Role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and its binding protein GOLPH3 in hepatitis C virus secretion.
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replicates within the ribonucleoprotein complex, assembled on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranous structures closely juxtaposed to the lipid droplets that facilitate the post-replicative events of virion assembly and maturation. It is widely believed that the assembled virions piggy-back onto the very low density lipoprotein particles for secretion. Lipid phosphoinositides are important modulators of intracellular trafficking. Golgi-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) recruits proteins involved in Golgi trafficking to the Golgi membrane and promotes anterograde transport of secretory proteins. Here, we sought to investigate the role of Golgi-localized PI4P in the HCV secretion process. Depletion of the Golgi-specific PI4P pool by Golgi-targeted PI4P phosphatase hSac1 K2A led to significant reduction in HCV secretion without any effect on replication. We then examined the functional role of a newly identified PI4P binding protein GOLPH3 in the viral secretion process. GOLPH3 is shown to maintain a tensile force on the Golgi, required for vesicle budding via its interaction with an unconventional myosin, MYO18A. Silencing GOLPH3 led to a dramatic reduction in HCV virion secretion, as did the silencing of MYO18A. The reduction in virion secretion was accompanied by a concomitant accumulation of intracellular virions, suggesting a stall in virion egress. HCV-infected cells displayed a fragmented and dispersed Golgi pattern, implicating involvement in virion morphogenesis. These studies establish the role of PI4P and its interacting protein GOLPH3 in HCV secretion and strengthen the significance of the Golgi secretory pathway in this process.
Project description:GOLPH3 is a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) effector that plays an important role in maintaining Golgi architecture and anterograde trafficking. GOLPH3 does so through its ability to link trans-Golgi membranes to F-actin via its interaction with myosin 18A (MYO18A). GOLPH3 also is known to be an oncogene commonly amplified in human cancers. GOLPH3L is a GOLPH3 paralogue found in all vertebrate genomes, although previously it was largely uncharacterized. Here we demonstrate that although GOLPH3 is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells, GOLPH3L is present in only a subset of tissues and cell types, particularly secretory tissues. We show that, like GOLPH3, GOLPH3L binds to PI4P, localizes to the Golgi as a consequence of its PI4P binding, and is required for efficient anterograde trafficking. Surprisingly, however, we find that perturbations of GOLPH3L expression produce effects on Golgi morphology that are opposite to those of GOLPH3 and MYO18A. GOLPH3L differs critically from GOLPH3 in that it is largely unable to bind to MYO18A. Our data demonstrate that despite their similarities, unexpectedly, GOLPH3L antagonizes GOLPH3/MYO18A at the Golgi.
Project description:Vesicle budding for Golgi-to-plasma membrane trafficking is a key step in secretion. Proteins that induce curvature of the Golgi membrane are predicted to be required, by analogy to vesicle budding from other membranes. Here, we demonstrate that GOLPH3, upon binding to the phosphoinositide PI4P, induces curvature of synthetic membranes in vitro and the Golgi in cells. Moreover, efficient Golgi-to-plasma membrane trafficking critically depends on the ability of GOLPH3 to curve the Golgi membrane. Interestingly, uncoupling of GOLPH3 from its binding partner MYO18A results in extensive curvature of Golgi membranes, producing dramatic tubulation of the Golgi, but does not support forward trafficking. Thus, forward trafficking from the Golgi to the plasma membrane requires the ability of GOLPH3 both to induce Golgi membrane curvature and to recruit MYO18A. These data provide fundamental insight into the mechanism of Golgi trafficking and into the function of the unique Golgi secretory oncoproteins GOLPH3 and MYO18A.
Project description:The response to DNA damage, which regulates nuclear processes such as DNA repair, transcription, and cell cycle, has been studied thoroughly. However, the cytoplasmic response to DNA damage is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that DNA damage triggers dramatic reorganization of the Golgi, resulting in its dispersal throughout the cytoplasm. We further show that DNA-damage-induced Golgi dispersal requires GOLPH3/MYO18A/F-actin and the DNA damage protein kinase, DNA-PK. In response to DNA damage, DNA-PK phosphorylates GOLPH3, resulting in increased interaction with MYO18A, which applies a tensile force to the Golgi. Interference with the Golgi DNA damage response by depletion of DNA-PK, GOLPH3, or MYO18A reduces survival after DNA damage, whereas overexpression of GOLPH3, as is observed frequently in human cancers, confers resistance to killing by DNA-damaging agents. Identification of the DNA-damage-induced Golgi response reveals an unexpected pathway through DNA-PK, GOLPH3, and MYO18A that regulates cell survival following DNA damage.
Project description:Golgi membranes, from yeast to humans, are uniquely enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), although the role of this lipid remains poorly understood. Using a proteomic lipid-binding screen, we identify the Golgi protein GOLPH3 (also called GPP34, GMx33, MIDAS, or yeast Vps74p) as a PtdIns(4)P-binding protein that depends on PtdIns(4)P for its Golgi localization. We further show that GOLPH3 binds the unconventional myosin MYO18A, thus connecting the Golgi to F-actin. We demonstrate that this linkage is necessary for normal Golgi trafficking and morphology. The evidence suggests that GOLPH3 binds to PtdIns(4)P-rich trans-Golgi membranes and MYO18A conveying a tensile force required for efficient tubule and vesicle formation. Consequently, this tensile force stretches the Golgi into the extended ribbon observed by fluorescence microscopy and the familiar flattened form observed by electron microscopy.
Project description:Enhanced secretion of tumorigenic effector proteins is a feature of malignant cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying this feature are poorly defined. We identify PITPNC1 as a gene amplified in a large fraction of human breast cancer and overexpressed in metastatic breast, melanoma, and colon cancers. Biochemical, molecular, and cell-biological studies reveal that PITPNC1 promotes malignant secretion by binding Golgi-resident PI4P and localizing RAB1B to the Golgi. RAB1B localization to the Golgi allows for the recruitment of GOLPH3, which facilitates Golgi extension and enhanced vesicular release. PITPNC1-mediated vesicular release drives metastasis by increasing the secretion of pro-invasive and pro-angiogenic mediators HTRA1, MMP1, FAM3C, PDGFA, and ADAM10. We establish PITPNC1 as a PI4P-binding protein that enhances vesicular secretion capacity in malignancy.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) transfer proteins (PITPs) stimulate PtdIns-4-P synthesis and signaling in eukaryotic cells, but to what biological outcomes such signaling circuits are coupled remains unclear. Herein, we show that two highly related StART-like PITPs, PITPNA and PITPNB, act in a redundant fashion to support development of the embryonic mammalian neocortex. PITPNA/PITPNB do so by driving PtdIns-4-P-dependent recruitment of GOLPH3, and likely ceramide transfer protein (CERT), to Golgi membranes with GOLPH3 recruitment serving to promote MYO18A- and F-actin-directed loading of the Golgi network to apical processes of neural stem cells (NSCs). We propose the primary role for PITP/PtdIns-4-P/GOLPH3/CERT signaling in NSC Golgi is not in regulating bulk membrane trafficking but in optimizing apically directed membrane trafficking and/or apical membrane signaling during neurogenesis.
Project description:The current model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) production involves the assembly of virions on or near the surface of lipid droplets, envelopment at the ER in association with components of VLDL synthesis, and egress via the secretory pathway. However, the cellular requirements for and a mechanistic understanding of HCV secretion are incomplete at best. We combined an RNA interference (RNAi) analysis of host factors for infectious HCV secretion with the development of live cell imaging of HCV core trafficking to gain a detailed understanding of HCV egress. RNAi studies identified multiple components of the secretory pathway, including ER to Golgi trafficking, lipid and protein kinases that regulate budding from the trans-Golgi network (TGN), VAMP1 vesicles and adaptor proteins, and the recycling endosome. Our results support a model wherein HCV is infectious upon envelopment at the ER and exits the cell via the secretory pathway. We next constructed infectious HCV with a tetracysteine (TC) tag insertion in core (TC-core) to monitor the dynamics of HCV core trafficking in association with its cellular cofactors. In order to isolate core protein movements associated with infectious HCV secretion, only trafficking events that required the essential HCV assembly factor NS2 were quantified. TC-core traffics to the cell periphery along microtubules and this movement can be inhibited by nocodazole. Sub-populations of TC-core localize to the Golgi and co-traffic with components of the recycling endosome. Silencing of the recycling endosome component Rab11a results in the accumulation of HCV core at the Golgi. The majority of dynamic core traffics in association with apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and VAMP1 vesicles. This study identifies many new host cofactors of HCV egress, while presenting dynamic studies of HCV core trafficking in infected cells.
Project description:Protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) at phagocytic cups mediates the membrane fusion necessary for efficient IgG-mediated phagocytosis. The C1B and pseudosubstrate (?PS) domains are necessary and sufficient for this concentration. C1B binds diacylglycerol; the docking partner for ?PS is unknown. Liposome assays revealed that the ?PS binds phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and PI(3,5)P2 Wortmannin, but not LY294002, inhibits PKC-? concentration at cups and significantly reduces the rate of phagocytosis. As Wortmannin inhibits PI4 kinase, we hypothesized that PI4P mediates the PKC-? concentration at cups and the rate of phagocytosis. PKC-? colocalizes with the trans-Golgi network (TGN) PI4P reporter, P4M, suggesting it is tethered at the TGN. Real-time imaging of GFP-PKC-?-expressing macrophages revealed a loss of Golgi-associated PKC-? during phagocytosis, consistent with a Golgi-to-phagosome translocation. Treatment with PIK93, a PI4 kinase inhibitor, reduces PKC-? at both the TGN and the cup, decreases phagocytosis, and prevents the increase in capacitance that accompanies membrane fusion. Finally, expression of the Golgi-directed PI4P phosphatase, hSac1-K2A, recapitulates the PIK93 phenotype, confirming that Golgi-associated PI4P is critical for efficient phagocytosis. Together these data are consistent with a model in which PKC-? is tethered to the TGN via an ?PS-PI4P interaction. The TGN-associated pool of PKC-? concentrates at the phagocytic cup where it mediates the membrane fusion necessary for phagocytosis. The novelty of these data lies in the demonstration that ?PS binds PI4P and PI(3,5)P2 and that PI4P is necessary for PKC-? localization at the TGN, its translocation to the phagocytic cup, and the membrane fusion required for efficient Fc [?] receptor-mediated phagocytosis.
Project description:Chemotherapy activates a novel cytoplasmic DNA damage response resulting in Golgi apparatus fragmentation and cancer cell survival. This mechanism is regulated by Golgi phosphoprotein-3 (GOLPH3)/Myo18A/F-actin axis. Analyzing the functions of miR-3135b, a small non-coding RNA with unknown functions, we found that its forced overexpression attenuates the Golgi apparatus fragmentation induced by chemotherapeutic drugs in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. First, we found that miR-3135b is downregulated in CRC cell lines and clinical tumors. Bioinformatic predictions showed that miR-3135b could be regulating protein-encoding genes involved in cell survival, resistance to chemotherapy, and Golgi dynamics. In agreement, ectopic transfection of miR-3135b in HCT-15 cancer cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, sensitized cells to 5-fluoruracil (5-FU), and promoted late apoptosis and necrosis. Also, miR-3135b overexpression impaired the cell cycle progression in HCT-15 and SW-480 cancer cells. Because GOLPH3, a gene involved in maintenance of Golgi structure, was predicted as a potential target of miR-3135b, we studied their functional relationships in response to DNA damage induced by chemotherapy. Immunofluorescence and cellular ultrastructure experiments using antibodies against TGN38 protein, a trans-Golgi network marker, showed that 5-FU and doxorubicin treatments result in an apoptosis-independent stacks dispersal of the Golgi ribbon structure in both HCT-15 and SW-480 cells. Remarkably, these cellular effects were dramatically hindered by transfection of miR-3135b mimics. In addition, our functional studies confirmed that miR-3135b binds to the 3'-UTR of GOLPH3 proto-oncogene, and also reduces the levels of p-AKT1 (Ser473) and p-mTOR (Ser2448) signaling transducers, which are key in cell survival and autophagy activation. Moreover, we found that after treatment with 5-FU, TGN38 factor coimmunolocalizes with beclin-1 autophagic protein in discrete structures associated with the fragmented Golgi, suggesting that the activation of pro-survival autophagy is linked to loss of Golgi integrity. These cellular effects in autophagy and Golgi dispersal were reversed by miR-3135b. In summary, we provided experimental evidence suggesting for the first time a novel role for miR-3135b in the protection of chemotherapy-induced Golgi fragmentation via GOLPH3/AKT1/mTOR axis and protective autophagy in colorectal cancer cells.
Project description:We analyzed hepatitis C virus (HCV) morphogenesis using viral genomes encoding a mCherry-tagged E1 glycoprotein. HCV-E1-mCherry polyprotein expression, intracellular localization, and replication kinetics were comparable to those of untagged HCV, and E1-mCherry-tagged viral particles were assembled and released into cell culture supernatants. Expression and localization of structural E1 and nonstructural NS5A followed a temporospatial pattern with a succinct decrease in the number of replication complexes and the appearance of E1-mCherry punctae. Interaction of the structural proteins E1, Core, and E2 increased at E1-mCherry punctae in a time-dependent manner, indicating that E1-mCherry punctae represent assembled or assembling virions. E1-mCherry did not colocalize with Golgi markers. Furthermore, the bulk of viral glycoproteins within released particles revealed an EndoH-sensitive glycosylation pattern, indicating an absence of viral glycoprotein processing by the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, HCV-E1-mCherry trafficked with Rab9-positive compartments and inhibition of endosomes specifically suppressed HCV release. Our data suggest that assembled HCV particles are released via a noncanonical secretory route involving the endosomal compartment.The goal of this study was to shed light on the poorly understood trafficking and release routes of hepatitis C virus (HCV). For this, we generated novel HCV genomes which resulted in the production of fluorescently labeled viral particles. We used live-cell microscopy and other imaging techniques to follow up on the temporal dynamics of virus particle formation and trafficking in HCV-expressing liver cells. While viral particles and viral structural protein were found in endosomal compartments, no overlap of Golgi structures could be observed. Furthermore, biochemical and inhibitor-based experiments support a HCV release route which is distinguishable from canonical Golgi-mediated secretion. Since viruses hijack cellular pathways to generate viral progeny, our results point toward the possible existence of a not-yet-described cellular secretion route.