Endoplasmic reticulum sorting and kinesin-1 command the targeting of axonal GABAB receptors.
ABSTRACT: In neuronal cells the intracellular trafficking machinery controls the availability of neurotransmitter receptors at the plasma membrane, which is a critical determinant of synaptic strength. Metabotropic ? amino-butyric acid (GABA) type B receptors (GABA(B)Rs) are neurotransmitter receptors that modulate synaptic transmission by mediating the slow and prolonged responses to GABA. GABA(B)Rs are obligatory heteromers constituted by two subunits, GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2. GABA(B)R1a and GABA(B)R1b are the most abundant subunit variants. GABA(B)R1b is located in the somatodendritic domain whereas GABA(B)R1a is additionally targeted to the axon. Sushi domains located at the N-terminus of GABA(B)R1a constitute the only difference between both variants and are necessary and sufficient for axonal targeting. The precise targeting machinery and the organelles involved in sorting and transport have not been described. Here we demonstrate that GABA(B)Rs require the Golgi apparatus for plasma membrane delivery but that axonal sorting and targeting of GABA(B)R1a operate in a pre-Golgi compartment. In the axon GABA(B)R1a subunits are enriched in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and their dynamic behavior and colocalization with other secretory organelles like the ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) suggest that they employ a local secretory route. The transport of axonal GABA(B)R1a is microtubule-dependent and kinesin-1, a molecular motor of the kinesin family, determines axonal localization. Considering that progression of GABA(B)Rs through the secretory pathway is regulated by an ER retention motif our data contribute to understand the role of the axonal ER in non-canonical sorting and targeting of neurotransmitter receptors.
Project description:GABA(B) receptors mediate slow inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain and feature during excitatory synaptic plasticity, as well as various neurological conditions. These receptors are obligate heterodimers composed of GABA(B)R1 and R2 subunits. The two predominant R1 isoforms differ by the presence of two complement control protein modules or Sushi domains (SDs) in the N terminus of R1a. By using live imaging, with an ?-bungarotoxin-binding site (BBS) and fluorophore-linked bungarotoxin, we studied how R2 stabilizes R1b subunits at the cell surface. Heterodimerization with R2 reduced the rate of internalization of R1b, compared with R1b homomers. However, R1aR2 heteromers exhibited increased cell surface stability compared with R1bR2 receptors in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that for receptors containing the R1a subunit, the SDs play an additional role in the surface stability of GABA(B) receptors. Both SDs were necessary to increase the stability of R1aR2 because single deletions caused the receptors to be internalized at the same rate and extent as R1bR2 receptors. Consistent with these findings, a chimera formed from the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)2 and the SDs from R1a increased the surface stability of mGluR2. These results suggest a role for SDs in stabilizing cell surface receptors that could impart different pre- and postsynaptic trafficking itineraries on GABA(B) receptors, thereby contributing to their physiological and pathological roles.
Project description:Understanding the mechanisms that control synaptic efficacy through the availability of neurotransmitter receptors depends on uncovering their specific intracellular trafficking routes. gamma-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors (GABA(B)Rs) are obligatory heteromers present at dendritic excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic sites. It is unknown whether synthesis and assembly of GABA(B)Rs occur in the somatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) followed by vesicular transport to dendrites or whether somatic synthesis is followed by independent transport of the subunits for assembly and ER export throughout the somatodendritic compartment. To discriminate between these possibilities we studied the association of GABA(B)R subunits in dendrites of hippocampal neurons combining live fluorescence microscopy, biochemistry, quantitative colocalization, and bimolecular fluorescent complementation. We demonstrate that GABA(B)R subunits are segregated and differentially mobile in dendritic intracellular compartments and that a high proportion of non-associated intracellular subunits exist in the brain. Assembled heteromers are preferentially located at the plasma membrane, but blockade of ER exit results in their intracellular accumulation in the cell body and dendrites. We propose that GABA(B)R subunits assemble in the ER and are exported from the ER throughout the neuron prior to insertion at the plasma membrane. Our results are consistent with a bulk flow of segregated subunits through the ER and rule out a post-Golgi vesicular transport of preassembled GABA(B)Rs.
Project description:In neurons, secretory organelles within the cell body are complemented by the dendritic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi outposts (GOPs), whose role in neurotransmitter receptor trafficking is poorly understood. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B metabotropic receptors (GABABRs) regulate the efficacy of synaptic transmission throughout the brain. Their plasma membrane availability is controlled by mechanisms involving an ER retention motif and assembly-dependent ER export. Thus, they constitute an ideal molecular model to study ER trafficking, but the extent to which the dendritic ER participates in GABABR biosynthesis has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we show that GABAB1 localizes preferentially to the ER in dendrites and moves long distances within this compartment. Not only diffusion but also microtubule and dynein-dependent mechanisms control dendritic ER transport. GABABRs insert throughout the somatodendritic plasma membrane but dendritic post-ER carriers containing GABABRs do not fuse selectively with GOPs. This study furthers our understanding of the spatial selectivity of neurotransmitter receptors for dendritic organelles.
Project description:gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are ligand-gated chloride channels that exist in numerous distinct subunit combinations. At postsynaptic membrane specializations, different GABA(A)R isoforms colocalize with the tubulin-binding protein gephyrin. However, direct interactions of GABA(A)R subunits with gephyrin have not been reported. Recently, the GABA(A)R-associated protein GABARAP was found to bind to the gamma2 subunit of GABA(A)Rs. Here we show that GABARAP interacts with gephyrin in both biochemical assays and transfected cells. Confocal analysis of neurons derived from wild-type and gephyrin-knockout mice revealed that GABARAP is highly enriched in intracellular compartments, but not at gephyrin-positive postsynaptic membrane specializations. Our data indicate that GABARAP-gephyrin interactions are not important for postsynaptic GABA(A)R anchoring but may be implicated in receptor sorting and/or targeting mechanisms. Consistent with this idea, a close homolog of GABARAP, p16, has been found to function as a late-acting intra-Golgi transport factor.
Project description:Emp24p is a type I transmembrane protein that is involved in secretory protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. A yeast mutant that lacks Emp24p (emp24 delta) is viable, but periplasmic invertase and the glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol-anchored plasma membrane protein Gas1p are delivered to the Golgi apparatus with reduced kinetics, whereas transport of alpha-factor, acid phosphatase and two vacuolar proteins is unaffected. Oligomerization and protease digestion studies of invertase suggest that the selective transport phenotype observed in the emp24 delta mutant is not due to a defect in protein folding or oligomerization. Consistent with a role in ER to Golgi transport, Emp24p is a component of COPII-coated, ER-derived transport vesicles that are isolated from a reconstituted in vitro budding reaction. We propose that Emp24p is involved in the sorting and/or concentration of a subset of secretory proteins into ER-derived transport vesicles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aggregation of peptide hormone precursors in the trans-Golgi network is an essential process in the biogenesis of secretory granules in endocrine cells. It has recently been proposed that this aggregation corresponds to the formation of functional amyloids. Our previous finding that dominant mutations in provasopressin, which cause cell degeneration and diabetes insipidus, prevent native folding and produce fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) might thus reflect mislocalized amyloid formation by sequences that evolved to mediate granule sorting. RESULTS:Here we identified two sequences responsible for fibrillar aggregation of mutant precursors in the ER: the N-terminal vasopressin nonapeptide and the C-terminal glycopeptide. To test their role in granule sorting, the glycopeptide was deleted and/or vasopressin mutated to inactivate ER aggregation while still permitting precursor folding and ER exit. These mutations strongly reduced sorting into granules and regulated secretion in endocrine AtT20 cells. CONCLUSION:The same sequences - vasopressin and the glycopeptide - mediate physiological aggregation of the wild-type hormone precursor into secretory granules and the pathological fibrillar aggregation of disease mutants in the ER. These findings support the amyloid hypothesis for secretory granule biogenesis.
Project description:The Golgi complex is essential for many aspects of cellular function, including trafficking and sorting of membrane and secretory proteins and posttranslational modification by glycosylation. We observed reversible fragmentation of the Golgi complex in cultured hippocampal neurons cultured in hyperexcitable conditions. In addition, Golgi fragmentation was found in cultured neurons with hyperactivity due to prolonged blockade of GABA(A)-mediated inhibition or withdrawal of NMDA receptor antagonism. The interplay between neuronal hyperactivity and Golgi structure established in this study thus reveals a previously uncharacterized impact of neuronal activity on organelle structure. This finding may have important roles in protein processing and trafficking in the Golgi as well as effects on neuronal signaling.
Project description:Little is known about how the distinct architectures of dendrites and axons are established. From a genetic screen, we isolated dendritic arbor reduction (dar) mutants with reduced dendritic arbors but normal axons of Drosophila neurons. We identified dar2, dar3, and dar6 genes as the homologs of Sec23, Sar1, and Rab1 of the secretory pathway. In both Drosophila and rodent neurons, defects in Sar1 expression preferentially affected dendritic growth, revealing evolutionarily conserved difference between dendritic and axonal development in the sensitivity to limiting membrane supply from the secretory pathway. Whereas limiting ER-to-Golgi transport resulted in decreased membrane supply from soma to dendrites, membrane supply to axons remained sustained. We also show that dendritic growth is contributed by Golgi outposts, which are found predominantly in dendrites. The distinct dependence between dendritic and axonal growth on the secretory pathway helps to establish different morphology of dendrites and axons.
Project description:Transmission of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to vertebrate hosts presupposes the encapsulation of trophozoites into an environmentally resistant and infectious cyst form. We have previously shown that cyst wall proteins were faithfully sorted to large encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs), despite the absence of a recognizable Golgi apparatus. Here, we demonstrate that sorting to a second constitutively active pathway transporting variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) to the surface depended on the cytoplasmic VSP tail. Moreover, pulsed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export of chimeric reporters containing functional signals for both pathways showed that protein sorting was done at or very soon after export from the ER. Correspondingly, we found that a limited number of novel transitional ER-like structures together with small transport intermediates were generated during encystation. Colocalization of transitional ER regions and early ESVs with coat protein (COP) II and of maturing ESVs with COPI and clathrin strongly suggested that ESVs form by fusion of ER-derived vesicles and subsequently undergo maturation by retrograde transport. Together, the data supported the hypothesis that in Giardia, a primordial secretory apparatus is in operation by which proteins are sorted in the early secretory pathway, and the developmentally induced ESVs carry out at least some Golgi functions.
Project description:Synaptic plasticity is dependent on the differential sorting, delivery and retention of neurotransmitter receptors, but the mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. We found that differential sorting of glutamate receptor subtypes began in the endoplasmic reticulum of rat hippocampal neurons. As AMPA receptors (AMPARs) were trafficked to the plasma membrane via the conventional somatic Golgi network, NMDA receptors (NMDARs) were diverted from the somatic endoplasmic reticulum into a specialized endoplasmic reticulum subcompartment that bypasses somatic Golgi, merging instead with dendritic Golgi outposts. This endoplasmic reticulum subcompartment was composed of highly mobile vesicles containing the NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B, the microtubule-dependent motor protein KIF17, and the postsynaptic adaptor proteins CASK and SAP97. Our data demonstrate that the retention and trafficking of NMDARs in this endoplasmic reticulum subcompartment requires both CASK and SAP97. These findings indicate that NMDARs are sorted away from AMPARs via a non-conventional secretory pathway that utilizes dendritic Golgi outposts.