Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. RESULTS: Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo.According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle.
Project description:Asian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) have an important socio-economic role. The majority of the population is situated in developing countries. Due to the scarce resources in these countries, very few species-specific biotechnology tools exist and a lot of cattle-derived technologies are applied to buffaloes. However, the application of cattle genomic tools to buffaloes is not straightforward and, as results suggested, despite genome sequences similarity the genetic polymorphisms are different.The first SNP chip genotyping platform designed specifically for buffaloes has recently become available. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and gene network analysis carried out in buffaloes is presented. Target phenotypes were six milk production and four reproductive traits. GWAS identified SNP with significant associations and suggested candidate genes that were specific to each trait and also genes with pleiotropic effect, associated to multiple traits.Network predictions of interactions between these candidate genes may guide further molecular analyses in search of disruptive mutations, help select genes for functional experiments and evidence metabolism differences in comparison to cattle. The cattle SNP chip does not offer an optimal coverage of buffalo genome, thereafter the development of new buffalo-specific genetic technologies is warranted. An annotated reference genome would greatly facilitate genetic research, with potential impact to buffalo-based dairy production.
Project description:Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) is being evaluated as an intranasal vaccine for protection against human PIV3 (hPIV3). In young infants, the bPIV3 vaccine appears to be infectious, attenuated, immunogenic, and genetically stable, which are desirable characteristics for an RNA virus vector. To test the potential of the bPIV3 vaccine strain as a vector, an infectious DNA clone of bPIV3 was assembled and recombinant bPIV3 (r-bPIV3) was rescued. r-bPIV3 displayed a temperature-sensitive phenotype for growth in tissue culture at 39 degrees C and was attenuated in the lungs of Syrian golden hamsters. In order to test whether r-bPIV3 could serve as a vector, the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes of bPIV3 were replaced with those of hPIV3. The resulting bovine/human PIV3 was temperature sensitive for growth in Vero cells at 37 degrees C. The replication of bovine/human PIV3 was also restricted in the lungs of hamsters, albeit not as severely as was observed for r-bPIV3. Despite the attenuation phenotypes observed for r-bPIV3 and bovine/human PIV3, both of these viruses protected hamsters completely upon challenge with hPIV3. In summary, bPIV3 was shown to function as a virus vector that may be especially suitable for vaccination of infants and children against PIV3 and other viruses.
Project description:We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98-99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV are conserved in BufCoV HKU26.
Project description:At present, little is known regarding the prevalence of buffalo leptospirosis worldwide, especially with respect to which Leptospira strains may infect this animal species. Furthermore, most investigations into this disease in buffaloes have only been performed with serological studies. In Brazil, particularly in the Amazon, buffalo production is growing and is just as important as cattle production, although few studies have been performed on buffalo compared to cattle. Thus, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterise Leptospira strains from river buffaloes raised in the Brazilian Amazon region. We collected 109 kidney samples from slaughtered buffaloes raised in the Amazon Delta region of Brazil. The samples were analysed by bacteriological culture for the isolation of leptospires, and the obtained isolates were serologically and molecularly characterised by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), DNA sequencing and multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Five isolates were obtained, and in serogrouping analyses, these isolates were only reactive for the Pomona serogroup, with an observed titre of 25,600. The DNA sequencing results revealed that all the isolates belonged to the species Leptospira interrogans, and the MLVA results showed that the VNTR loci 4, 7 and 10 profile of all the isolates was 4-1-10. In this study, we observed that Pomona serogroup strains circulate in buffaloes in the Amazon, showing that in Brazil, buffaloes can be affected by Leptospira strains other than the Sejroe group, which are adapted to cattle.
Project description:River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk plays an important role in economy and nutritious diet in several developing countries. However, reliable milk-yield genomic markers and their functional insights remain unexposed. Here, we have used a target capture sequencing approach in three economically important buffalo breeds namely: Banni, Jafrabadi and Mehsani, belonging to either high or low milk-yield group. Blood samples were collected from the milk-yield/breed balanced group of 12 buffaloes, and whole exome sequencing was performed using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Using an innovative approach namely, MultiCom; we have identified high-quality SNPs specific for high and low-milk yield buffaloes. Almost 70% of the reported genes in QTL regions of milk-yield and milk-fat in cattle were present among the buffalo milk-yield gene candidates. Functional analysis highlighted transcriptional regulation category in the low milk-yield group, and several new pathways in the two groups. Further, the discovered SNP candidates may account for more than half of mammary transcriptome changes in high versus low-milk yielding cattle. Thus, starting from the design of a reliable strategy, we identified reliable genomic markers specific for high and low-milk yield buffalo breeds and addressed possible downstream effects.
Project description:Background:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound vesicles of growing interest in vetetinary parasitology. The aim of the present report was to provide the first isolation, quantification and protein characterization of EVs from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sera infected with Theileria spp. Methods:Infected animals were identified through optical microscopy and PCR. EVs were isolated from buffalo sera by size-exclusion chromatography and characterized using western blotting analysis, nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently, the proteins from isolated vesicles were characterized by mass spectrometry. Results:EVs from buffalo sera have shown sizes in the 124-140 nm range and 306 proteins were characterized. The protein-protein interaction analysis has evidenced biological processes and molecular function associated with signal transduction, binding, regulation of metabolic processes, transport, catalytic activity and response to acute stress. Five proteins have been shown to be differentially expressed between the control group and that infected with Theileria spp., all acting in the oxidative stress pathway. Conclusions:EVs from buffaloes infected with Theileria spp. were successfully isolated and characterized. This is an advance in the knowledge of host-parasite relationship that contributes to the understanding of host immune response and theileriosis evasion mechanisms. These findings may pave the way for searching new EVs candidate-markers for a better production of safe biological products derived from buffaloes.
Project description:The domestic buffalo (<i>Bubalus bubalis</i>), also known as water buffalo or Asian buffalo to prevent confusion with the American bison (<i>Bison bison</i>), wrongly named buffalo in North America, comprises two subspecies: the river buffalo (<i>B. bubalis bubalis</i>) and the swamp buffalo (<i>B. bubalis kerebau</i>). The swamp buffalo has a consistent phenotype and is considered as one type, even if many breeds are recognized within it; conversely, the river buffalo subspecies has many breeds. We found limited information available regarding the worldwide distribution of buffaloes. The best estimate is that 208,098,759 buffalo head are distributed in 77 countries in five continents. In this review, we presented the basic aspects of the water buffalo and unraveled the buffalo path followed from the origin of the species to its current global distribution. We reviewed several data sources to provide a better estimate of the world buffalo count and distribution.
Project description:One hundred twenty-four water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) originating from 9 farms located in southern Italy were tested to investigate simultaneously, for the first time, the seroprevalence of the protozoa Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Besnoitia besnoiti by ELISA tests and to evaluate the clinical findings potentially associated to the presence of these aborting parasitic pathogens. Twenty-five of 124 buffaloes (20.2%) were positive for N. caninum, while 17/124 (13.7%) for T. gondii. No buffalo showed specific antibodies for B. besnoiti. Nineteen of 124 animals (15.3%) were found seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum. The univariate statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of N. caninum is significantly associated with abortion and presence of retained foetal membranes, while the seroprevalence of T. gondii is significantly associated with an increase of days open. The logistic regression models showed that the co-infection by N. caninum and T. gondii strengthened the abortive effects (OR = 7.330) and showed further negative effects on the parameter embryonic death (OR = 2.607). The outcome revealed herein represents a high exposure of N. caninum and T. gondii in water buffaloes with reproduction disorders that deserves attention for both economic reasons, animal health and welfare.
Project description:India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima's D test and Fu's Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes.
Project description:The Kansas strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is 100- to 1,000-fold restricted in replication in the respiratory tracts of nonhuman primates compared to human PIV3 (HPIV3), an important pathogen of infants and young children. BPIV3 is also restricted in replication in human infants and children, yet it is immunogenic and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as a vaccine candidate to protect against illness caused by HPIV3. We have examined the genetic basis for the host range attenuation phenotype of BPIV3 by exchanging each open reading frame (ORF) of a recombinant wild-type HPIV3 with the analogous ORF from BPIV3, with the caveats that the multiple ORFs of the P gene were exchanged as a single unit and that the HN and F genes were exchanged as a single unit. Recombinant chimeric bovine-human PIV3s were recovered from cDNA, and the levels of viral replication in vitro and in the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys were determined. Recombinant chimeric HPIV3s bearing the BPIV3 N or P ORF were highly attenuated in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of monkeys, whereas those bearing the BPIV3 M or L ORF or the F and HN genes were only moderately attenuated. This indicates that the genetic determinants of the host range restriction of replication of BPIV3 for primates are polygenic, with the major determinants being the N and P ORFs. Monkeys immunized with these bovine-human chimeric viruses, including the more highly attenuated ones, developed higher levels of HPIV3 hemagglutination-inhibiting serum antibodies than did monkeys immunized with BPIV3 and were protected from challenge with wild-type HPIV3. Furthermore, host range determinants could be combined with attenuating point mutations to achieve an increased level of attenuation. Thus, chimeric recombinant bovine-human PIV3 viruses that manifest different levels of attenuation in rhesus monkeys are available for evaluation as vaccine candidates to protect infants from the severe lower respiratory tract disease caused by HPIV3.