Probing the binding sites of antibiotic drugs doxorubicin and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin with human and bovine serum albumins.
ABSTRACT: We located the binding sites of doxorubicin (DOX) and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin (FDOX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumins (HSA) at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various drug contents. FTIR, CD and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyse drug binding sites, the binding constant and the effect of drug complexation on BSA and HSA stability and conformations. Structural analysis showed that doxorubicin and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin bind strongly to BSA and HSA via hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts with overall binding constants of K(DOX-BSA) = 7.8 (± 0.7) × 10(3) M(-1), K(FDOX-BSA) = 4.8 (± 0.5)× 10(3) M(-1) and K(DOX-HSA) = 1.1 (± 0.3)× 10(4) M(-1), K(FDOX-HSA) = 8.3 (± 0.6)× 10(3) M(-1). The number of bound drug molecules per protein is 1.5 (DOX-BSA), 1.3 (FDOX-BSA) 1.5 (DOX-HSA), 0.9 (FDOX-HSA) in these drug-protein complexes. Docking studies showed the participation of several amino acids in drug-protein complexation, which stabilized by H-bonding systems. The order of drug-protein binding is DOX-HSA > FDOX-HSA > DOX-BSA > FDOX>BSA. Drug complexation alters protein conformation by a major reduction of ?-helix from 63% (free BSA) to 47-44% (drug-complex) and 57% (free HSA) to 51-40% (drug-complex) inducing a partial protein destabilization. Doxorubicin and its derivative can be transported by BSA and HSA in vitro.
Project description:The binding sites of antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) and its analogue N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin (FDOX) with tRNA were located, using FTIR, CD, fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling. Different binding sites are involved in drug-tRNA adducts with DOX located in the vicinity of A-29, A-31, A-38, C-25, C-27, C-28, G-30 and U-41, while FDOX bindings involved A-23, A-44, C-25, C-27, G-24, G-42, G-53, G-45 and U-41 with similar free binding energy (-4.44 for DOX and -4.41 kcal/mol for FDOX adducts). Spectroscopic results showed that both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts are involved in drug-tRNA complexation and FDOX forms more stable complexes than DOX with K DOX-tRNA=4.7 (± 0.5)× 10(4) M(-1) and K FDOX-tRNA=6.3 (± 0.7)× 10(4) M(-1). The number of drug molecules bound per tRNA (n) was 0.6 for DOX and 0.4 for FDOX. No major alterations of tRNA structure were observed and tRNA remained in A-family conformation, while biopolymer aggregation and particle formation occurred at high drug concentrations.
Project description:Albumin is thought as an drug carrier for doxorubicin (DOX). The binding of doxorubicin to albumin was studied on the surface of sporopolleninin (SP) to produce a new drug system based natural materials. Human serum albumin (HSA) was immobilized on SPIONs in 20 mM Tris buffer, 7.4 of pH. Data showed that binding amount of HSA has been found to be as 285.53 µg to the 25 mg of Sporopolleninin which also bounded 319.76 µM of DOX. Binding of protein and drug to Sp were clarified by SEM, EDX and FT-IR analysis.
Project description:Small-molecule chemotherapeutics are potent and effective against a variety of malignancies, but common and severe side effects restrict their clinical applications. Nanomedicine approaches represent a major focus for improving chemotherapy, but have met limited success. To overcome the limitations of chemotherapy drugs, we have developed a novel Single Protein Encapsulation (SPE)-based drug formulation and delivery platform and tested its utility in improving doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. Using this methodology, a series of SPEDOX complexes were generated by encapsulating various numbers of DOX molecules into a single human serum albumin (HSA) molecule. UV/fluorescence spectroscopy, membrane dialysis, and dynamic light scattering techniques showed that SPEDOXs are stable and uniform as monomeric HSA and display unique properties distinct from those of DOX and DOX-HSA mixture. Furthermore, detailed procedures to precisely monitor and control both DOX payload and binding strength to HSA were established. Breast cancer xenograft tumor studies revealed that SPEDOX-6 treatment displays improved pharmacokinetic profiles, higher antitumor efficacy, and lower DOX accumulation in the heart tissue compared with unformulated DOX. This SPE technology, which does not involve nanoparticle assembly and modifications to either small-molecule drugs or HSA, may open up a new avenue for developing new drug delivery systems to improve anticancer therapeutics.
Project description:Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anthracycline antibiotic drug which is commonly used in a broad range cancer therapy. However, due to dose depending side effects and toxicity to non-cancerous tissues, its clinical applications are restricted. To overcome these limitations, human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated as a biocompatible drug delivery vehicle. In this study, human serum albumin submicron particles (HSA-MPs) were fabricated by using the Co-precipitation-Crosslinking-Dissolution technique (CCD technique) and DOX was loaded into the protein particles by absorption. DOX-HSA-MPs showed uniform peanut-like shape, submicron size and negative zeta-potential (-13 mV). The DOX entrapment efficiency was 25% of the initial amount. The in vitro release in phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4 was less than 1% within 5 h. In contrast, up to 40% of the entrapped DOX was released in presence of a protein digesting enzyme mixture (Pronase®) within the same time. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of DOX-HSA-MPs were evaluated using the lung carcinoma cell line A549. The results demonstrated that DOX-HSA-MPs reduced the cell metabolic activities after 72 h. Interestingly, DOX-HSA-MPs were taken up by A549 cells up to 98% and localized in the cell lysosomal compartment. This study suggests that DOX-HSA-MPs which was fabricated by CCD technique is seen as a promising biopolymer particle as well as a viable alternative for drug delivery application to use for cancer therapy.
Project description:In this work, we prepared a stimuli-responsive system for drug delivery and controlled release by engineering the bovine serum albumin (BSA). The doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded BSA nanoparticles (NPs) were conveniently prepared using desolvation method, followed by crosslinking through Schiff base bonds, leading to pH-sensitive DOX-loaded system (DOX<sub>s</sub>@BSA NPs). The resulted DOX<sub>s</sub>@BSA NPs showed high drug loading capacity (21.4%), and the particle size was about 130 nm with narrow polydispersity and high negative surface charge (-20.5 mV). The pH-sensitivity of DOX<sub>s</sub>@BSA NPs was evidenced by the size changes and charge reversal after incubation at different pH values. The DOX<sub>s</sub>@BSA NPs showed high serum stability which indicated the prolonged circulation time. The <i>in vitro</i> drug release experiment showed that the release of DOX was obviously accelerated by acidity because of disassembly of NPs induced by cleavage of Schiff base bonds. The drug release mechanism was thoroughly studied using a semi-empirical model, further confirming the pH played an important role in drug controlled release process. The results of cytotoxicity assay revealed that DOX<sub>s</sub>@BSA NPs exhibited much higher toxic effects for tumor cells in comparison to the free DOX control. Collectively, these results demonstrated that DOX<sub>s</sub>@BSA NPs might be potential application for drug delivery and controlled release in cancer chemotherapy. Moreover, this work also showed that preparation of stimuli-responsive drug delivery system by engineering the commercial biomaterials could be a promising method to develop multi-functional nanomedicine.
Project description:Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPGs) are highly aggressive paediatric brain tumours. Currently, irradiation is the only standard treatment, but is palliative in nature and most patients die within 12 months of diagnosis. Novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed for the treatment of this devastating disease. We have developed non-persistent gold nano-architectures (NAs) functionalised with human serum albumin (HSA) for the delivery of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin has been previously reported to be cytotoxic in DIPG cells. In this study, we have preclinically evaluated the cytotoxic efficacy of doxorubicin delivered through gold nanoarchitectures (NAs-HSA-Dox). We found that DIPG neurospheres were equally sensitive to doxorubicin and doxorubicin-loaded NAs. Colony formation assays demonstrated greater potency of NAs-HSA-Dox on colony formation compared to doxorubicin. Western blot analysis indicated increased apoptotic markers cleaved Parp, cleaved caspase 3 and phosphorylated H2AX in NAs-HSA-Dox treated DIPG neurospheres. Live cell content and confocal imaging demonstrated significantly higher uptake of NAs-HSA-Dox into DIPG neurospheres compared to doxorubicin alone. Despite the potency of the NAs in vitro, treatment of an orthotopic model of DIPG showed no antitumour effect. This disparate outcome may be due to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and highlights the need to develop therapies to enhance penetration of drugs into DIPG.
Project description:Resistance to systemic drug therapy is a major reason for the failure of anticancer therapies. Here, we tested doxorubicin-loaded human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles in the neuroblastoma cell line UKF-NB-3 and its ABCB1-expressing sublines adapted to vincristine (UKF-NB-3<sup>r</sup>VCR<sup>1</sup>) and doxorubicin (UKF-NB-3<sup>r</sup>DOX<sup>20</sup>). Doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles displayed increased anticancer activity in UKF-NB-3<sup>r</sup>VCR<sup>1</sup> and UKF-NB-3<sup>r</sup>DOX<sup>20</sup> cells relative to doxorubicin solution, but not in UKF-NB-3 cells. UKF-NB-3<sup>r</sup>VCR<sup>1</sup> cells were re-sensitised by nanoparticle-encapsulated doxorubicin to the level of UKF-NB-3 cells. UKF-NB-3<sup>r</sup>DOX<sup>20</sup> cells displayed a more pronounced resistance phenotype than UKF-NB-3<sup>r</sup>VCR<sup>1</sup> cells and were not re-sensitised by doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles to the level of parental cells. ABCB1 inhibition using zosuquidar resulted in similar effects like nanoparticle incorporation, indicating that doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles successfully circumvent ABCB1-mediated drug efflux. The limited re-sensitisation of UKF-NB-3<sup>r</sup>DOX<sup>20</sup> cells to doxorubicin by circumvention of ABCB1-mediated efflux is probably due to the presence of multiple doxorubicin resistance mechanisms. So far, ABCB1 inhibitors have failed in clinical trials probably because systemic ABCB1 inhibition results in a modified body distribution of its many substrates including drugs, xenobiotics, and other molecules. HSA nanoparticles may provide an alternative, more specific way to overcome transporter-mediated resistance.
Project description:The efficient delivery of anticancer drugs into tumor tissues to improve therapeutic efficacy remains an urgent demand. To satisfy this demand, a drug delivery system based on a stealthy nanocapsule was developed. This nanocapsule was fabricated by encapsulating stealthy cross-linked poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) and benzaldehyde groups around the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by conjugation of doxorubicin (Dox) through a pH-responsive benzoic-imine bond. The <i>in vitro</i> results show that the Dox-conjugated nanocapsule (nBSA-Dox) released the drug under an acidic tumor microenvironment (pH ~6.5) and killed HepG2 human liver cancer cells. The half-life of Dox conjugated to nBSA in mice was significantly prolonged, and the area-under-curve of plasma Dox of the mice treated with nBSA-Dox was as much as 242 fold of free Dox. The <i>in vivo</i> results confirmed that this nanocapsule efficiently accumulated in tumor tissue and significantly suppressed the tumor growth.
Project description:Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapy drug used to treat different types of cancers. However, DOX has severe side effects, especially life-threatening cardiotoxicity. We herein report a new approach to reduce the toxicity of DOX by embedding DOX inside human serum albumin (HSA). HSA is further fused by a molecular biology technique with a tumor-targeting agent, amino-terminal fragment of urokinase (ATF). ATF binds with a high affinity to urokinase receptor, which is a cell-surface receptor overexpressed in many types of tumors. The as-prepared macromolecule complex (ATF-HSA:DOX) was not as cytotoxic as free DOX to cells in vitro, and was mainly localized in cell cytosol in contrast to DOX that was localized in cell nuclei. However, in tumor-bearing mice, ATF-HSA:DOX was demonstrated to have an enhanced tumor-targeting and antitumor efficacy compared with free DOX. More importantly, histopathological examinations of the hearts from the mice treated with ATF-HSA:DOX showed a significantly reduced cardiotoxicity compared with hearts from mice treated with free DOX. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in reducing the cardiotoxicity of DOX while strengthening its antitumor efficacy. Such a tumor-targeted albumin packaging strategy can also be applied to other antitumor drugs.
Project description:Albumin-based nanoparticles are an emerging platform for the delivery of various chemotherapeutics because of their biocompatibility, safety, and ease of surface modification for specific targeting. The most widely used method for the preparation of albumin nanoparticles is by desolvation process using glutaraldehyde (GLU) as a cross-linker. However, limitations of GLU like toxicity and interaction with drugs force the need for alternative cross-linkers. In the present study, several cross-linking systems were evaluated for the preparation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles (ABNs) encapsulating Doxorubicin (Dox). Based on the results obtained from morphological characterization, in vitro release, and therapeutic efficacy in cells, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP)-modified ABNs (ABN-SPDP) was chosen. Since ABN-SPDP are formed with disulfide linkage, the drug release is facilitated under a highly reducing environment present in the tumor sites. The cytotoxicity studies of those ABN-SPDP were performed in three different breast cell lines, highlighting the mechanism of cell death. The Dox-encapsulated ABN-SPDP showed toxicity in both the breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), but, remarkably, a negligible effect was observed in non-tumoral MCF-10A cells. In addition to the hydrophilic Dox, this system could be used as a carrier for hydrophobic drugs like SN38. The system could be employed for the preparation of nanoparticles based on human serum albumin (HSA), which further enhances the feasibility of this system for clinical use. Hence, the albumin nanoparticles developed herein present an excellent potential for delivering various drugs in cancer therapy.