Computational Model of Cellular Metabolic Dynamics in Skeletal Muscle Fibers during Moderate Intensity Exercise.
ABSTRACT: Human skeletal muscles have different fiber types with distinct metabolic functions and physiological properties. The quantitative metabolic responses of muscle fibers to exercise provide essential information for understanding and modifying the regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle. Since in vivo data from skeletal muscle during exercise is limited, a computational, physiologically based model has been developed to quantify the dynamic metabolic responses of many key chemical species. This model distinguishes type I and II muscle fibers, which share the same blood supply. An underlying hypothesis is that the recruitment and metabolic activation of the two main types of muscle fibers differ depending on the pre-exercise state and exercise protocols. Here, activation measured by metabolic response (or enzymatic activation) in single fibers is considered linked but distinct from fiber recruitment characterized by the number (or mass) of each fiber type involved during a specific exercise. The model incorporates species transport processes between blood and muscle fibers and most of the important reactions/pathways in cytosol and mitochondria within each fiber type. Model simulations describe the dynamics of intracellular species concentrations and fluxes in muscle fibers during moderate intensity exercise according to various experimental protocols and conditions. This model is validated by comparing model simulations with experimental data in single muscle fibers and in whole muscle. Model simulations demonstrate that muscle-fiber recruitment and metabolic activation patterns in response to exercise produce significantly distinctive effects depending on the exercise conditions.
Project description:Skeletal muscle comprises a heterogeneous population of fibers with important physiological differences. Fast fibers are glycolytic and fatigue rapidly. Slow fibers utilize oxidative metabolism and are fatigue resistant. Muscle diseases such as sarcopenia and atrophy selectively affect fast fibers, but the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber type-specific gene expression remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor NFATc1 controls fiber type composition and is required for fast-to-slow fiber type switching in response to exercise in vivo. Moreover, MyoD is a crucial transcriptional effector of the fast fiber phenotype, and we show that NFATc1 inhibits MyoD-dependent fast fiber gene promoters by physically interacting with the N-terminal activation domain of MyoD and blocking recruitment of the essential transcriptional coactivator p300. These studies establish a molecular mechanism for fiber type switching through direct inhibition of MyoD to control the opposing roles of MyoD and NFATc1 in fast versus slow fiber phenotypes.
Project description:Skeletal muscle plays an important role in the health-promoting effects of exercise training, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging due to presence of non-muscle tissues and existence of different fiber types confounding the results. This can be circumvented by analysis of pure fibers; however this requires isolation of fibers from fresh tissues. We developed a workflow enabling proteomics analysis of isolated muscle fibers from freeze-dried muscle biopsies and identified >4000 proteins. We investigated effects of exercise training on the pool of slow and fast muscle fibers. Exercise altered expression of >500 proteins irrespective of fiber type covering several metabolic processes, mainly related to mitochondria. Furthermore, exercise training altered proteins involved in regulation of post-translational modifications, transcription, Ca++ signaling, fat, and glucose metabolism in a fiber type-specific manner. Our data serves as a valuable resource for elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying muscle performance and health. Finally, our workflow offers methodological advancement allowing proteomic analyses of already stored freeze-dried human muscle biopsies.
Project description:Mammalian skeletal muscle is broadly characterized by the presence of two distinct categories of muscle fibers called type I "red" slow twitch and type II "white" fast twitch, which display marked differences in contraction strength, metabolic strategies, and susceptibility to fatigue. The relative representation of each fiber type can have major influences on susceptibility to obesity, diabetes, and muscular dystrophies. However, the molecular factors controlling fiber type specification remain incompletely defined. In this study, we describe the control of fiber type specification and susceptibility to metabolic disease by folliculin interacting protein-1 (Fnip1). Using Fnip1 null mice, we found that loss of Fnip1 increased the representation of type I fibers characterized by increased myoglobin, slow twitch markers [myosin heavy chain 7 (MyH7), succinate dehydrogenase, troponin I 1, troponin C1, troponin T1], capillary density, and mitochondria number. Cultured Fnip1-null muscle fibers had higher oxidative capacity, and isolated Fnip1-null skeletal muscles were more resistant to postcontraction fatigue relative to WT skeletal muscles. Biochemical analyses revealed increased activation of the metabolic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK), and increased expression of the AMPK-target and transcriptional coactivator PGC1? in Fnip1 null skeletal muscle. Genetic disruption of PGC1? rescued normal levels of type I fiber markers MyH7 and myoglobin in Fnip1-null mice. Remarkably, loss of Fnip1 profoundly mitigated muscle damage in a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These results indicate that Fnip1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type specification and warrant further study to determine whether inhibition of Fnip1 has therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophy diseases.
Project description:We have previously reported that the expression of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 is high in the slow oxidative muscle and that the expression of muscle SIRT3 level is increased by dietary restriction or exercise training. To explore the function of SIRT3 in skeletal muscle, we report here the establishment of a transgenic mouse model with muscle-specific expression of the murine SIRT3 short isoform (SIRT3M3). Calorimetry study revealed that the transgenic mice had increased energy expenditure and lower respiratory exchange rate (RER), indicating a shift towards lipid oxidation for fuel usage, compared to control mice. The transgenic mice exhibited better exercise performance on treadmills, running 45% further than control animals. Moreover, the transgenic mice displayed higher proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibers, with increased muscle AMPK activation and PPAR? expression, both of which are known regulators promoting type I muscle fiber specification. Surprisingly, transgenic expression of SIRT3M3 reduced muscle mass up to 30%, likely through an up-regulation of FOXO1 transcription factor and its downstream atrophy gene MuRF-1. In summary, these results suggest that SIRT3 regulates the formation of oxidative muscle fiber, improves muscle metabolic function, and reduces muscle mass, changes that mimic the effects of caloric restriction.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue consisting of blood vessels, connective tissue, and muscle fibers. The last are highly adaptive and can change their molecular composition depending on external and internal factors, such as exercise, age, and disease. Thus, examination of the skeletal muscles at the fiber type level is essential to detect potential alterations. Therefore, we established a protocol in which myosin heavy chain isoform immunolabeled muscle fibers were laser microdissected and separately investigated by mass spectrometry to develop advanced proteomic profiles of all murine skeletal muscle fiber types. Our in-depth mass spectrometric analysis revealed unique fiber type protein profiles, confirming fiber type-specific metabolic properties and revealing a more versatile function of type IIx fibers. Furthermore, we found that multiple myopathy-associated proteins were enriched in type I and IIa fibers. To further optimize the assignment of fiber types based on the protein profile, we developed a hypothesis-free machine-learning approach (available at: https://github.com/mpc-bioinformatics/FiPSPi), identified a discriminative peptide panel, and confirmed our panel using a public data set.
Project description:Endurance exercise training can promote an adaptive muscle fiber transformation and an increase of mitochondrial biogenesis by triggering scripted changes in gene expression. However, no transcription factor has yet been identified that can direct this process. We describe the engineering of a mouse capable of continuous running of up to twice the distance of a wild-type littermate. This was achieved by targeted expression of an activated form of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) in skeletal muscle, which induces a switch to form increased numbers of type I muscle fibers. Treatment of wild-type mice with PPARdelta agonist elicits a similar type I fiber gene expression profile in muscle. Moreover, these genetically generated fibers confer resistance to obesity with improved metabolic profiles, even in the absence of exercise. These results demonstrate that complex physiologic properties such as fatigue, endurance, and running capacity can be molecularly analyzed and manipulated.
Project description:In this study we assess the functional role of Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the skeletal muscle by analyzing whether physical activity modulates AQP4 expression and whether the absence of AQP4 has an effect on osmotic behavior, muscle contractile properties, and physical activity. To this purpose, rats and mice were trained on the treadmill for 10 (D10) and 30 (D30) days and tested with exercise to exhaustion, and muscles were used for immunoblotting, RT-PCR, and fiber-type distribution analysis. Taking advantage of the AQP4 KO murine model, functional analysis of AQP4 was performed on dissected muscle fibers and sarcolemma vesicles. Moreover, WT and AQP4 KO mice were subjected to both voluntary and forced activity. Rat fast-twitch muscles showed a twofold increase in AQP4 protein in D10 and D30 rats compared to sedentary rats. Such increase positively correlated with the animal performance, since highest level of AQP4 protein was found in high runner rats. Interestingly, no shift in muscle fiber composition nor an increase in AQP4-positive fibers was found. Furthermore, no changes in AQP4 mRNA after exercise were detected, suggesting that post-translational events are likely to be responsible for AQP4 modulation. Experiments performed on AQP4 KO mice revealed a strong impairment in osmotic responses as well as in forced and voluntary activities compared to WT mice, even though force development amplitude and contractile properties were unvaried. Our findings definitively demonstrate the physiological role of AQP4 in supporting muscle contractile activity and metabolic changes that occur in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise.
Project description:Changes in satellite cell content play a key role in regulating skeletal muscle growth and atrophy. Yet, there is little information on changes in satellite cell content from birth to old age in humans. The present study defines muscle fiber type-specific satellite cell content in human skeletal muscle tissue over the entire lifespan. Muscle biopsies were collected in 165 subjects, from different muscles of children undergoing surgery (<18 years; n?=?13) and from the vastus lateralis muscle of young adult (18–49 years; n?=?50), older (50–69 years; n?=?53), and senescent subjects (70–86 years; n?=?49). In a subgroup of 51 aged subjects (71?±?6 years), additional biopsies were collected after 12 weeks of supervised resistance-type exercise training. Immunohistochemistry was applied to assess skeletal muscle fiber type-specific composition, size, and satellite cell content. From birth to adulthood, muscle fiber size increased tremendously with no major changes in muscle fiber satellite cell content, and no differences between type I and II muscle fibers. In contrast to type I muscle fibers, type II muscle fiber size was substantially smaller with increasing age in adults (r?=??0.56; P?<?0.001). This was accompanied by an age-related reduction in type II muscle fiber satellite cell content (r?=??0.57; P?<?0.001). Twelve weeks of resistance-type exercise training significantly increased type II muscle fiber size and satellite cell content. We conclude that type II muscle fiber atrophy with aging is accompanied by a specific decline in type II muscle fiber satellite cell content. Resistance-type exercise training represents an effective strategy to increase satellite cell content and reverse type II muscle fiber atrophy.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that undergoes cellular and metabolic adaptations under conditions of increased contractile activity such as exercise. Using adult zebrafish as an exercise model, we previously demonstrated that swimming training stimulates hypertrophy and vascularization of fast muscle fibers, consistent with the known muscle growth-promoting effects of exercise and with the resulting increased aerobic capacity of this tissue. Here we investigated the potential involvement of factors and signaling mechanisms that could be responsible for exercise-induced fast muscle remodeling in adult zebrafish. By subjecting zebrafish to swimming-induced exercise, we observed an increase in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Mef2 protein levels in fast muscle. We also observed an increase in the protein levels of the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 that correlated with an increase in the protein expression levels of Pax7, a satellite-like cell marker. Furthermore, the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was also increased by exercise, in parallel with an increase in the mRNA expression levels of pgc1? and also of pparda, a ?-oxidation marker. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of slow and fast myosin markers further supported the notion of an exercise-induced aerobic phenotype in zebrafish fast muscle. The mRNA expression levels of il6, il6r, apln, aplnra and aplnrb, sparc, decorin and igf1, myokines known in mammals to be produced in response to exercise and to signal through mTOR/AMPK pathways, among others, were increased in fast muscle of exercised zebrafish. These results support the notion that exercise increases skeletal muscle growth and myogenesis in adult zebrafish through the coordinated activation of the mTOR-MEF2 and AMPK-PGC1? signaling pathways. These results, coupled with altered expression of markers for oxidative metabolism and fast-to-slow fiber-type switch, also suggest improved aerobic capacity as a result of swimming-induced exercise. Finally, the induction of myokine expression by swimming-induced exercise support the hypothesis that these myokines may have been produced and secreted by the exercised zebrafish muscle and acted on fast muscle cells to promote metabolic remodeling. These results support the use of zebrafish as a suitable model for studies on muscle remodeling in vertebrates, including humans.
Project description:Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a skeletal muscle disease characterized by episodic weakness associated with low serum potassium. We compared clinical and biophysical effects of R222W, the first hNaV1.4 domain I mutation linked to this disease. R222W patients exhibited a higher density of fibers with depolarized resting membrane potentials and produced action potentials that were attenuated compared to controls. Functional characterization of the R222W mutation in heterologous expression included the inactivation deficient IFM/QQQ background to isolate activation. R222W decreased sodium current and slowed activation without affecting probability. Consistent with the phenotype of muscle weakness, R222W shifted fast inactivation to hyperpolarized potentials, promoted more rapid entry, and slowed recovery. R222W increased the extent of slow inactivation and slowed its recovery. A two-compartment skeletal muscle fiber model revealed that defects in fast inactivation sufficiently explain action potential attenuation in patients. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that R222W disrupted electrostatic interactions within the gating pore, supporting the observation that R222W promotes omega current at hyperpolarized potentials. Sodium channel inactivation defects produced by R222W are the primary driver of skeletal muscle fiber action potential attenuation, while hyperpolarization-induced omega current produced by that mutation promotes muscle fiber depolarization.