First isolation and characterization of Chryseobacterium shigense from rainbow trout.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There have been an increasing number of infections in fish associated with different species of Chryseobacterium, being considered potentially emerging pathogens. Nevertheless the knowledge of the diversity of species associated with fish disease is partial due to the problems for a correct identification at the species level based exclusively on phenotypic laboratory methods. RESULTS: Chryseobacterium shigense was isolated from the liver, kidney and gills of diseased rainbow trout in different disease episodes that occurred in a fish farm between May 2008 and June 2009. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization. Isolates represented a single strain as determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of the recovery of C. shigense from clinical specimens in trout, a very different habitat to fresh lactic acid beverage where it was initially isolated.
Project description:The cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) gene family comprises four subfamilies in fish: CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C, and CYP1D. Only two CYP1 genes, CYP1A1 and CYP1A3, are so far known in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The present study aimed to identify other CYP1 subfamily genes in rainbow trout, to establish methods for quantitative mRNA expression analysis of these genes, and to determine their basal and induced mRNA expression in gills and liver. Another goal was to examine their mRNA expression in environmentally exposed fish. We cloned four new transcripts, denoted rbCYP1B1, rbCYP1C1, rbCYP1C2, and rbCYP1C3. Levels of these and the previously known rbCYP1A transcripts were determined by real-time PCR in unexposed fish, fish exposed to the potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), and fish caged in various waters in the Uppsala region (Sweden). The mRNA expression patterns observed in unexposed rainbow trout (basal levels) were markedly similar to those reported for orthologous genes in other species. All six transcripts were induced by PCB126 in gills and liver, suggesting all genes to be AhR regulated. The caged fish showed clear rbCYP1 induction in gills at all monitoring sites (up to 70-fold the basal level), whereas the liver responses were weak; induction (up to 5-fold) was recorded only at the Uppsala municipal sewage treatment plant outlet. Gill filament EROD activity was induced at all caging sites. Most interestingly, the rbCYP1 gene response patterns in gills differed among caging sites and among subfamilies. The EROD induction seemed to only reflect induction of rbCYP1A transcription. Response patterns of multiple CYP1 genes in gills and liver could provide an improved monitoring strategy. Such patterns could be used to characterize complex mixtures of AhR agonists and antagonists in aquatic environments.
Project description:Farmed fish live in association with diverse bacterial communities that produce wide arrays of metabolites. In rainbow trout, the skin and the gills are colonized by Flectobacillus major, a bacterium known to produce sphingolipids (SLs). The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of F. major SLs to regulate rainbow trout inflammatory responses. F. major SLs were delivered by themselves or in combination with Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA), an oil-based adjuvant known to cause severe abdominal inflammation when injected to fish. Trout injected with SL + FCA showed decreased severity of FCA toxic effects including necrosis, granuloma formation and presence of oil droplets. However, inclusion of SLs in the FCA preparation did not decrease infiltration of immune cells intramuscularly at the site of injection. Intraperitoneal or intravenous delivery of F. major SLs resulted in increased expression of IgT, IgM and TGF? transcripts in the gills but not the head-kidney and had no effects on IL-10 expression. These results indicate the F. major SLs regulate rainbow trout inflammatory responses and indicate that this compound can have important applications in farmed fish health management.
Project description:Fish have to face various environmental challenges that may compromise the efficacy of the immune response in mucosal surfaces. Since the effect of acute stress on mucosal barriers in fish has still not been fully elucidated, we aimed to compare the short-term mucosal stress and immune transcriptomic responses in a freshwater (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and a marine fish (gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata) to bacterial immersion (Vibrio anguillarum bacterin vaccine) and air exposure stress in skin, gills, and intestine. Air exposure and combined (vaccine?+?air) stressors exposure were found to be inducers of the cortisol secretion in plasma and skin mucus on both species in a time-dependent manner, while V. anguillarum bacterin exposure induced cortisol release in trout skin mucus only. This was coincident with a marked differential increase in transcriptomic patterns of stress- and immune-related gene expression profiles. Particularly in seabream skin, the expression of cytokines was markedly enhanced, whereas in gills the response was mainly suppressed. In rainbow trout gut, both air exposure and vaccine stimulated the transcriptomic response, whereas in seabream, stress and immune responses were mainly induced by air exposure. Therefore, our comparative survey on the transcriptomic mucosal responses demonstrates that skin and gut were generally more reactive in both species. However, the upregulation of immune transcripts was more pronounced in gills and gut of vaccinated trout, whereas seabream appeared to be more stress-prone and less responsive to V. anguillarum bacterin in gills and gut. When fish were subjected to both treatments no definite pattern was observed. Overall, the results indicate that (1) the immune response was not homogeneous among mucosae (2), it was greatly influenced by the specific traits of each stressor in each surface and (3) was highly species-specific, probably as a result of the adaptive life story of each species to the microbial load and environmental characteristics of their respective natural habitats.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells located at mucosal surfaces and lymphoid tissues. Their main role is to present antigens to T cells and thus regulate the initiation of the acquired immune response and modulate tolerance mechanisms towards self-antigens. Despite their relevance, not many studies have addressed the identification and characterization of specific DC subsets in teleost fish. Previous studies in our group identified a DC subpopulation co-expressing CD8? and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) on the cell surface in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin and gills. A complete functional and phenotypical characterization of these cell subsets was then undertaken, unequivocally recognizing them as DCs (CD8+ DCs). In the current study, we report the identification of a homologous population in rainbow trout intestinal lamina propria (LP). We have studied the main features of these intestinal CD8+ DCs, comparing them to those of CD8+ DCs from another mucosal tissue (gills). Interestingly, intestinal CD8+ DCs exhibited significant phenotypical and functional differences when compared to gill CD8+ DCs, suggesting that the location of DCs strongly conditions their activation state. These results will contribute to further expand our knowledge on how intestinal immune responses are regulated in fish, helping us to rationally design oral vaccines in the future.
Project description:In general, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from marine fish species in European waters (genotypes GIb, GII and GIII) are non- to low virulent in rainbow trout. However, a VHSV isolation was made in 2007 from a disease outbreak in sea farmed rainbow trout in Norway. The isolate, named NO-2007-50-385, was demonstrated to belong to GIII. This isolate has attracted attention to assess which of the viral genome/proteins might be associated with the virulence in rainbow trout. In this study, we describe the difference of virulence in rainbow trout between the NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 isolates as representatives of virulent and non-virulent GIII isolates, respectively. Rainbow trout were bath challenged with VHSV NO-2007-50-385 for 1 and 6 h, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 5 and 35%, respectively. No mortality was observed in the rainbow trout groups immersed with the genotype III VHSV isolate 4p168 for 1 and 6 h. The viral titre in organs from fish challenged with NO-2007-50-385 for 6 h increased more rapidly than those exposed for 1 h. By in vitro studies it was demonstrated that the final titres of VHSV DK-3592B (GI), NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 inoculated on EPC cells were very similar, whereas when inoculated on the rainbow trout cell line RTG-2 the titre of the non-virulent 4p168 isolate was 3-4 logs below the two other VHSV isolates. Based on a comparative analysis of the entire genome of the genotype III isolates, we suggest that substitutions of amino acids in positions 118-123 of the nucleo-protein are candidates for being related to virulence of VHSV GIII in rainbow trout.
Project description:Rainbow trout that were resistant or susceptible to Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection were compared with respect to their microbial composition by using 16S rRNA V3-V4 sequencing. The differences occurred in gills, where resistant fish displayed a greater abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria and a smaller proportion of Firmicutes relative to those of susceptible fish.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Streptococcosis/lactococcosis is a hyperacute systemic disease that can occur in marine and fresh waters of many species of fish. The aim of this work was to study the disease outbreak in the major rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) production of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 108 Gram positive cocci isolates were obtained from diseased trout in seven provinces with major trout production during 2008 till 2009. These bacterial isolates were characterized using phenotypic and molecular studies. The isolates were also analysed phylogeneticaly and compared with the available data. RESULTS: 49 samples (45.37%) were identified as Streptococcus iniae, 37 samples (35.2%) matched with Lactococcus garvieae; and 22 samples (19.43%) were identified as members of Streptooccus genus by culture-based and biochemical tests of API 50 CH, API 20 STREP and rapid 32 STREP systems. Using universal primers for differentiation of Streptococcus sp. and Enterococcus sp, all 108 samples were identified as Streptococcus sp. with a target region of 500 bp. Single specific PCR resulted in identification of 64 (59.2%) isolates as S. iniae and 44 (40.8%) isolates as L. garvieae. The phylogenetic analysis of the S. iniae isolates resulted in maximal similarity to some strains reported from Taiwan and to all Brazilian strains. Also, one strain showed less sequence similarity values with other tested strains although this strain has high similarity with ATCC 29178 strain, all reported Chinese, and some Taiwanian strains. Also, analysis of S. iniae LctO gene sequence showed that this isolate clustered within the S. iniae group. The sequence analysis of L. garvieae strains also showed that they have maximum similarity to all Japanese and Chinese strains, but one strain has lower sequence similarity values with all other recorded strains. CONCLUSION: [corrected] The results of this study clearly show that trout farming in Iran is severely affected by both species of S. Iniae and L. garvieae and requires serious preventive criteria.
Project description:Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus infecting teleost fish, has repeatedly crossed the boundary from marine fish species to freshwater cultured rainbow trout. These naturally replicated cross-species transmission events permit the study of general and repeatable evolutionary events occurring in connection with viral emergence in a novel host species. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the adaptive molecular evolution of the VHSV glycoprotein, one of the key virus proteins involved in viral emergence, following emergence from marine species into freshwater cultured rainbow trout. A comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the complete coding region of the VHSV glycoprotein was conducted, and adaptive molecular evolution was investigated using a maximum likelihood approach to compare different codon substitution models allowing for heterogeneous substitution rate ratios among amino acid sites. Evidence of positive selection was detected at six amino acid sites of the VHSV glycoprotein, within the signal peptide, the confirmation-dependent major neutralizing epitope, and the intracellular tail. Evidence of positive selection was found exclusively in rainbow trout-adapted virus isolates, and amino acid combinations found at the six sites under positive selection pressure differentiated rainbow trout- from non-rainbow trout-adapted isolates. Furthermore, four adaptive sites revealed signs of recurring identical changes across phylogenetic groups of rainbow trout-adapted isolates, suggesting that repeated VHSV emergence in freshwater cultured rainbow trout was established through convergent routes of evolution that are associated with immune escape.IMPORTANCE This study is the first to demonstrate that VHSV emergence from marine species into freshwater cultured rainbow trout has been accompanied by bursts of adaptive evolution in the VHSV glycoprotein. Furthermore, repeated detection of the same adaptive amino acid sites across phylogenetic groups of rainbow trout-adapted isolates indicates that adaptation to rainbow trout was established through parallel evolution. In addition, signals of convergent evolution toward the maintenance of genetic variation were detected in the conformation-dependent neutralizing epitope or in close proximity to disulfide bonds involved in the structural conformation of the neutralizing epitope, indicating adaptation to immune response-related genetic variation across freshwater cultured rainbow trout.
Project description:Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a highly contagious virus leading to high mortality in a large panel of freshwater and marine fish species. VHSV isolates originating from marine fish show low pathogenicity in rainbow trout. The analysis of several nearly complete genome sequences from marine and freshwater isolates displaying varying levels of virulence in rainbow trout suggested that only a limited number of amino acid residues might be involved in regulating the level of virulence. Based on a recent analysis of 55 VHSV strains, which were entirely sequenced and phenotyped in vivo in rainbow trout, several amino acid changes putatively involved in virulence were identified. In the present study, these amino acid changes were introduced, alone or in combination, in a highly-virulent VHSV 23-75 genome backbone by reverse genetics. A total of 35 recombinant VHSV variants were recovered and characterized for virulence in trout by bath immersion. Results confirmed the important role of the NV protein (R116S) and highlighted a major contribution of the nucleoprotein N (K46G and A241E) in regulating virulence. Single amino acid changes in these two proteins drastically affect virus pathogenicity in rainbow trout. This is particularly intriguing for the N variant (K46G) which is unable to establish an active infection in the fins of infected trout, the main portal of entry of VHSV in this species, allowing further spread in its host. In addition, salmonid cell lines were selected to assess the kinetics of replication and cytopathic effect of recombinant VHSV and discriminate virulent and avirulent variants. In conclusion, three major virulence markers were identified in the NV and N proteins. These markers explain almost all phenotypes (92.7%) observed in trout for the 55 VHSV strains analyzed in the present study and herein used for the backward validation of virulence markers. The identification of VHSV specific virulence markers in this species is of importance both to predict the in vivo phenotype of viral isolates with targeted diagnostic tests and to improve prophylactic methods such as the development of safer live-attenuated vaccines.
Project description:TWO major classes of b lymphocytes have been described to date in rainbow trout: IgM(+) and IgT(+) cells. IgM(+) cells are mainly localized in the spleen, peripheral blood and kidney but are also found in other tissues. However, differences among IgM(+) cell populations attending to its location are poorly defined in fish. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the expression of different immune molecules such as chemokine receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and transcription factors on sorted IgM(+) lymphocytes from different rainbow trout tissues. IgM(+) populations from blood, spleen, kidney, gills, intestine and liver were isolated by cell sorting and the constitutive levels of transcription of these genes evaluated by real-time PCR. To further characterize B cells, we identified an MS4A sequence. In humans, the MS4A family includes several genes with immune functions, such as the B cell marker CD20 or FcR?. Subsequently, we have also evaluated the mRNA levels of this MS4A gene in the different IgM(+) populations. The relevant differences in transcriptional patterns observed for each of these IgM(+) populations analyzed, point to the presence of functionally different tissue-specific B cell populations in rainbow trout. The data shown provides a pattern of genes transcribed in IgM(+) B cells not previously revealed in teleost fish. Furthermore, the constitutive expression of all the TLR genes analyzed in IgM(+) cells suggests an important role for these cells in innate immunity.