretion bottleneck. In this question-oriented review, every effort is made to answer the following questions, which look simple but are long-standing, through reviewing of literature: (1) Does α-amylase need a specific and dedicated chaperone? (2) What signal sequence does CsaA recognize? (3) Does CsaA require ATP for its operation? (4) Does an unfolded α-amylase is less soluble than a folded one? (5) Does α-amylase aggregate before transporting through Sec secretion system? (6) Is α-amylase sufficient stable to prevent itself from misfolding? (7) Does α-amylase need more disulfide bonds to be stabilized? (8) Which secretion system does PrsA pass through? (9) Is PrsA ATP-dependent? (10) Is PrsA reused after folding of α-amylase? (11) What is the fate of PrsA? (12) Is trigger factor (TF) ATP-dependent? The literature review suggests that not only the most of those questions are still open to answers but also it is necessary to calculate ATP budget in order to better understand how B. subtilis uses its energy for production and secretion.
Project description:Actinomycetes are saprophytic soil bacteria, and a rich source of industrial enzymes. While some of these enzymes can be produced using well-characterized production platforms such as Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces lividans may be the preferred host for proper folding and efficient secretion of active enzymes. A combination of promoters, signal peptides and hosts were tested in order to obtain the best protein expression in this actinomycete. The xylanase, Xys1, from S. halstedii, the α-amylase, Amy, from S. griseus and the small laccase, SLAC, from S. coelicolor were used as reporters.The promoters xysAp from S. halstedii JM8 and pstSp from S. lividans were the most efficient among those tested. An improvement of 17 % was obtained in xylanase activity when the signal peptide of the α-amylase protein (Amy) of S. griseus IMRU3570 was used to direct its secretion. Enhanced expression of SsgA, a protein that plays a role in processes that require cell-wall remodelling, resulted in a improvement of 40 and 70 % of xylanase and amylase production, respectively. Deletion of genes SLI7232 and SLI4452 encoding putative repressors of xysAp provided improvement of production up to 70 % in the SLI7232 deletion strain. However, full derepression of this promoter activity was not obtained under the conditions assayed.Streptomyces lividans is a frequently used platform for industrial enzyme production and a rational strain-development approach delivered significant improvement of protein production by this host.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PrsA is an extracytoplasmic folding catalyst essential in Bacillus subtilis. Overexpression of the native PrsA from B. subtilis has repeatedly lead to increased amylase yields. Nevertheless, little is known about how the overexpression of heterologous PrsAs can affect amylase secretion. RESULTS:In this study, the final yield of five extracellular alpha-amylases was increased by heterologous PrsA co-expression up to 2.5 fold. The effect of the overexpression of heterologous PrsAs on alpha-amylase secretion is specific to the co-expressed alpha-amylase. Co-expression of a heterologous PrsA can significantly reduce the secretion stress response. Engineering of the B. licheniformis PrsA lead to a further increase in amylase secretion and reduced secretion stress. CONCLUSIONS:In this work we show how heterologous PrsA overexpression can give a better result on heterologous amylase secretion than the native PrsA, and that PrsA homologs show a variety of specificity towards different alpha-amylases. We also demonstrate that on top of increasing amylase yield, a good PrsA-amylase pairing can lower the secretion stress response of B. subtilis. Finally, we present a new recombinant PrsA variant with increased performance in both supporting amylase secretion and lowering secretion stress.
Project description:Cell walls of facultative alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. C-125 consist of three polymers (peptidoglycan, teichuronopeptide and teichuronic acid). Protoplasts prepared from the strain with egg-white lysozyme regenerated cell walls at neutral pH, but not at pH above 8.5. The protoplasts were susceptible to lysis at alkaline pH. The protoplasts exposed to alkaline pH rapidly burst and lost ability to regenerate their cell walls. The alkali-instability was similar to that of protoplasts from neutrophilic Bacillus subtilis 168. The membrane vesicles were also labile at alkaline pH. The acidic wall components of strain C-125 may contribute to stabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane of cells growing at alkaline pH, probably by shielding the membrane from direct exposure to an alkaline environment.