ABSTRACT: The cell-mediated adaptive immune response depends upon the activation of T cells via recognition of antigen in the context of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. Although studies have shown that alterations in T cell receptor glycosylation reduces the activation threshold, the data on MHC is far less definitive. Here, we discuss the data on MHC glycosylation and the role the glycans might play during the adaptive host response.
Project description:Glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope gp120 determines not only the proper structure, but also the immune responses against this Ag. Although glycans may be part of specific epitopes or shield other epitopes from T cells and Abs, this study provides evidence for a different immunomodulatory function of glycans associated with gp120 residues N230 and N448. These glycans are required for efficient MHC class II-restricted presentation of nearby CD4 T cell epitopes, even though they are not part of the epitopes. The glycans do not affect CD4 T cell recognition of more distant epitopes and are not essential for the proper folding and function of gp120. Data on CD4 T cell recognition of N448 mutants combined with proteolysis analyses and surface electrostatic potential calculation around residue N448 support the notion that N448 glycan near the epitope's C terminus renders the site to be surface accessible and allows its efficient processing. In contrast, the N230 glycan contributes to the nearby epitope presentation at a step other than the proteolytic processing of the epitope. Hence, N-glycans can determine CD4 T cell recognition of nearby gp120 epitopes by regulating the different steps in the MHC class II processing and presentation pathway after APCs acquire the intact gp120 Ag exogenously. Modifications of amino acids bearing glycans at the C termini of gp120 helper epitopes may prove to be a useful strategy for enhancing the immunogenicity of HIV-1 envelope gp120.
Project description:Suppression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen presentation is believed to be among the major mechanisms used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to escape protective host immune responses. Through a genome-wide screen for the genetic loci of M. tuberculosis that inhibit MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by mycobacteria-infected dendritic cells, we identified the PE_PGRS47 protein as one of the responsible factors. Targeted disruption of the PE_PGRS47 (Rv2741) gene led to attenuated growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo, and a PE_PGRS47 mutant showed enhanced MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation during in vivo infection of mice. Analysis of the effects of deletion or over-expression of PE_PGRS47 implicated this protein in the inhibition of autophagy in infected host phagocytes. Our findings identify PE_PGRS47 as a functionally relevant, non-redundant bacterial factor in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by M. tuberculosis, suggesting strategies for improving antigen presentation and the generation of protective immunity during vaccination or infection.
Project description:Recognition of foreign and dysregulated antigens by the cellular innate and adaptive immune systems is in large part dependent on the cell surface display of peptide/MHC (pMHC) complexes. The formation of such complexes requires the generation of antigenic peptides, proper folding of MHC molecules, loading of peptides onto MHC molecules, glycosylation, and transport to the plasma membrane. This complex series of biosynthetic, biochemical, and cell biological reactions is known as "antigen processing and presentation". Here, we summarize recent work, focused on the structural and functional characterization of the key MHC-I-dedicated chaperones, tapasin, and TAPBPR. The mechanisms reflect the ability of conformationally flexible molecules to adapt to their ligands, and are comparable to similar processes that are exploited in peptide antigen loading in the MHC-II pathway.
Project description:Post-translational modifications significantly broaden the epitope repertoire for major histocompatibility class I complexes (MHC-I) and may allow viruses to escape immune recognition. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of H-2b mice generates CD8+ CTL responses directed towards several MHC-I-restricted epitopes including the peptides GP92 (CSANNSHHYI) and GP392 (WLVTNGSYL), both with a N-glycosylation site. Interestingly, glycosylation has different effects on the immunogenicity and association capacity of these two epitopes to H-2Db. To assess the structural bases underlying these functional results, we determined the crystal structures of H-2Db in complex with GP92 (CSANNSHHYI) and GP392 (WLVTNGSYL) to 2.4 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal that while glycosylation of GP392 most probably impairs binding, the glycosylation of the asparagine residue in GP92, which protrudes towards the solvent, possibly allows for immune escape and/or forms a neo-epitope that may select for a different set of CD8 T cells. Altogether, the presented results provide a structural platform underlying the effects of post-translational modifications on epitope binding and/or immunogenicity, resulting in viral immune escape.
Project description:Proteasomes are a multi-subunit protease complex that produces peptides bound by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Phylogenetic studies indicate that two specialized forms of proteasomes, immunoproteasomes and thymoproteasomes, and the proteasome activator PA28?? emerged in a common ancestor of jawed vertebrates which acquired adaptive immunity based on the MHC, T cell receptors, and B cell receptors ~?500 million years ago. Comparative genomics studies now provide strong evidence that the genes coding for the immunoproteasome subunits emerged by genome-wide duplication. On the other hand, the gene encoding the thymoproteasome subunit ?5t emerged by tandem duplication from the gene coding for the ?5 subunit. Strikingly, birds lack immunoproteasomes, thymoproteasomes, and the proteasome activator PA28??, raising an interesting question of whether they have evolved any compensatory mechanisms.
Project description:Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is essential for adaptive immunity. Prior to presentation, peptides need to be generated from proteins that are either produced by the cell's own translational machinery or that are funneled into the endo-lysosomal vesicular system. The prolonged interaction between a T cell receptor and specific pMHC complexes, after an extensive search process in secondary lymphatic organs, eventually triggers T cells to proliferate and to mount a specific cellular immune response. Once processed, the peptide repertoire presented by MHC proteins largely depends on structural features of the binding groove of each particular MHC allelic variant. Additionally, two peptide editors-tapasin for class I and HLA-DM for class II-contribute to the shaping of the presented peptidome by favoring the binding of high-affinity antigens. Although there is a vast amount of biochemical and structural information, the mechanism of the catalyzed peptide exchange for MHC class I and class II proteins still remains controversial, and it is not well understood why certain MHC allelic variants are more susceptible to peptide editing than others. Recent studies predict a high impact of protein intermediate states on MHC allele-specific peptide presentation, which implies a profound influence of MHC dynamics on the phenomenon of immunodominance and the development of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the recent literature that describe MHC class I and II dynamics from a theoretical and experimental point of view and we highlight the similarities between MHC class I and class II dynamics despite the distinct functions they fulfill in adaptive immunity.
Project description:The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) glycoprotein family, also referred to as human leukocyte antigens, present endogenous and exogenous antigens to T lymphocytes for recognition and response. These molecules play a central role in enabling the immune system to distinguish self from non-self, which is the basis for protective immunity against pathogenic infections and disease while at the same time representing a serious obstacle for tissue transplantation. All known MHC family members, like the majority of secreted, cell surface, and other immune-related molecules, carry asparagine (N)-linked glycans. The immune system has evolved increasing complexity in higher-order organisms along with a more complex pattern of protein glycosylation, a relationship that may contribute to immune function beyond the early protein quality control events in the endoplasmic reticulum that are commonly known. The broad MHC family maintains peptide sequence motifs for glycosylation at sites that are highly conserved across evolution, suggesting importance, yet functional roles for these glycans remain largely elusive. In this review, we will summarize what is known about MHC glycosylation and provide new insight for additional functional roles for this glycoprotein modification in mediating immune responses.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Cyclophilin-inhibitors have potent antiviral activity against Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are promising candidates for broad-spectrum antiviral therapy. Cyclosporine A (CsA) acts immunosuppressive by blocking T cell activation and antigen presentation. Alisporivir, a non-immunosuppressive CsA analog in clinical development, does not inhibit T cell activation. In this study we explored the impact of alisporivir on antigen presentation.<h4>Methods</h4>Hepatoma cells endogenously expressing the epitope-restricting major histocompatibility complex-class I (MHC-I) allele HLA-A2 and constitutively expressing a viral antigen were established to study the impact of cyclophilin-inhibitors on antigen presentation. Antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell activation and MHC-I surface expression were measured to quantify antigen presentation.<h4>Results</h4>Our work establishes a novel cell culture model to study antigen presentation in liver-derived cells. Authentic regulation of antigen presentation was ensured by the action of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Alisporivir pretreatment stimulated antigen presentation by hepatoma target cells, leading to enhancement of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell activation by 40%. Alisporivir, as well as a panel of other cyclophilin-inhibitors, induced an increase of MHC-I and beta-2 microglobulin on the surface of several cell lines. The drug neither enhanced MHC-I transcript or protein levels nor affected surface expression of other proteins or protein trafficking in general. Proteasome-inhibitors completely blocked the alisporivir-directed enhancement of surface MHC-I, suggesting an influence of the drug on peptide-availability.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Alisporivir stimulates antigen presentation by inducing enhanced MHC-I surface expression, thereby promoting antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell activation. This immunostimulatory function might further contribute to the antiviral activity of non-immunosuppressive cyclophilin-inhibitors.
Project description:Autoimmunity and macrophage recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) are critical determinants of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms that drive immunological responses targeted to the CNS remain largely unknown. Here we show that fibrinogen, a central blood coagulation protein deposited in the CNS after blood-brain barrier disruption, induces encephalitogenic adaptive immune responses and peripheral macrophage recruitment into the CNS leading to demyelination. Fibrinogen stimulates a unique transcriptional signature in CD11b(+) antigen-presenting cells inducing the recruitment and local CNS activation of myelin antigen-specific Th1 cells. Fibrinogen depletion reduces Th1 cells in the multiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-dependent antigen presentation, CXCL10- and CCL2-mediated recruitment of T cells and macrophages, respectively, are required for fibrinogen-induced encephalomyelitis. Inhibition of the fibrinogen receptor CD11b/CD18 protects from all immune and neuropathologic effects. Our results show that the final product of the coagulation cascade is a key determinant of CNS autoimmunity.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) can initiate immune responses by presenting exogenous antigens to T cells via both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathways and MHC class II pathways. Lysosomal activity has an important role in modulating the balance between these two pathways. The transcription factor TFEB regulates lysosomal function by inducing lysosomal activation. Here we report that TFEB expression inhibited the presentation of exogenous antigen by MHC class I while enhancing presentation via MHC class II. TFEB promoted phagosomal acidification and protein degradation. Furthermore, we found that the activation of TFEB was regulated during DC maturation and that phagosomal acidification was impaired in DCs in which the gene encoding TFEB was silenced. Our data indicate that TFEB is a key participant in the differential regulation of the presentation of exogenous antigens by DCs.