Multifunctional biodegradable polyacrylamide nanocarriers for cancer theranostics--a "see and treat" strategy.
ABSTRACT: We describe here the development of multifunctional nanocarriers, based on amine-functionalized biodegradable polyacrylamide nanoparticles (NPs), for cancer theranostics, including active tumor targeting, fluorescence imaging, and photodynamic therapy. The structural design involves adding primary amino groups and biodegradable cross-linkers during the NP polymerization, while incorporating photodynamic and fluorescent imaging agents into the NP matrix, and conjugating PEG and tumor-targeting ligands onto the surface of the NPs. The as-synthesized NPs are spherical, with an average diameter of 44 nm. An accelerated biodegradation study, using sodium hydroxide or porcine liver esterase, indicated a hydrogel polymer matrix chain collapse within several days. By using gel permeation chromatography, small molecules were detected, after the degradation. In vitro targeting studies on human breast cancer cells indicate that the targeted NPs can be transported efficiently into tumor cells. Incubating the multifunctional nanocarriers into cancer cells enabled strong fluorescence imaging. Irradiation of the photosensitizing drug, incorporated within the NPs, with light of a suitable wavelength, causes significant but selective damage to the impregnated tumor cells, but only inside the illuminated areas. Overall, the potential of polymeric-based NPs as biodegradable, multifunctional nanocarriers, for cancer theranostics, is demonstrated here.
Project description:The development of nanoparticles (NPs) for use in all facets of oncological disease detection and therapy has shown great progress over the past two decades. NPs have been tailored for use as contrast enhancement agents for imaging, drug delivery vehicles, and most recently as a therapeutic component in initiating tumor cell death in magnetic and photonic ablation therapies. Of the many possible core constituents of NPs, such as gold, silver, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, manganese oxide, lipids, micelles, etc., iron oxide (or magnetite) based NPs have been extensively investigated due to their excellent superparamagnetic, biocompatible, and biodegradable properties. This review addresses recent applications of magnetite NPs in diagnosis, treatment, and treatment monitoring of cancer. Finally, some views will be discussed concerning the toxicity and clinical translation of iron oxide NPs and the future outlook of NP development to facilitate multiple therapies in a single formulation for cancer theranostics.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accounts for over 90% of all pancreatic cancer. Nanoparticles (NPs) offer new opportunities for image-guided therapy owing to the unique physicochemical properties of the nanoscale effect and the multifunctional capabilities of NPs. However, major obstacles exist for NP-mediated cancer theranostics, especially in PDAC. The hypovascular nature of PDAC may impede the deposition of NPs into the tumor after systemic administration, and most NPs localize predominantly in the mononuclear phagocytic system, leading to a relatively poor tumor-to-surrounding-organ uptake ratio. Image guidance combined with minimally invasive interventional procedures may help circumvent these barriers to poor drug delivery of NPs in PDAC. Interventional treatments allow regional drug delivery, targeted vascular embolization, direct tumor ablation, and the possibility of disrupting the stromal barrier of PDAC. Interventional treatments also have potentially fewer complications, faster recovery, and lower cost compared with conventional therapies. This work is an overview of current image-guided interventional cancer nanotheranostics with specific attention given to their applications for the management of PDAC.
Project description:The aim of this work was the generation of a multifunctional nanopolymeric system that incorporates IR-780 dye, a near-infrared (NIR) imaging probe that exhibits photothermal and photodynamic properties; and a derivate of ?-tocopheryl succinate (?-TOS), a mitochondria-targeted anticancer compound. IR-780 was conjugated to the hydrophilic segment of copolymer PEG-b-polyMTOS, based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and a methacrylic derivative of ?-tocopheryl succinate (MTOS), to generate IR-NP, self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous media which exhibit a hydrophilic shell and a hydrophobic core. During assembly, the hydrophobic core of IR-NP could encapsulate additional IR-780 to generate derived subspecies carrying different amount of probe (IR-NP-eIR). Evaluation of photo-inducible properties of IR-NP and IR-NP-eIR were thoroughly assessed in vitro. Developed nanotheranostic particles showed distinct fluorescence and photothermal behavior after excitation by a laser light emitting at 808nm. Treatment of MDA-MB-453 cells with IR-NP or IR-NP-eIR resulted in an efficient internalization of the IR-780 dye, while subsequent NIR-laser irradiation led to a severe decrease in cell viability. Photocytoxicity conducted by IR-NP, which could not be attributed to the generation of lethal hyperthermia, responded to an increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the fluorescence imaging and inducible phototoxicity capabilities of NPs derived from IR-780-PEG-b-polyMTOS copolymer confer high value to these nanotheranostics tools in clinical cancer research. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) that combine imaging and therapeutic properties are highly valuable in cancer treatment. In this paper we describe the development of NPs that are fluorescent in the near-infrared (NIR). This is important for their visualization in living tissues that present low absorption and low autofluorescence in this wavelength region (between 700 and 1000nm). Moreover, NPs present photothermal and photodynamic properties when NIR irradiated: the NPs produce an efficient increment of temperature and increase the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) when laser irradiated at 808nm. These tuneable photoinduced properties make the NPs highly cytotoxic after NIR irradiation and provide a new tool for highly precise cancer treatment.
Project description:Photo-immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach against malignant tumors with minimal invasiveness. Herein, a targeting multifunctional black phosphorus (BP) nanoparticle, modified by PEGylated hyaluronic acid (HA), was designed for photothermal/photodynamic/photo-immunotherapy. In vitro and in vivo assays indicated that HA-BP nanoparticles possess excellent biocompatibility, stability, and sufficient therapeutic efficacy in the combined therapy of photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer therapy. Moreover, the results of in vitro showed that HA-BP down-regulated the expression of CD206 (M2 macrophage marker) by 42.3% and up-regulated the ratio of CD86?M1 macrophage marker?by 59.6%, indicating that HA-BP nanoparticles have functions in remodeling tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) phenotype (from pro-tumor M2 TAMs to anti-tumor M1 macrophages). Fluorescence (FL) and photoacoustic (PA) multimodal imaging confirmed the selective accumulation of HA-BP in tumor site via both CD44+ mediated active targeting and passive EPR effect. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the combined therapy of PDT, PTT and immunotherapy using HA-BP could not only significantly inhibit original tumor but also induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) and release Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which could induce maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and activate effector cells that robustly evoke the antitumor immune responses for cancer treatment. This study expands the biomedical application of BP nanoparticles and displays the potential of modified BP as a multifunctional therapeutic platform for the future cancer therapy. Graphical abstract Image 1 Highlights • Novel HA-BP NPs were synthesized for photothermal/photodynamic/photo-immunotherapy.• HA-BP NPs with size around 50 nm possess remarkable enhancement of tumor targeting and accumulation ability.• HA-BP NPs could promote M2 to M1 macrophage polarization and further enhance invasion of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
Project description:A novel type of self-fluorescent unimolecular micelle nanoparticle (NP) formed by multi-arm star amphiphilic block copolymer, Boltron® H40 (H40, a 4th generation hyperbranched polymer)-biodegradable photo-luminescent polymer (BPLP)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated with cRGD peptide (i.e., H40-BPLP-PEG-cRGD) was designed, synthesized, and characterized. The hydrophobic BPLP segment was self-fluorescent, thereby making the unimolecular micelle NP self-fluorescent. cRGD peptides, which can effectively target ?v?3 integrin-expressing tumor neovasculature and tumor cells, were selectively conjugated onto the surface of the micelles to offer active tumor-targeting ability. This unique self-fluorescent unimolecular micelle exhibited excellent photostability and low cytotoxicity, making it an attractive bioimaging probe for NP tracking for a variety of microscopy techniques including fluorescent microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and two-photon microscopy. Moreover, this self-fluorescent unimolecular micelle NP also demonstrated excellent stability in aqueous solutions due to its covalent nature, high drug loading level, pH-controlled drug release, and passive and active tumor-targeting abilities, thereby making it a promising nanoplatform for targeted cancer theranostics.
Project description:The combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) has promising potential in the synergistic treatment of cancer. However, chemotherapy and photodynamic synergistic therapy are impeded by uncontrolled chemotherapeutics release behavior, targeting deficiencies, and hypoxia-associated poor PDT efficacy in solid tumors. Here, a platinum nanozyme (PtNP) loaded reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive prodrug nanoparticle (CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NP) is created to overcome these limitations. The ROS-responsive prodrug consists of a thioketal bond linked with camptothecin (CPT) and photosensitizer-2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH). The PtNP in CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NP can efficiently catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into oxygen to relieve hypoxia. The production of oxygen can satisfy the consumption of HPPH under 660 nm laser irradiation to attain the on-demand release of CPT and ensure enhanced photodynamic therapy. As a tumor diagnosis agent, the results of photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence imaging for CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NP exhibit desirable long circulation and enhanced in vivo targeting. CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NPs effectively inhibit tumor proliferation and growth in vitro and in vivo. CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NP, with its excellent ROS-responsive drug release behavior and enhanced PDT efficiency can serve as a new cancer theranostic agent, and will further promote the research of chemophotodynamic synergistic cancer therapy.
Project description:Targeted drug delivery using epidermal growth factor peptide-targeted gold nanoparticles (EGFpep-Au NPs) is investigated as a novel approach for delivery of photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents, specifically Pc 4, to cancer. In vitro studies of PDT show that EGFpep-Au NP-Pc 4 is twofold better at killing tumor cells than free Pc 4 after increasing localization in early endosomes. In vivo studies show that targeting with EGFpep-Au NP-Pc 4 improves accumulation of fluorescence of Pc 4 in subcutaneous tumors by greater than threefold compared with untargeted Au NPs. Targeted drug delivery and treatment success can be imaged via the intrinsic fluorescence of the PDT drug Pc 4. Using Pc 4 fluorescence, it is demonstrated in vivo that EGFpep-Au NP-Pc 4 impacts biodistribution of the NPs by decreasing the initial uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and by increasing the amount of Au NPs circulating in the blood 4 h after IV injection. Interestingly, in vivo PDT with EGFpep-Au NP-Pc 4 results in interrupted tumor growth when compared with EGFpep-Au NP control mice when selectively activated with light. These data demonstrate that EGFpep-Au NP-Pc 4 utilizes cancer-specific biomarkers to improve drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy over untargeted drug delivery.
Project description:In this work, we brought together two existing clinical techniques used in cancer treatment-X-ray radiation and photodynamic therapy (PDT), whose combination termed X-PDT uniquely allows PDT to be therapeutically effective in deep tissue. To this end, we developed mitochondrially targeted biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocarriers incorporating a photosensitizer verteporfin, ultrasmall (2-5 nm) gold nanoparticles as radiation enhancers, and triphenylphosphonium acting as the mitochondrial targeting moiety. The average size of the nanocarriers was about 160 nm. Upon X-ray radiation our nanocarriers generated cytotoxic amounts of singlet oxygen within the mitochondria, triggering the loss of membrane potential and mitochondria-related apoptosis of cancer cells. Our X-PDT strategy effectively controlled tumor growth with only a fraction of radiotherapy dose (4 Gy) and improved the survival rate of a mouse model bearing colorectal cancer cells. In vivo data indicate that our X-PDT treatment is cytoreductive, antiproliferative, and profibrotic. The nanocarriers induce radiosensitization effectively, which makes it possible to amplify the effects of radiation. A radiation dose of 4 Gy combined with our nanocarriers allows equivalent control of tumor growth as 12 Gy of radiation, but with greatly reduced radiation side effects (significant weight loss and resultant death).
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) has been applied widely in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with high ROS-production capacity and intense absorption in the near-infrared region. However, weak tumor targeting and the aggregation tendency of ZnPc seriously affect the therapeutic effect of PDT. Therefore, overcoming the aggregation of ZnPc and enhancing its antitumor effect were the purpose of this study.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we first found that the aggregation behaviors of the photosensitizer ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>, ZnPc substituted by tertiary amine groups, were regulated finely by pH and that ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> could be disaggregated gradually as the pH descended. ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and human serum albumin (HSA) molecules were assembled into nanoparticles (NPs) for tumor targeting. Meanwhile, the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (Ptx) was loaded into HSA NPs together with ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> for dual antitumor effects. HSA NPs loading both ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and Ptx (NP-ZnPc[TAP]<sub>4</sub>-Ptx) were characterized by particle size and in vitro release. Cytotoxicity, subcellular localization, tumor targeting, and anticancer effect in vivo were investigated respectively.<h4>Results</h4>We found that NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx had good stability with qualifying particle size. Interestingly, ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> was released from the NPs and the photodynamic activity enhanced in the acidic environment of tumor. In addition, NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx had prominent cytotoxicity and time-dependent subcellular localization characteristics. Through a three-dimensional animal imaging system, NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx showed much-enhanced tumor targeting in tumor-bearing mice. Above all, NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx was demonstrated to have the synergistic anticancer effect of PDT and chemotherapy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx had enhanced tumor targeting for the pH-sensitive property of ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and the transport function of HSA. NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx possessed a double-anticancer effect through the combination of ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and Ptx. This drug-delivery system may also be used to carry chemotherapy drugs other than Ptx for improving antitumor effects.
Project description:Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated significant potential to improve the systemic delivery of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics, such as small interfering RNA (siRNA), for cancer therapy. However, the slow and inefficient siRNA release inside tumor cells generally observed for most biodegradable polymeric NPs may result in compromised gene silencing efficacy. Herein, a biodegradable and redox-responsive NP platform, composed of a solid poly(disulfide amide) (PDSA)/cationic lipid core and a lipid-poly(ethylene glycol) (lipid-PEG) shell for systemic siRNA delivery to tumor cells, is developed. This newly generated NP platform can efficiently encapsulate siRNA under extracellular environments and can respond to the highly concentrated glutathione (GSH) in the cytoplasm to induce fast intracellular siRNA release. By screening a library of PDSA polymers with different structures and chain lengths, the optimized NP platform shows the unique features of i) long blood circulation, ii) high tumor accumulation, iii) fast GSH-triggered intracellular siRNA release, and iv) exceptionally effective gene silencing. Together with the facile polymer synthesis technique and robust NP formulation enabling scale-up, this new redox-responsive NP platform may become an effective tool for RNAi-based cancer therapy.