Quantitative profiling of oxylipins through comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis: application in cardiac surgery.
ABSTRACT: Oxylipins, including eicosanoids, affect a broad range of biological processes, such as the initiation and resolution of inflammation. These compounds, also referred to as lipid mediators, are (non-) enzymatically generated by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA). A plethora of lipid mediators exist which makes the development of generic analytical methods challenging. Here we developed a robust and sensitive targeted analysis platform for oxylipins and applied it in a biological setting, using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) operated in dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (dMRM). Besides the well-described AA metabolites, oxylipins derived from linoleic acid, dihomo-?-linolenic acid, ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were included. Our comprehensive platform allows the quantitative evaluation of approximately 100 oxylipins down to low nanomolar levels. Applicability of the analytical platform was demonstrated by analyzing plasma samples of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Altered levels of some of the oxylipins, especially in certain monohydroxy fatty acids such as 12-HETE and 12-HEPE, were observed in samples collected before and 24 h after cardiac surgery. These findings indicate that this generic oxylipin profiling platform can be applied broadly to study these highly bioactive compounds in relation to human disease.
Project description:A vast literature on fatty acids in mammals exists, but comparable compositional data on oxylipins is lacking. Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were therefore provided control diets or diets with higher linoleic acid (LA) or with higher LA and ?-linolenic acid (LA+ALA) for 6 weeks. Kidneys, livers, and serum were analyzed for oxylipins and fatty acids. The proportion of tissue oxylipins derived from LA was greater than the relative proportion of LA itself, whereas arachidonic acid (AA) oxylipins were overrepresented in serum. Higher dietary LA increased kidney LA and AA oxylipins, despite not altering LA or AA. In liver, both LA and AA and their oxylipins were higher, whereas in serum only LA oxylipins were higher with higher dietary LA. Higher LA resulted in a higher ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA-derived oxylipins; adding ALA to the LA diet mitigated this and many, but not all, effects of the LA diet. Approximately 40% of oxylipins detected were influenced by sex and, unlike their PUFA precursors, most (>90%) of these were higher in males. These differences in dietary LA and sex on oxylipin and fatty acid profiles further our understanding of the effects of fatty acids and may have implications for dietary LA recommendations.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health problem worldwide. NAFLD ranges in severity from benign steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are strongly associated with NAFLD, and the western diet (WD) is a major contributor to the onset and progression of these chronic diseases. Our aim was to use a lipidomic approach to identify potential lipid mediators of diet-induced NASH. We previously used a preclinical mouse (low density lipoprotein receptor null mouse, Ldlr -/-) model to assess transcriptomic mechanisms linked to WD-induced NASH and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, ?3)-mediated remission of NASH. This report used livers from the previous study to carry out ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with dynamic multi-reaction monitoring (HPLC-dMRM) to assess the impact of the WD and DHA on hepatic membrane lipid and oxylipin composition, respectively. Feeding mice the WD increased hepatic saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4, ?6) in membrane lipids and suppressed ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in membrane lipids and ?3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory oxylipins. Supplementing the WD with DHA lowered hepatic ARA in membrane lipids and ARA-derived oxylipins and significantly increased hepatic DHA and its metabolites in membrane lipids, as well as C20-22 ?3 PUFA-derived oxylipins. NASH markers of inflammation and fibrosis were inversely associated with hepatic C20-22 ?3 PUFA-derived Cyp2C- and Cyp2J-generated anti-inflammatory oxylipins (false discovery rate adjusted p-value; q ? 0.026). Our findings suggest that dietary DHA promoted partial remission of WD-induced NASH, at least in part, by lowering hepatic pro-inflammatory oxylipins derived from ARA and increasing hepatic anti-inflammatory oxylipins derived from C20-22 ?3 PUFA.
Project description:Oxylipins play important roles in various biological processes and are considered as mediators of inflammation for a wide range of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this research was to study differences in oxylipin levels between a widely used collagen induced arthritis (CIA) mice model and healthy control (Ctrl) mice. DBA/1J male mice (age: 6-7 weeks) were selected and randomly divided into two groups, namely, a CIA and a Ctrl group. The CIA mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the joint cartilage component collagen type II (CII) and an adjuvant injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oxylipin metabolites were extracted from plasma for each individual sample using solid phase extraction (SPE) and were detected with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS), using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (dMRM). Both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied. The results in univariate Student's t-test revealed 10 significantly up- or downregulated oxylipins in CIA mice, which were supplemented by another 6 additional oxylipins, contributing to group clustering upon multivariate analysis. The dysregulation of these oxylipins revealed the presence of ROS-generated oxylipins and an increase of inflammation in CIA mice. The results also suggested that the collagen induced arthritis might associate with dysregulation of apoptosis, possibly inhibited by activated NF-?B because of insufficient PPAR-? ligands.
Project description:Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the North American diet and is a precursor to circulating bioactive fatty acid metabolites implicated in brain disorders. This exploratory study tested the effects of increasing dietary LA on plasma and cerebral cortex metabolites derived from LA, its elongation-desaturation products dihomo-gamma linolenic (DGLA, 20:3n-6) acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), as well as omega-3 alpha-linolenic (?-LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Plasma and cortex were obtained from rats fed a 0.4%, 5.2% or 10.5% energy LA diet for 15 weeks and subjected to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Total oxylipin concentrations, representing the esterified and unesterified pool, and unesterified oxylipins derived from LA and AA were significantly increased and EPA metabolites decreased in plasma at 5.2% or 10.5% energy LA compared to 0.4% energy LA. Unesterified plasma DHA metabolites also decreased at 10.5% energy LA. In cortex, total and unesterified LA and AA metabolites increased and unesterified EPA metabolites decreased at 5.2% or 10.5% LA. DGLA and ?-LNA metabolites did not significantly change in plasma or cortex. Dietary LA lowering represents a feasible approach for targeting plasma and brain LA, AA, EPA or DHA-derived metabolite concentrations.
Project description:Oxylipins are bioactive mediators that play diverse roles in (patho)physiology. We developed a sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous profiling of 57 targeted oxylipins derived from five major n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that serve as oxylipin precursors, including linoleic (LA), arachidonic (AA), alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. The targeted oxylipin panel provides broad coverage of lipid mediators and pathway markers generated from cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, cytochrome P450 epoxygenases/hydroxylases, and non-enzymatic oxidation pathways. The method is based on combination of protein precipitation and solid-phase extraction (SPE) for sample preparation, followed by UPLC-MS/MS. This is the first methodology to incorporate four hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoic acids and four keto-epoxy-octadecenoic acids into an oxylipin profiling network. The novel method achieves excellent resolution and allows in-depth analysis of isomeric and isobaric species of oxylipin extracts in biological samples. The method was quantitatively characterized in human plasma with good linearity (R?=?0.990-0.999), acceptable reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD)?<?20% for the majority of analytes), accuracy (67.8 to 129.3%) for all analytes, and recovery (66.8-121.2%) for all analytes except 5,6-EET. Ion enhancement effects for 28% of the analytes in tested concentrations were observed in plasma, but were reproducible with RSD?<?17.2%. Basal levels of targeted oxylipins determined in plasma and serum are in agreement with those previously reported in literature. The method has been successfully applied in clinical and preclinical studies.
Project description:Isoprostanoids are a group of non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It belongs to oxylipins group, which are important lipid mediators in biological processes, such as tissue repair, blood clotting, blood vessel permeability, inflammation and immunity regulation. Recently, isoprostanoids from eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, adrenic and ?-linolenic namely F3-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes and F1-phytoprostanes, respectively have attracted attention because of their putative contribution to health. Since isoprostanoids are derived from different substrate of PUFAs and can have similar or opposing biological consequences, a total isoprostanoids profile is essential to understand the overall effect in the testing model. However, the concentration of most isoprostanoids range from picogram to nanogram, therefore a sensitive method to quantify 20 isoprostanoids simultaneously was formulated and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The lipid portion from various biological samples was extracted prior to LC-MS/MS evaluation. For all the isoprostanoids LOD and LOQ, and the method was validated on plasma samples for matrix effect, yield of extraction and reproducibility were determined. The methodology was further tested for the isoprostanoids profiles in brain and liver of LDLR(-/-) mice with and without docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation. Our analysis showed similar levels of total F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes in the liver and brain of non-supplemented LDLR(-/-) mice. The distribution of different F2-isoprostane isomers varied between tissues but not for F4-neuroprostanes which were predominated by the 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane isomer. DHA supplementation to LDLR(-/-) mice concomitantly increased total F4-neuroprostanes levels compared to F2-isoprostanes but this effect was more pronounced in the liver than brain.
Project description:Walnut consumption can provide both vascular and metabolic health benefits, and walnut-induced changes in lipoprotein particle chemical payloads may be responsible for these health benefits. To explore this possibility with a focus on metabolic health, this study investigated the impact of walnut consumption on lipoprotein lipid composition and changes in LDL anti-inflammatory properties, as reported by inflamed adipocyte. Hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal females were treated with 40 g/day (i.e., 1.6 servings/day; n=15) of walnuts for 4 weeks. Fatty acids and their oxygenated metabolites, i.e., oxylipins, were quantified in isolated lipoproteins. Human primary adipocytes were exposed to LDL and TNF?-stimulated adipokine production was measured. Walnut treatment elevated ?-linolenic acid and its epoxides in all lipoproteins and depleted mid-chain alcohols in VLDL and LDL, but not HDL. Walnuts also reduced TNF?-induced diabetic adipocyte production of IL-6 (-48%, P=.0006) and IL-8 (-30%, P=.01), changes inversely correlated with levels of ?-linolenic acid-derived epoxides but not ?-linolenic acid itself. In conclusion, modest walnut consumption can alter lipoprotein lipid profiles and enhance their ability to inhibit TNF?-dependent pro-inflammatory responses in human diabetic primary adipocytes. Moreover, this study suggests the oxylipins, rather than the parent fatty acids, mediate LDL action of adipocytes.
Project description:Linoleic acid (LA) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA) in plant or algae oils are precursors to oxidized fatty acid metabolites known as oxylipins. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify oxylipins in soybean, corn, olive, canola, and four high-oleic acid algae oils at room temperature or after heating for 10 min at 100 °C. Flaxseed oil oxylipin concentrations were determined in a follow-up experiment that compared it to soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil. Published consumption data for soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil were used to estimate daily oxylipin intake. The LA and ALA fatty acid composition of the oils was generally related to their respective oxylipin metabolites, except for olive and flaxseed oil, which had higher LA derived monohydroxy and ketone oxylipins than other oils, despite their low LA content. Algae oils had the least amount of oxylipins. The change in oxylipin concentrations was not significantly different among the oils after short-term heating. The estimated oxylipin intake from nonheated soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil was 1.1 mg per person per day. These findings suggest that oils represent a dietary source of LA and ALA derived oxylipins and that the response of oils to short-term heating does not differ among the various oils.
Project description:It is believed that many of the beneficial effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are mediated by their oxidized metabolites, the oxylipins. The formation and biological role of many cytochrome P450 and lipoxygenase derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FA, particularly of oxylipins esterified in polar lipids and triglycerides remain unclear. In this study, we compared the impact of twelve weeks of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation on the patterns of free and total (sum of esterified and free) hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FAs.Subjects (5 male; 5 female) between 46 and 70 years were supplemented with 1.1g/d of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 0.74g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as ethyl esters. Blood samples were drawn before and after twelve weeks of treatment. Oxylipins in plasma were analyzed by LC-MS directly for free oxylipins and after saponification. Relative FA composition in erythrocyte membranes was analyzed by GC.LC n-3 PUFA treatment led to a significant increase in EPA (200%) and DHA (23%) in erythrocyte membranes. Of the oxylipins measured in plasma, total and free EPA-derived metabolites were highly increased (70-150%), while total AA-derived metabolites were decreased on average by 30%. There was no effect on DHA-metabolites. Concentrations of total hydroxy and epoxy FAs in plasma were considerably higher compared to free hydroxy and epoxy FAs (up to 350 times), while levels of most free dihydroxy FAs were in a similar range to total dihydroxy FAs. However, the individual ratios between total and free plasma oxylipins remained unchanged after LC n-3 PUFA treatment.LC n-3 PUFA supplementation causes a shift in the levels of circulating oxylipins, having the strongest impact on EPA-derived epoxy, dihydroxy and hydroxy FA. The unchanged ratio of free and esterified oxylipins in plasma indicates that both concentrations are valuable biomarkers for assessing the individual status of these lipid mediators.
Project description:Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications.This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air.Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information.Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and ?-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change.Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.