Molecular characterization and comparative sequence analysis of defense-related gene, Oryza rufipogon receptor-like protein kinase 1.
ABSTRACT: Many of the plant leucine rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been found to regulate signaling during plant defense processes. In this study, we selected and sequenced an LRR-RLK gene, designated as Oryza rufipogon receptor-like protein kinase 1 (OrufRPK1), located within yield QTL yld1.1 from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon (accession IRGC105491). A 2055 bp coding region and two exons were identified. Southern blotting determined OrufRPK1 to be a single copy gene. Sequence comparison with cultivated rice orthologs (OsI219RPK1, OsI9311RPK1 and OsJNipponRPK1, respectively derived from O. sativa ssp. indica cv. MR219, O. sativa ssp. indica cv. 9311 and O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare) revealed the presence of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with five non-synonymous substitutions, and 23 insertion/deletion sites. The biological role of the OrufRPK1 as a defense related LRR-RLK is proposed on the basis of cDNA sequence characterization, domain subfamily classification, structural prediction of extra cellular domains, cluster analysis and comparative gene expression.
Project description:A huge amount of cDNA and EST resources have been developed for cultivated rice species Oryza sativa; however, only few cDNA resources are available for wild rice species. In this study, we isolated and completely sequenced 1888 putative full-length cDNA (FLcDNA) clones from wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. W1943 for comparative analysis between wild and cultivated rice species. Two cDNA libraries were constructed from 3-week-old leaf samples under either normal or cold-treated conditions. Homology searching of these cDNA sequences revealed that >96.8% of the wild rice cDNAs were matched to the cultivated rice O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare genome sequence. However, <22% of them were fully matched to the cv. Nipponbare genome sequence. The comparative analysis showed that O. rufipogon W1943 had greater similarity to O. sativa ssp. japonica than to ssp. indica cultivars. In addition, 17 novel rice cDNAs were identified, and 41 putative tissue-specific expression genes were defined through searching the rice massively parallel signature-sequencing database. In conclusion, these FLcDNA clones are a resource for further function verification and could be broadly utilized in rice biological studies.
Project description:Reproductive barriers perform a vital role during speciation. Hybrid weakness, the poorer development of hybrids compared with their parents, hinders gene exchange between different species at the postzygotic stage. Here we show that two incompatible dominant loci (Hwi1 and Hwi2) involving three genes are likely to determine the high temperature-dependent expression of hybrid weakness in interspecific hybrids of rice. Hwi1 comprises two leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) genes, 25L1 and 25L2, which are specific to wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) and induce hybrid weakness. Hwi2, a rare allele that is predominantly distributed in indica rice (Oryza sativa), encodes a secreted putative subtilisin-like protease. Functional analysis indicated that pyramiding of Hwi1 and Hwi2 activates the autoimmune response in the basal nodes of hybrids, interrupting root formation and then impairing shoot growth. These findings bring new insights into our understanding of reproductive isolation and may benefit rice breeding.
Project description:The origin of domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) has been a contentious topic, with conflicting evidence for either single or multiple domestication of this key crop species. We examined the evolutionary history of domesticated rice by analyzing de novo assembled genomes from domesticated rice and its wild progenitors. Our results indicate multiple origins, where each domesticated rice subpopulation (japonica, indica, and aus) arose separately from progenitor O. rufipogon and/or O. nivara. Coalescence-based modeling of demographic parameters estimate that the first domesticated rice population to split off from O. rufipogon was O. sativa ssp. japonica, occurring at ?13.1-24.1?ka, which is an order of magnitude older then the earliest archeological date of domestication. This date is consistent, however, with the expansion of O. rufipogon populations after the Last Glacial Maximum ?18?ka and archeological evidence for early wild rice management in China. We also show that there is significant gene flow from japonica to both indica (?17%) and aus (?15%), which led to the transfer of domestication alleles from early-domesticated japonica to proto-indica and proto-aus populations. Our results provide support for a model in which different rice subspecies had separate origins, but that de novo domestication occurred only once, in O. sativa ssp. japonica, and introgressive hybridization from early japonica to proto-indica and proto-aus led to domesticated indica and aus rice.
Project description:The semidwarf phenotype has been extensively selected during modern crop breeding as an agronomically important trait. Introduction of the semidwarf gene, semi-dwarf1 (sd1), which encodes a gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme, made significant contributions to the "green revolution" in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here we report that SD1 was involved not only in modern breeding including the green revolution, but also in early steps of rice domestication. We identified two SNPs in O. sativa subspecies (ssp.) japonica SD1 as functional nucleotide polymorphisms (FNPs) responsible for shorter culm length and low gibberellin biosynthetic activity. Genetic diversity analysis among O. sativa ssp. japonica and indica, along with their wild ancestor O. rufipogon Griff, revealed that these FNPs clearly differentiate the japonica landrace and O. rufipogon. We also found a dramatic reduction in nucleotide diversity around SD1 only in the japonica landrace, not in the indica landrace or O. rufipogon. These findings indicate that SD1 has been subjected to artificial selection in rice evolution and that the FNPs participated in japonica domestication, suggesting that ancient humans already used the green revolution gene.
Project description:By constructing nearly isogenic lines (NILs) that differ only at a single quantitative trait locus (QTL), we fine-mapped the yield-improving QTL qGY2-1 to a 102.9-kb region on rice chromosome 2. Comparison analysis of the genomic sequences in the mapped QTL region between the donor (Dongxiang wild rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and recurrent (Guichao2, Oryza sativa ssp. indica) parents used for the development of NILs identified the haplotypes of a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase gene cluster, which showed extensive allelic variation. The sequences between genes in the cluster had a very high rate of divergence. More importantly, the genes themselves also differed between two haplotypes: Only 92% identity was observed for one allele, and another allele was found to have completely lost its allelic counterpart in Guichao2. The other six shared genes all showed >98% identity, and four of these exhibited obvious regulatory variation. The same haplotype segments also differed in length (43.9-kb in Guichao2 vs. 52.6-kb in Dongxiang wild rice). Such extensive sequence variation was also observed between orthologous regions of indica (cv. 93-11) and japonica (cv. Nipponbare) subspecies of Oryza sativa. Different rates of sequence divergence within the cluster have resulted in haplotype variability in 13 rice accessions. We also detected allelic expression variation in this gene cluster, in which some genes gave unequal expression of alleles in hybrids. These allelic variations in structure and expression suggest that the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase gene cluster identified in our study should be a particularly good candidate for the source of the yield QTL.
Project description:Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.
Project description:Crop domestication, which gives rise to a number of desirable agronomic traits, represents a typical model system of plant evolution. Numerous genomic evidence has proven that noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs and phasiRNAs, as well as protein-coding genes, are selected during crop domestication. However, limited data shows plant long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are also involved in this biological process. In this study, we performed strand-specific RNA sequencing of cultivated rice <i>Oryza sativa</i> ssp. <i>japonica</i> and <i>O. sativa</i> ssp. <i>indica</i>, and their wild progenitor <i>O.</i> <i>rufipogon</i>. We identified a total of 8528 lncRNAs, including 4072 lncRNAs in <i>O.</i> <i>rufipogon</i>, 2091 lncRNAs in <i>japonica</i> rice, and 2365 lncRNAs in <i>indica</i> rice. The lncRNAs expressed in wild rice were revealed to be shorter in length and had fewer exon numbers when compared with lncRNAs from cultivated rice. We also identified a number of conserved lncRNAs in the wild and cultivated rice. The functional study demonstrated that several of these conserved lncRNAs are associated with domestication-related traits in rice. Our findings revealed the feature and conservation of lncRNAs during rice domestication and will further promote functional studies of lncRNAs in rice.
Project description:Sulfate transporters (SULTRs), also known as H<sup>+</sup>/SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> symporters, play a key role in sulfate transport, plant growth and stress responses. However, the evolutionary relationships and functional differentiation of SULTRs in Gramineae crops are rarely reported. Here, 111 SULTRs were retrieved from the genomes of 10 Gramineae species, including <i>Brachypodium disachyon</i>, <i>Hordeum vulgare</i>, <i>Setaria italica</i>, <i>Sorghum bicolor</i>, <i>Zea mays</i>, <i>Oryza barthii</i>, <i>Oryza rufipogon</i>, <i>Oryza glabbermia</i> and <i>Oryza sativa</i> (<i>Oryza sativa</i> ssp. indica and <i>Oryza sativa</i> ssp. japonica). The SULTRs were clustered into five clades based on a phylogenetic analysis. Syntheny analysis indicates that whole-genome duplication/segmental duplication and tandem duplication events were essential in the SULTRs family expansion. We further found that different clades and orthologous groups of SULTRs were under a strong purifying selective force. Expression analysis showed that rice SULTRs with high-affinity transporters are associated with the functions of sulfate uptake and transport during rice seedling development. Furthermore, using <i>Oryza sativa</i> ssp. indica as a model species, we found that <i>OsiSULTR10</i> was significantly upregulated under salt stress, while <i>OsiSULTR3</i> and <i>OsiSULTR12</i> showed remarkable upregulation under high temperature, low-selenium and drought stresses. <i>OsiSULTR3</i> and <i>OsiSULTR9</i> were upregulated under both low-selenium and high-selenium stresses. This study illustrates the expression and evolutionary patterns of the SULTRs family in Gramineae species, which will facilitate further studies of SULTR in other Gramineae species.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The domestication process of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is complicated. It's well established that Oryza rufipogon is the ancestor of Asian rice, although the number of domestication events still controversial. Recently, numerous types of studies based on rice nuclear genome have been conducted, but the results are quite different. Chloroplasts (cp) are also part of the rice genome and have a conserved cyclic structure that is valuable for plant genetics and evolutionary studies. Therefore, we conducted chloroplast-based studies, aiming to provide more evidence for the domestication of Asian rice.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1389 variants were detected from the chloroplast genomes of 412 accessions obtained through the world. Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica exhibited slightly less diversity (π) than Oryza sativa L. indica and wild rice. The fixation index values (F<sub>ST</sub>) revealed that indica and japonica exhibited farther genetic distances compared with wild rice. Across cp genome, Tajima's D test demonstrated that different selection sites occurred in Asian rice. Principal component analyses (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly classify the Asian rice into different groups. Furthermore, introgression patterns identified that indica and japonica shared no introgression events in cp level, and phylogenetic studies showed cultivated rice were well separated from different type of wild rice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Here, we focus on the domestication of Asian rice (indica and japonica). Diversity and phylogenetic analyses revealed some selection characteristics in the chloroplast genome that potentially occurred in different Asian rice during the domestication. The results shown that Asian rice had been domesticated at least twice. In additional, japonica may experience a strong positive selection or bottleneck event during the domestication.
Project description:Members of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily play critical roles in multiple biological processes. As the LRR unit sequence is highly variable, accurately predicting the number and location of LRR units in proteins is a highly challenging task in the field of bioinformatics. Existing methods still need to be improved, especially when it comes to similarity-based methods. We introduce our DeepLRR method based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) model and LRR features to predict the number and location of LRR units in proteins. We compared DeepLRR with six existing methods using a dataset containing 572 LRR proteins and it outperformed all of them when it comes to overall F1 score. In addition, DeepLRR has integrated identifying plant disease-resistance proteins (NLR, LRR-RLK, LRR-RLP) and non-canonical domains. With DeepLRR, 223, 191 and 183 LRR-RLK genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes were re-annotated, respectively. Chromosome mapping and gene cluster analysis revealed that 24.2% (54/223), 29.8% (57/191) and 16.9% (31/183) of LRR-RLK genes formed gene cluster structures in Arabidopsis, rice and tomato, respectively. Finally, we explored the evolutionary relationship and domain composition of LRR-RLK genes in each plant and distributions of known receptor and co-receptor pairs. This provides a new perspective for the identification of potential receptors and co-receptors.