ABSTRACT: Adhesion of motile cells to solid surfaces is necessary to transmit forces required for propulsion. Unlike mammalian cells, Dictyostelium cells do not make integrin mediated focal adhesions. Nevertheless, they can move rapidly on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. We have found that adhesion to such surfaces can be inhibited by addition of sugars or amino acids to the buffer. Treating whole cells with ?lpha-mannosidase to cleave surface oligosaccharides also reduces adhesion. The results indicate that adhesion of these cells is mediated by van der Waals attraction of their surface glycoproteins to the underlying substratum. Since glycoproteins are prevalent components of the surface of most cells, innate adhesion may be a common cellular property that has been overlooked.
Project description:Vegetative and developed amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum gain traction and move rapidly on a wide range of substrata without forming focal adhesions. We used two independent assays to quantify cell-substrate adhesion in mutants and in wild-type cells as a function of development. Using a microfluidic device that generates a range of hydrodynamic shear stress, we found that substratum adhesion decreases at least 10 fold during the first 6 hr of development of wild type cells. This result was confirmed using a single-cell assay in which cells were attached to the cantilever of an atomic force probe and allowed to adhere to untreated glass surfaces before being retracted. Both of these assays showed that the decrease in substratum adhesion was dependent on the cAMP receptor CAR1 which triggers development. Vegetative cells missing talin as the result of a mutation in talA exhibited slightly reduced adhesive properties compared to vegetative wild-type cells. In sharp contrast to wild-type cells, however, these talA mutant cells did not show further reduction of adhesion during development such that after 5 hr of development they were significantly more adhesive than developed wild type cells. In addition, both assays showed that substrate adhesion was reduced in 0 hr cells when the actin cytoskeleton was disrupted by latrunculin. Consistent with previous observations, substrate adhesion was also reduced in 0 hr cells lacking the membrane proteins SadA or SibA as the result of mutations in sadA or sibA. However, there was no difference in the adhesion properties between wild type AX3 cells and these mutant cells after 6 hr of development, suggesting that neither SibA nor SadA play an essential role in substratum adhesion during aggregation. Our results provide a quantitative framework for further studies of cell substratum adhesion in Dictyostelium.
Project description:Glycoproteins and proteoglycans synthesized by human keratinocytes in medium containing D-[1-14C]glucosamine were extracted and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Extraction of the labelled keratinocytes with 0.5% Triton X-100 removed most of the glycoconjugates and left the cytoskeleton and nuclear residue adherent to the substratum. In addition to the cytoskeletal proteins, there was a relatively simple profile of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans associated with this adherent cytoskeleton. These consisted of eight glycoproteins in the mol.wt. range 99000-232000, five proteins in the keratin region (mol.wt. 42000-61000), hyaluronic acid and a sulphated glycosaminoglycan. Surface labelling of the keratinocytes with galactose oxidase (with or without neuraminidase)/KB3H4 revealed that many of the glycoproteins were exposed on the cell surface. The importance of the glycoproteins and proteoglycans in attaching the keratinocytes to the substratum was examined by studying their expression after incubation in medium containing tunicamycin and their degradation after digestion with trypsin and hyaluronidase. These studies, together with an examination of the glycoconjugates released by sequential extraction with 0.5% Triton X-100 followed by 0.2% sodium dodecyl sulphate, revealed that the glycoprotein of mol.wt. 232000 has an important role in mediating the attachment of keratinocytes to the substratum.
Project description:The morphology and function of endothelial cells depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the extracellular environment. Here, we designed silicon surfaces on which topographical features and surface densities of the integrin binding peptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) could be independently controlled. We used these surfaces to investigate the relative importance of the surface chemistry of ligand presentation versus surface topography in endothelial cell adhesion. We compared cell adhesion, spreading and migration on surfaces with nano- to micro-scaled pyramids and average densities of 6×10(2)-6×10(11) RGD/mm(2). We found that fewer cells adhered onto rough than flat surfaces and that the optimal average RGD density for cell adhesion was 6×10(5) RGD/mm(2) on flat surfaces and substrata with nano-scaled roughness. Only on surfaces with micro-scaled pyramids did the topography hinder cell migration and a lower average RGD density was optimal for adhesion. In contrast, cell spreading was greatest on surfaces with 6×10(8) RGD/mm(2) irrespectively of presence of feature and their size. In summary, our data suggest that the size of pyramids predominately control the number of endothelial cells that adhere to the substratum but the average RGD density governs the degree of cell spreading and length of focal adhesion within adherent cells. The data points towards a two-step model of cell adhesion: the initial contact of cells with a substratum may be guided by the topography while the engagement of cell surface receptors is predominately controlled by the surface chemistry.
Project description:Bacterial adhesion onto solid surfaces is of importance in a wide spectrum of problems, including environmental microbiology, biomedical research, and various industrial applications. Despite many research efforts, present thermodynamic models that rely on the evaluation of the adhesion energy are often elusive in predicting the bacterial adhesion behavior. Here, we developed a new spectrophotometric method to determine the surface free energy (SFE) of bacterial cells. The adhesion behaviors of five bacterial species, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, and Escherichia coli DH5?, onto two model substratum surfaces, i.e., clean glass and silanized glass surfaces, were studied. We found that bacterial adhesion was unambiguously mediated by the SFE difference between the bacterial cells and the solid substratum. The lower the SFE difference, the higher degree of bacterial adhesion. We therefore propose the use of the SFE difference as an accurate and simple thermodynamic measure for quantitatively predicting bacterial adhesion. The methodological advance and thermodynamic simplification in the paper have implications in controlling bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on solid surfaces.
Project description:Glycoproteins which mediate intercellular adhesion were studied by comparing the effects of trypsin and the neutral proteinase, Dispase, on human keratinocytes metabolically labelled with D-[1-14C]glucosamine or L-[1-3H]fucose. Whereas digestion of keratinocytes with trypsin/EDTA resulted in loss of both cell-substratum and intercellular adhesion, only cell-substratum adhesion was disrupted by incubation with Dispase. Analysis of the radiolabelled glycoproteins by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed that a glycoprotein of Mr 126 000 was cleaved by trypsin/EDTA, but not by Dispase. Surface labelling of keratinocytes with galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 confirmed that this glycoprotein was exposed on the cell surface. Addition of lmM-Ca2+ prevented dispersion of keratinocytes by trypsin and concomitantly protected the glycoprotein of Mr 126 000 from digestion. These results indicate that this glycoprotein has an important role in mediating intercellular adhesion of keratinocytes.
Project description:We studied mannose-containing glycopeptides and glycoproteins of subconfluent and confluent intestinal epithelial cells in culture. Cells were labelled with d-[2-(3)H]mannose for 24h and treated with Pronase or trypsin to release cell-surface components. The cell-surface and cell-residue fractions were then exhaustively digested with Pronase and the resulting glycopeptides were fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6, before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H to distinguish between high-mannose and complex oligosaccharides. The cell-surface glycopeptides were enriched in complex oligosaccharides as compared with residue glycopeptides, which contained predominantly high-mannose oligosaccharides. Cell-surface glycopeptides of confluent cells contained a much higher proportion of complex oligosaccharides than did glycopeptides from subconfluent cells. The ability of the cells to bind [(3)H]concanavalin A decreased linearly with increasing cell density up to 5 days in culture and then remained constant. When growth of the cells was completely inhibited by either retinoic acid or cortisol, no significant difference was observed in the ratio of complex to high-mannose oligosaccharides in the cell-surface glycopeptides of subconfluent cells. Only minor differences were found in total mannose-labelled glycoproteins between subconfluent and confluent cells by two-dimensional gel analysis. The adhesion of the cells to the substratum was measured at different stages of growth and cell density. Subconfluent cells displayed a relatively weak adhesion, which markedly increased with increased cell density up to 6 days in culture. It is suggested that alterations in the structure of the carbohydrates of the cell-surface glycoproteins are dependent on cell density rather than on cell growth. These changes in the glycopeptides are correlated with the changes in adhesion of the cells to the substratum.
Project description:The axonal surface glycoproteins neuronglia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM) and axonin-1 promote cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth and fasciculation, and are involved in growth cone guidance. A direct binding between NgCAM and axonin-1 has been demonstrated using isolated molecules conjugated to the surface of fluorescent microspheres. By expressing NgCAM and axonin-1 in myeloma cells and performing cell aggregation assays, we found that NgCAM and axonin-1 cannot bind when present on the surface of different cells. In contrast, the cocapping of axonin-1 upon antibody-induced capping of NgCAM on the surface of CV-1 cells coexpressing NgCAM and axonin-1 and the selective chemical cross-linking of the two molecules in low density cultures of dorsal root ganglia neurons indicated a specific and direct binding of axonin-1 and Ng-CAM in the plane of the same membrane. Suppression of the axonin-1 translation by antisense oligonucleotides prevented neurite outgrowth in dissociated dorsal root ganglia neurons cultured on an NgCAM substratum, indicating that neurite outgrowth on NgCAM substratum requires axonin-1. Based on these and previous results, which implicated NgCAM as the neuronal receptor involved in neurite outgrowth on NgCAM substratum, we concluded that neurite outgrowth on an NgCAM substratum depends on two essential interactions of growth cone NgCAM: a trans-interaction with substratum NgCAM and a cis-interaction with axonin-1 residing in the same growth cone membrane.
Project description:Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) undergo self-renewal in the presence of the cytokine, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Following LIF withdrawal, mESCs differentiate, and this is accompanied by an increase in cell-substratum adhesion and cell spreading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cell spreading and mESC differentiation. Using E14 and R1 mESC lines, we have restricted cell spreading in the absence of LIF by either culturing mESCs on chemically defined, weakly adhesive biomaterial substrates, or by manipulating the cytoskeleton. We demonstrate that by restricting the degree of spreading by either method, mESCs can be maintained in an undifferentiated and pluripotent state. Under these conditions, self-renewal occurs without the need for LIF and is independent of nuclear translocation of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 or ?-catenin, which have previously been implicated in self-renewal. We also demonstrate that the effect of restricted cell spreading on mESC self-renewal is not mediated by increased intercellular adhesion, as evidenced by the observations that inhibition of mESC adhesion using a function blocking anti E-cadherin antibody or siRNA do not promote differentiation. These results show that mESC spreading and differentiation are regulated both by LIF and by cell-substratum adhesion, consistent with the hypothesis that cell spreading is the common intermediate step in the regulation of mESC differentiation by either LIF or cell-substratum adhesion.
Project description:Cytokinesis is a final step in cell division. Dictyostelium cells, a model organism for the study of cytokinesis, have multiple modes, denoted cytokinesis A, B, C, and D. All these modes have been mainly investigated using cells adhering to the substratum although they can grow in shaking suspension culture. Here, we observed how cells divide without adhering to the substratum using a new non-adhesive material. These detached cells formed the cleavage furrow but eventually failed in the final abscission. Thus, the cells cannot divide without adhesion, suggesting that they cannot divide only through the conventional cytokinesis A. However, in a long-term culture, the detached cells adhered each other to form multicellular aggregates and divided properly in these aggregates. Myosin II-null cells also formed such aggregates but could not divide in the aggregates. Several lines of experiments using mutant cells showed that the process of cytokinesis in multicellular aggregates is a novel mode utilizing a confined space in the aggregate in a myosin II-dependent manner. These results shed light on a poorly characterized mechanism of cytokinesis in multicellular spheroids or tissues. We propose to redefine and classify multiple modes of cytokinesis.
Project description:The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes.