Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces oxidative stress and improves skeletal muscle function in response to electrically stimulated isometric contractions in aged mice.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a putative factor responsible for reducing function and increasing apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle with aging. This study examined the contribution and functional significance of the xanthine oxidase enzyme as a potential source of oxidant production in aged skeletal muscle during repetitive in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited in young adult and aged mice via a subcutaneously placed time-release (2.5mg/day) allopurinol pellet, 7 days before the start of in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Gastrocnemius muscles were electrically activated with 20 maximal contractions for 3 consecutive days. Xanthine oxidase activity was 65% greater in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged mice compared to young mice. Xanthine oxidase activity also increased after in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions in muscles from both young (33%) and aged (28%) mice, relative to contralateral noncontracted muscles. Allopurinol attenuated the exercise-induced increase in oxidative stress, but it did not affect the elevated basal level of oxidative stress that was associated with aging. In addition, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity decreased caspase-3 activity, but it had no effect on other markers of mitochondrial-associated apoptosis. Our results show that compared to control conditions, suppression of xanthine oxidase activity by allopurinol reduced xanthine oxidase activity, H?O? levels, lipid peroxidation, and caspase-3 activity; prevented the in situ electrically stimulated isometric contraction-induced loss of glutathione; prevented the increase in catalase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activities; and increased maximal isometric force in the plantar flexor muscles of aged mice after repetitive electrically evoked contractions.
Project description:Allopurinol, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is the only drug available for the treatment of gout. We examined the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some commercially available flavonoids such asepigallocatechin, acacatechin, myricetin, naringenin, daidzein and glycitein by virtual screening and in-vitro studies. The interacting residues within the complex model and their contact types were identified. The virtual screening analysis were carried out using AutoDock 4.2 and in-vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was carried out using xanthine as the substrate. In addition, enzyme kinetics was performed using LineweaverBurkplot analysis. Allopurinol, a known xanthine oxidase inhibitor was used as the standard. The docking energy ofglycitein was found to be -8.49 kcal/mol which was less than that of the standard (-4.47 kcal/ mol). All the selected flavonoids were found to exhibit lower binding energy (-8.08 to -6.03 kcal/ mol) than allopurinol. The docking results confirm that flavonoids showed greater inhibition of xanthine oxidase due to their active binding sites and lesser binding energies compared to allopurinol. This may be attributed to the presence of benzopyran ring in the flavonoids. In the xanthine oxidase assay, IC50 value of glycitein was found to be 12±0.86 ?g/mL, whereas that of allopurinol was 24±0.28 ?g/mL. All the remaining compounds exhibited IC50 values ranging between 22±0.64 to 62±1.18 ?g/mL. In the enzyme kinetic studies, flavonoids showed competitive type of enzyme inhibition. It can be concluded that flavonoids could be a promising remedy for the treatment of gout and related inflammatory disorders. Further in-vivo studies are required to develop potential compounds with lesser side effects.
Project description:1. A patient with congenital deficiency of xanthine oxidase (EC 18.104.22.168) (xanthinuria) excreted the xanthine isomer 4,6-dihydroxypyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (oxipurinol) in his urine when the hypoxanthine isomer 4-hydroxypyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (allopurinol) was given by mouth. 2. The identity of the oxipurinol that the patient excreted was established by mass spectrometry. 3. The mass spectra and infrared spectra of allopurinol, oxipurinol, hypoxanthine and xanthine are compared. 4. A mechanism for the fragmentation of these compounds that occurs during their mass-spectrometric investigation is proposed. 5. A possible metabolic pathway for the oxidation of allopurinol to oxipurinol in the absence of xanthine oxidase is discussed.
Project description:Xanthine oxidase is an important enzyme of purine metabolism that catalyzes the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then xanthine to uric acid. A thermostable xanthine oxidase is being reported from a thermophilic organism RL-2d isolated from the Manikaran (Kullu) hot spring of Himachal Pradesh (India). Based on the morphology, physiological tests, and 16S rDNA gene sequence, RL-2d was identified as Bacillus pumilus. Optimization of physiochemical parameters resulted into 4.1-fold increase in the xanthine oxidase activity from 0.051 U/mg dcw (dry cell weight) to 0.209 U/mg dcw. The xanthine oxidase of B. pumilus RL-2d has exhibited very good thermostability and its t1/2 at 70 and 80 °C were 5 and 1 h, respectively. Activity of this enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg(2+), Ag(+) and allopurinol. The investigation showed that B. pumilus RL-2d exhibited highest xanthine oxidase activity and remarkable thermostability among the other xanthine oxidases reported so far.
Project description:Although there is good evidence to indicate a major role of intrinsic impairment of the contractile apparatus in muscle weakness seen in several pathophysiological conditions, the factors responsible for control of myofibrillar function are not fully understood. To investigate the role of mechanical load in myofibrillar function, we compared the skinned fiber force between denervated (DEN) and dexamethasone-treated (DEX) rat skeletal muscles with or without neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) training. DEN and DEX were induced by cutting the sciatic nerve and daily injection of dexamethasone (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, respectively. For ES training, plantarflexor muscles were electrically stimulated to produce four sets of five isometric contractions each day. In situ maximum torque was markedly depressed in the DEN muscles compared to the DEX muscles (-74% vs. -10%), whereas there was not much difference in the degree of atrophy in gastrocnemius muscles between DEN and DEX groups (-24% vs. -17%). Similar results were obtained in the skinned fiber preparation, with a greater reduction in maximum Ca2+-activated force in the DEN than in the DEX group (-53% vs. -16%). Moreover, there was a parallel decline in myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and actin content per muscle volume in DEN muscles, but not in DEX muscles, which was associated with upregulation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and endothelial NOS expression, translocation of nNOS from the membrane to the cytosol, and augmentation of mRNA levels of muscle RING finger protein 1 (MuRF-1) and atrogin-1. Importantly, mechanical load evoked by ES protects against DEN- and DEX-induced myofibrillar dysfunction and these molecular alterations. Our findings provide novel insights regarding the difference in intrinsic contractile properties between DEN and DEX and suggest an important role of mechanical load in preserving myofibrillar function in skeletal muscle.
Project description:Thyroid hormones are key regulators of basal metabolic state and oxidative metabolism. Hyperthyroidism has been reported to cause significant alterations in hemodynamics, and in cardiac and diaphragm muscle functions, all of which have been linked to increased oxidative stress. However, the definite source of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in each of these phenotypes is still unknown. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that thyroxin (T4) may produce distinct hemodynamic, cardiac, and diaphragm muscle abnormalities by differentially affecting various sources of ROS. Wild-type and T4 mice with and without 2-week treatments with allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), L-NIO (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), or MitoTEMPO (mitochondria-targeted antioxidant) were studied. Blood pressure and echocardiography were noninvasively evaluated, followed by ex vivo assessments of isolated heart and diaphragm muscle functions. Treatment with L-NIO attenuated the T4-induced hypertension in mice. However, apocynin improved the left-ventricular (LV) dysfunction without preventing the cardiac hypertrophy in these mice. Both allopurinol and MitoTEMPO reduced the T4-induced fatigability of the diaphragm muscles. In conclusion, we show here for the first time that T4 exerts differential effects on various sources of ROS to induce distinct cardiovascular and skeletal muscle phenotypes. Additionally, we find that T4-induced LV dysfunction is independent of cardiac hypertrophy and NADPH oxidase is a key player in this process. Furthermore, we prove the significance of both xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial ROS pathways in T4-induced fatigability of diaphragm muscles. Finally, we confirm the importance of the nitric oxide pathway in T4-induced hypertension.
Project description:Whole-body vibration and upper limb vibration (ULV) continue to gain popularity as exercise intervention for rehabilitation and sports applications. However, the fatiguing effects of indirect vibration stimulation are not yet fully understood. We investigated the effects of ULV stimulation superimposed on fatiguing isometric contractions using a purpose developed upper limb stimulation device. Thirteen healthy volunteers were exposed to both ULV superimposed to fatiguing isometric contractions (V) and isometric contractions alone Control (C). Both Vibration (V) and Control (C) exercises were performed at 80% of the maximum voluntary contractions. The stimulation used was 30 Hz frequency of 0.4 mm amplitude. Surface-electromyographic (EMG) activity of the Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii and Flexor Carpi Radialis were measured. EMG amplitude (EMGrms) and mean frequency (MEF) were computed to quantify muscle activity and fatigue levels. All muscles displayed significantly higher reduction in MEFs and a corresponding significant increase in EMGrms with the V than the Control, during fatiguing contractions (p < 0.05). Post vibration, all muscles showed higher levels of MEFs after recovery compared to the control. Our results show that near-maximal isometric fatiguing contractions superimposed on vibration stimulation lead to a higher rate of fatigue development compared to the isometric contraction alone in the upper limb muscles. Results also show higher manifestation of mechanical fatigue post treatment with vibration compared to the control. Vibration superimposed on isometric contraction not only seems to alter the neuromuscular function during fatiguing efforts by inducing higher neuromuscular load but also post vibration treatment.
Project description:1. Allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) selectively inhibits the apotryptophan pyrrolase activity in homogenates of rat liver in vitro and after intraperitoneal administration. The inhibition is abolished by an excess of haematin. The allopurinol metabolite alloxanthine has no effect on the pyrrolase activity in vitro or after administration. Allopurinol also inhibits the activation of the enzyme in vitro by ascorbate, ethanol plus NAD(+), NADH, hypoxanthine or xanthine. It is suggested that these agents cause the conversion of a latent form of the pyrrolase into the apoenzyme, and that xanthine oxidase is not involved in this process. 2. The raised total pyrrolase activity observed after the administration of cortisol, cyclic AMP, tryptophan, salicylate or ethanol is lowered by allopurinol in vitro to the corresponding holoenzyme values. A similar effect is observed when allopurinol is administered shortly before cortisol or cyclic AMP. Pretreatment of rats with allopurinol completely prevents the enhancement of the pyrrolase activities by tryptophan, salicylate or ethanol. 3. It is suggested that allopurinol inhibits rat liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity in vitro and after administration by preventing the conjugation of the apoenzyme with its haem activator. The possible usefulness of combined allopurinol-tryptophan therapy of affective disorders is discussed.
Project description:NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? In sleep apnoea, a putative link between intermittent hypoxia and hypertension is the generation of oxygen radicals by angiotensin II and xanthine oxidase within the chemoreflex arc and vasculature. We tested whether chemoreflex control of sympathetic outflow, hypoxic vasodilatation and blood pressure are altered by angiotensin blockade (losartan) and/or xanthine oxidase inhibition (allopurinol). What is the main finding and its importance? Both drugs lowered blood pressure without altering sympathetic outflow, reducing chemoreflex sensitivity or enhancing hypoxic vasodilatation. Losartan and allopurinol are effective therapies for achieving blood pressure control in sleep apnoea. ABSTRACT:Chemoreflex sensitization produced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats is attenuated by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) blockade. Both AT1 R blockade and xanthine oxidase inhibition ameliorate chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that treatment with losartan and allopurinol would reduce chemoreflex sensitivity and improve hypoxic vasodilatation in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Eighty-six hypertensive patients with apnoea-hypopnoea index ?25 events h-1 and no other cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal or metabolic disease were randomly assigned to receive allopurinol, losartan or placebo for 6 weeks. Treatment with other medications and/or continuous positive airway pressure remained unchanged. Tests of chemoreflex sensitivity and hypoxic vasodilatation were performed during wakefulness before and after treatment. Ventilation (pneumotachography), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography), heart rate (electrocardiography), arterial oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry), blood pressure (sphygmomanometry), forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) and cerebral flow velocity (transcranial Doppler ultrasound) were measured during eupnoeic breathing and graded reductions in inspired O2 tension. Losartan and allopurinol lowered arterial pressure measured during eupnoeic breathing and exposure to acute hypoxia. Neither drug altered the slopes of ventilatory, sympathetic or cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia. We conclude that losartan and allopurinol are viable pharmacotherapeutic adjuncts for achieving blood pressure control in hypertensive obstructive sleep apnoea patients, even those who are adequately treated with continuous positive airway pressure.
Project description:Background:Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, reduced progression of carotid-intima media thickness and lowered blood pressure in a small clinical trial in people with ischaemic stroke. Xanthine oxidase inhibition for improvement of long-term outcomes following ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack (XILO-FIST) aims to assess the effect of allopurinol treatment on white matter hyperintensity progression and blood pressure after stroke. This paper describes the XILO-FIST protocol. Methods:XILO-FIST is a multicentre randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial funded by the British Heart Foundation and the Stroke Association. The trial has been adopted by the Scottish Stroke Research Network and the UK Clinical Research Network. The trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (registration number NCT02122718). XILO-FIST will randomise 464 participants, aged greater than 50 years, with ischaemic stroke within the past month, on a 1:1 basis, to two years treatment with allopurinol 300 mg twice daily or placebo. Participants will undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive assessment, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and blood sampling at baseline and after two years treatment. The primary outcome will be white matter hyperintensity progression, measured using the Rotterdam progression scale. Secondary outcomes will include change in white matter hyperintensity volume, mean day-time systolic blood pressure and measures of cognitive function. Up to 100 will undergo additional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a sub-study of left ventricular mass. Discussion:If white matter hyperintensity progression is reduced, allopurinol could be an effective preventative treatment for patients with ischaemic stroke and clinical endpoint studies would be needed. If allopurinol reduces blood pressure after stroke, then it could be used to help patients reach blood pressure targets.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Gout affects 2.5% of the UK's adult population and is now the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. The long-term management of gout requires reduction of serum urate levels and this is most often achieved with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, such as allopurinol. Febuxostat is the first new xanthine oxidase inhibitor since allopurinol and was licensed for use in 2008. The European Medicines Agency requested a postlicensing cardiovascular safety study of febuxostat versus allopurinol, which has been named the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined trial (FAST). METHODS AND ANALYSIS:FAST is a cardiovascular safety study using the prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint design. FAST is recruiting in the UK and Denmark. Recruited patients are aged over 60?years, prescribed allopurinol for symptomatic hyperuricaemia and have at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. After an allopurinol lead-in phase where the dose of allopurinol is optimised to achieve European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) urate targets (serum urate <357?µmol/L), patients are randomised to either continue optimal dose allopurinol or to use febuxostat. Patients are followed-up for an average of 3?years. The primary endpoint is first occurrence of the Anti-Platelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC) cardiovascular endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints are all cause mortality and hospitalisations for heart failure, unstable, new or worsening angina, coronary or cerebral revascularisation, transient ischaemic attack, non-fatal cardiac arrest, venous and peripheral arterial vascular thrombotic event and arrhythmia with no evidence of ischaemia. The primary analysis is a non-inferiority analysis with a non-inferiority upper limit for the HR for the primary outcome of 1.3. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:FAST (ISRCTN72443728) has ethical approval in the UK and Denmark, and results will be published in a peer reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:FAST is registered in the EU Clinical Trials Register (EUDRACT No: 2011-001883-23) and International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN No: ISRCTN72443728).