Association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and all cause mortality in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of systolic and diastolic blood pressure achieved in the first year of treatment on all cause mortality in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, with and without established cardiovascular disease.Retrospective cohort study.United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, between 1990 and 2005.126,092 adult patients (age ? 18 years) with a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes who had been registered with participating practices for at least 12 months.All cause mortality.Before diagnosis, 12,379 (9.8%) patients had established cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction or stroke). During a median follow-up of 3.5 years, we recorded 25,495 (20.2%) deaths. In people with cardiovascular disease, tight control of systolic (<130 mm Hg) and diastolic (<80 mm Hg) blood pressure was not associated with improved survival, after adjustment for baseline characteristics (age at diagnosis, sex, practice level clustering, deprivation score, body mass index, smoking, HbA(1c) and cholesterol levels, and blood pressure). Low blood pressure was also associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality. Compared with patients who received usual control of systolic blood pressure (130-139 mm Hg), the hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 2.79 (95% confidence interval 1.74 to 4.48, P<0.001) for systolic blood pressure at 110 mm Hg. Compared with patients who received usual control of diastolic blood pressure (80-84 mm Hg), the hazard ratios were 1.32 (1.02 to 1.78, P=0.04) and 1.89 (1.40 to 2.56, P<0.001) for diastolic blood pressures at 70-74 mm Hg and lower than 70 mm Hg, respectively. Similar associations were found in people without cardiovascular disease. Subgroup analyses of people diagnosed with hypertension and who received treatment for hypertension confirmed initial findings.Blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg was not associated with reduced risk of all cause mortality in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, with or without known cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure, particularly below 110/75 mm Hg, was associated with an increased risk for poor outcomes.
Project description:This study investigated whether a mean blood pressure (BP) of <130/80 mm Hg is associated with further reduction in cardiovascular outcomes in treated hypertensive subjects with previous stroke.Subjects from the Korea National Health Insurance Service health examinee cohort diagnosed as having stroke and hypertension from January 1st, 2003 and December 31st, 2006 (N=2320) were grouped according to mean systolic (<130, 130-<140, and ?140 mm Hg) and diastolic (<80, 80-<90, and ?90 mm Hg) BP recorded during follow-up health examinations. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality over 11 years were compared. Compared with subjects with a systolic BP of ?140 mm Hg (N=736), subjects with a systolic BP of 130 to <140 mm Hg (N=793) had a significantly lower risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-0.79; P<0.001), cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.25-0.61; P<0.001), and fatal ischemic stroke (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10-0.63; P=0.003). Systolic BP of <130 mm Hg (N=791) was associated with lower risk of nonfatal hemorrhagic stroke. Subjects with a diastolic BP of 80 to <90 mm Hg (N=1100) had significantly lower risk of all-cause death (HR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.45-0.80; P<0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.30-0.70; P<0.001) than those with a diastolic BP of ?90 mm Hg (N=342). Diastolic BP of <80 mm Hg (N=878) was associated with reduced risk of nonfatal hemorrhagic stroke and further lowering of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality.BP of <130/80 mm Hg was associated with improved outcomes in hypertensive subjects with previous stroke.
Project description:Previous observational studies reported J or U-shaped associations between blood pressure parameters and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we examined the associations of different blood pressure levels with various causes of death in a CKD population that included patients with eGFR 15-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 with underlying hypertension receiving at least one antihypertensive agent. We obtained data on date and cause of death from State Department of Health mortality files and classified deaths into three categories: cardiovascular, malignancy-related, and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy related. Cox models were fitted for overall mortality, and separate competing risk regression models for each major cause of death category, to evaluate their associations with various systolic and diastolic blood pressures. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 13,332 of 45,412 patients died. Systolic blood pressures under 100, 100-109, 110-119, and over 150 (vs. 130-139 mm Hg) were associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Systolic blood pressures under 100 mm Hg and 100-109 were associated with higher non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy related mortality. Diastolic blood pressures under 50 and 50-59 (vs. 70-79 mm Hg) were associated with higher all-cause and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy-related mortality while diastolic blood pressures over 90 mm Hg was associated with higher cardiovascular but lower non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy related mortality. Thus, in a non-dialysis dependent CKD population, systolic blood pressures under 110 and over 150 mm Hg were associated with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy related deaths. However, diastolic blood pressure under 60 mm Hg was associated in contrast with all-cause mortality and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy-related deaths.
Project description:KDOQI practice guidelines recommend predialysis blood pressure <140/90 mm?Hg; however, most prior studies had found elevated mortality with low, not high, systolic blood pressure. This is possibly due to unmeasured confounders affecting systolic blood pressure and mortality. To lessen this bias, we analyzed 24,525 patients by Cox regression models adjusted for patient and facility characteristics. Compared with predialysis systolic blood pressure of 130-159?mm?Hg, mortality was 13% higher in facilities with 20% more patients at systolic blood pressure of 110-129?mm?Hg and 16% higher in facilities with 20% more patients at systolic blood pressure of ?160?mm?Hg. For patient-level systolic blood pressure, mortality was elevated at low (<130?mm?Hg), not high (?180?mm?Hg), systolic blood pressure. For predialysis diastolic blood pressure, mortality was lowest at 60-99?mm?Hg, a wide range implying less chance to improve outcomes. Higher mortality at systolic blood pressure of <130?mm?Hg is consistent with prior studies and may be due to excessive blood pressure lowering during dialysis. The lowest risk facility systolic blood pressure of 130-159?mm?Hg indicates this range may be optimal, but may have been influenced by unmeasured facility practices. While additional study is needed, our findings contrast with KDOQI blood pressure targets, and provide guidance on optimal blood pressure range in the absence of definitive clinical trial data.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the nature and magnitude of relations of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in late adolescence to mortality.<h4>Design</h4>Nationwide cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>General community in Sweden.<h4>Participants</h4>Swedish men (n = 1,207,141) who had military conscription examinations between 1969 and 1995 at a mean age of 18.4 years, followed up for a median of 24 (range 0-37) years.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and non-cardiovascular mortality.<h4>Results</h4>During follow-up, 28,934 (2.4%) men died. The relation of systolic blood pressure to total mortality was U shaped, with the lowest risk at a systolic blood pressure of about 130 mm Hg. This pattern was driven by the relation to non-cardiovascular mortality, whereas the relation to cardiovascular mortality was monotonically increasing (higher risk with higher blood pressure). The relation of diastolic blood pressure to mortality risk was monotonically increasing and stronger than that of systolic blood pressure, in terms of both relative risk and population attributable fraction (deaths that could be avoided if blood pressure was in the optimal range). Relations to cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality were similar, with an apparent risk threshold at a diastolic blood pressure of about 90 mm Hg, below which diastolic blood pressure and mortality were unrelated, and above which risk increased steeply with higher diastolic blood pressures.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In adolescent men, the relation of diastolic blood pressure to mortality was more consistent than that of systolic blood pressure. Considering current efforts for earlier detection and prevention of risk, these observations emphasise the risk associated with high diastolic blood pressure in young adulthood.
Project description:Most guidelines have recommended lower home blood pressure (BP) threshold when clinic BP threshold of 140/90 mm?Hg is used for diagnosis of hypertension. However, home BP thresholds to define hypertension have never been determined in the general population in the United States. We identified home BP thresholds for stage 1 (BP ?130/80 mm?Hg) hypertension using a regression-based approach in the DHS (Dallas Heart Study; n=5768) and the NCMH study (North Carolina Masked Hypertension; n=420). Home BP thresholds were also assessed using outcome-derived approach based on the composite of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular events in the DHS cohort. For this approach, BP thresholds were identified only for systolic BP because diastolic BP was not associated with the outcome. Among untreated participants, the regression-derived thresholds for home BP corresponding to clinic BP for stage 1 hypertension were 129/80 mm?Hg in blacks, 130/80 mm?Hg in whites, and 126/78 mm?Hg in Hispanics, respectively. The results are similar in the North Carolina cohort. The 11-year composite cardiovascular and mortality events corresponding to clinic systolic BP >130 mm?Hg were higher in blacks than in whites and Hispanics (13.3% versus 5.98% versus 5.52%, respectively). Using a race/ethnicity-specific composite outcome in the untreated DHS participants, the outcome-derived home systolic BP thresholds corresponding to stage 1 hypertension were 130 mm?Hg in blacks, 129 mm?Hg in whites, and 131 mm?Hg in Hispanics, respectively. Our data based on both regression-derived and outcome approach support home BP threshold of 130/80 mm?Hg for diagnosis of hypertension in blacks, whites, and Hispanics.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether a difference in systolic blood pressure readings between arms can predict a reduced event free survival after 10 years.<h4>Design</h4>Cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Rural general practice in Devon, United Kingdom.<h4>Participants</h4>230 people receiving treatment for hypertension in primary care.<h4>Intervention</h4>Bilateral blood pressure measurements recorded at three successive surgery attendances.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Cardiovascular events and deaths from all causes during a median follow-up of 9.8 years.<h4>Results</h4>At recruitment 24% (55/230) of participants had a mean interarm difference in systolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more and 9% (21/230) of 15 mm Hg or more; these differences were associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 6.5 and 3.1, 1.6 to 6.0, respectively). The risk of death was also increased in 183 participants without pre-existing cardiovascular disease with an interarm difference in systolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more or 15 mm Hg or more (2.6, 1.4 to 4.8 and 2.7, 1.3 to 5.4). An interarm difference in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more was weakly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events or death.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Differences in systolic blood pressure between arms can predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all cause mortality over 10 years in people with hypertension. This difference could be a valuable indicator of increased cardiovascular risk. Bilateral blood pressure measurements should become a routine part of cardiovascular assessment in primary care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The most appropriate targets for systolic blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among persons without diabetes remain uncertain. METHODS:We randomly assigned 9361 persons with a systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg or higher and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, to a systolic blood-pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). The primary composite outcome was myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS:At 1 year, the mean systolic blood pressure was 121.4 mm Hg in the intensive-treatment group and 136.2 mm Hg in the standard-treatment group. The intervention was stopped early after a median follow-up of 3.26 years owing to a significantly lower rate of the primary composite outcome in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group (1.65% per year vs. 2.19% per year; hazard ratio with intensive treatment, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89; P<0.001). All-cause mortality was also significantly lower in the intensive-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.90; P=0.003). Rates of serious adverse events of hypotension, syncope, electrolyte abnormalities, and acute kidney injury or failure, but not of injurious falls, were higher in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients at high risk for cardiovascular events but without diabetes, targeting a systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg, as compared with less than 140 mm Hg, resulted in lower rates of fatal and nonfatal major cardiovascular events and death from any cause, although significantly higher rates of some adverse events were observed in the intensive-treatment group. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01206062.).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the associations of blood pressure with all cause mortality and cause specific mortality at three years among oldest old people in China. DESIGN:Community based, longitudinal prospective study. SETTING:2011 and 2014 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, conducted in 22 Chinese provinces. PARTICIPANTS:4658 oldest old individuals (mean age 92.1 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:All cause mortality and cause specific mortality assessed at three year follow-up. RESULTS:1997 deaths were recorded at three year follow-up. U shaped associations of mortality with systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure were identified; values of 143.5 mm Hg, 101 mm Hg, and 66 mm Hg conferred the minimum mortality risk, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the U shaped association remained only for systolic blood pressure (minimum mortality risk at 129 mm Hg). Compared with a systolic blood pressure value of 129 mm Hg, risk of all cause mortality decreased for values lower than 107 mm Hg (from 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.17) to 1.08 (1.01 to 1.17)), and increased for values greater than 154 mm Hg (from 1.08 (1.01 to 1.17) to 1.27 (1.02 to 1.58)). In the cause specific analysis, compared with a middle range of systolic blood pressure (107-154 mm Hg), higher values (>154 mm Hg) were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 2.02)); lower values (<107 mm Hg) were associated with a higher risk of non-cardiovascular mortality (1.58 (1.26 to 1.98)). The U shaped associations remained in sensitivity and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS:This study indicates a U shaped association between systolic blood pressure and all cause mortality at three years among oldest old people in China. This association could be explained by the finding that higher systolic blood pressure predicted a higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease, and that lower systolic blood pressure predicted a higher risk of death from non-cardiovascular causes. These results emphasise the importance of revisiting blood pressure management or establishing specific guidelines for management among oldest old individuals.
Project description:Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce.We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24?80 mm?Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs?1.54; P?0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs?1.75; P?0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24?130 mm?Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P?0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR?0.92; P?0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR?1.19; P?0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96?HR?1.14; P?0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P?0.043).The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors.
Project description:The relationship between blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk among treated hypertensives is J-shaped: risk is increased at high levels of blood pressure, falls in parallel with blood pressure reduction and increases again when blood pressure falls below a nadir (the point at which blood pressure is too low to maintain perfusion of vital organs). Randomized controlled trials of antihypertensive treatment have identified J-shaped relationships between achieved systolic and diastolic blood pressures and all-cause mortality, as well as fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not stroke or renal outcomes, in the general population of hypertensives and high-risk prehypertensives, particularly in subgroups such as the elderly and those with coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and high cardiovascular risk because of multiple comorbidities and concomitant risk factors. Blood pressure targets <130-140/70-85 mm Hg were not beneficial for any outcome except stroke and chronic kidney disease.